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VOCABULARY 4000 PDF

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Page 1 Page 2 Essential English Words 6 Page 3 Essential English Words 6 Paul. Top Vocabulary Words - Vocabulary List: Vocabulary. Vocabulary brings these words to the fore. Whenever possible, one-word definitions are used. Although this makes a definition less precise, it also makes it . Additional educational products from Nova Press: GRE Prep Course ( pages) Master the LSAT ( pages, includes an ac.


Vocabulary 4000 Pdf

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Essential words books download for free PDF Vocabulary for exams css, pms, upsc, ias. Important English Vocabulary learning books download pdf free. important English words for every english learner pdf download free. Essential English words for CSS, PMS, FPSC, UPSC, IAS and other exams. Free Download. PDF version of The English Words Essential for Educated Vocabulary by Ghulam Murtaza Dahar. Apple, Android and Kindle formats also.

A dog that is frequently bad b. He punished the dog for biting. A content man and his dog d. He expects people to be calm around him. What is true of the dog? He shakes his head too much. To hurt is to do something that makes you feel pain. If something likely happens. If something belongs to you.

To continue something is to keep doing it. A field is a big area of land. If you are aware of something. Judgment is the ability to form opinions or decisions. Badly means in a severe or harmful way. An error is something you do wrong. An experience is something you have seen or done. A result is something that happens because of something else. If something is wild. It is normal for me to bathe every night. To request something is to ask for it.

If something is visible. C since [Sins] prep. Since is used to talk about a past event still happening now. The moon and stars were visible in the night sky. If something is normal. To roll is to move by turning over and over. To relax is to rest. If something is rare. The bird was from nature. The man walked through a large area of land. My day at school was not strange. So he made a plan. I must get home soon.

But how did the jackal get his black back? This was how it happened. Ever since his experience with the sun child. So he asked her to get off.

He hoped the sun child would fall off. But soon. She was not a normal child. As a result. The Jackal and the Sun Child A jackal is a wild dog with a big black back. The heat was hurting his back very badly. But she did not. I have been relaxing on this rock for too long. He had to get away from the sun child. So when the sun child was looking at the sky.

This necklace belongs to me. She was a rare and beautiful sun child. She said. The child saw the jackal and smiled.

She was bright and warm like the sun. The sun child was very hot on his back. You will likely get me home more quickly. If you do.

They started to walk. She was sitting upon a rock. It resides in the desert. The jackal ran away. I am slow and you are fast. She was an ill child. To get away from the sun child 4. It wanted a new place to reside.

Why did the jackal run into the field? What did the sun child request? What kind of girl was the sun child? Why the sun child has a beautiful smile Why a wild dog hurt a sun child An error that the sun child once made How the jackal got his visible black mark 2. To continue his journey b. She was likely very shy. To take a nap and relax d. What happened at the end of the story?

She was a normal child. The sun child forgot the experience. She was rare and beautiful. An advantage is something that helps you. To cause is to make something happen. A choice is the act or possibility of picking something. A community is a group of people who live together. The distance between two things is how far it is between them. To escape is to run away from something bad. If you face a problem, you deal with it. To follow means to go behind someone and go where they go.

A ghost is the spirit of a dead person. A pet is an animal that lives with people. To reach means to arrive at a place. To return is to go back to a place. To survive is to stay alive. To be upset is to be unhappy about something. A voice is the sound a person makes when they talk or sing.

The weather is the condition of the air: To be wise is to use experience and intelligence to make good choices. Sam was happy to go back to his house, re.

William wanted an animal to live with. He studies what the condition of the air is like. Choose the word that is a better fit for each sentence. The town is a small. I hardly noticed that a dog was following me 3. It rained for two days. I make many choices b. I love my dog. The storm was very bad. As I was walking home from school today. I was a ghost b. After my vacation. I returned to work b. We closed the door. He causes fright 7.

I was an advantage 4. She was dead. They were having fun with their pet. But she had a scary voice. She loved children. The Friendly Ghost A nice woman lived by a large river. It was very dark. She lived a very long time and became very wise. She also used her power to lead them home. The children knew they had a choice: She wanted to help children and not to cause them fright.

When she died. The ghost said. The children ran a long distance away. She loved her community. It rained and rained. The children knew they were lost. The river was rising. The ghost followed them all the way. A ghost can save your.

They needed to go north. They knew it was a ghost. Some of them began to cry. She wanted to help them in any way. She yelled again. Children were afraid of her. The ghost was very happy. But they were far from home. Soon the river rose higher and higher. She only scared them to help them. Then the weather became bad.

When the moon came out. The ghost had helped the children survive! She had saved them from the rising water. It was very dangerous. Then the ghost moved closer. The bad weather near the river c. She was afraid of their pet. How a ghost returns to help her community How a wise pet helps children escape a ghost Why an individual has a job in the north How some children escaped bad weather 2.

They had the advantage of being ghosts. The voice of the ghost d. Their home was a short distance from the river. She had no other choice. What was true of the children in the story? The power of the moon at night b. They were upset when they saw the ghost. She wanted to help them. Why did the ghost scare the children? Their dead pet 3. Where did the woman live?

What caused fright in the children? A challenge is something difficult to complete. A difference is a way that something is not like other things. To announce something is to make it known. To claim means to say that something is true. When someone or something is beside you. The condition of someone or something is the state that they are in. To divide something is to make it into smaller parts.

An expert is someone who is very good at doing something. To allow something to happen means to let it happen. Peace is a time without war. O sense [sens] V. To sense something is to know about it without being told. To protect someone is to stop them from getting hurt. Therefore means for this reason. To lay means to put or place in a horizontal or flat position. If someone or something is famous. Harm is hurt or problems caused to someone or something. When something is sudden.

A prince is the son of a king. The food was cut into smaller parts so we could all eat. She was a well-known writer in our town. Sarah let Tim go to the game. The child promised not to hurt our cat. My sister and I were fighting.

You are too sick to play outside. We announced the winners b. Theseus and Pelias heard that their youngest brother was king. He thought his father would make him king. You can lead the army. His condition was getting worse. The winner gets the kingdom! They realized that their fighting was wrong. The Best Prince King Minos was very sick. You can bring peace. He had three sons. He was the best choice. Theseus was the oldest and strongest.

He had to announce who would become king. Then Pelias did the same. He was an expert with weapons. Your kindness has always made you special. He thought the king would choose him. It had kept them from saying goodbye to their father. They were surprised. They agreed to have Jason as their king. The youngest son. He loved them all. King Minos could hear his sons fighting. He made more sense. A kind prince who got a kingdom c.

What did the king need to protect the kingdom from? He wanted to bring peace to the kingdom. The challenge of being king was too much for him. A sudden fight between kings b. What was the difference between Jason and his brothers? He was older and stronger. The differences between the three brothers d.

What did the king have to announce? The challenge to divide the kingdom 2. What was probably true of Jason in the story? He hoped to divide the kingdom. He had always been kind. The harm caused by sudden fights c. An expert sister and a famous king d. He wanted harm to come to his brothers. The fighting between the two princes b.

The contrast between my parents is very noticeable. To hang something is to keep it above the ground. To arrange things is to put them in the right place. To balance something is to keep it from falling. To accept something that is offered is to take it. If someone or something is familiar to you. If something is huge. A contrast is the sharp difference between two things. To encourage someone is to make them want to do something.

To grab is to take a hold of someone or something suddenly. To attend something is to go to it. To tear something means to pull it apart. A theory is an idea about how something works. If something is necessary. To require something is to say that it is necessary. C propose [prapouz] M. Success is doing something well that you choose to do. If something is single. A pattern is a way in which something is done or organized.

To propose something is to say that it should be done. A purpose is the reason that you do something. I agree with your idea.

Drinking water is something that she must do. He has an idea of how the machine works. She looks like someone that I know well. There is a big difference between day and night. It is difficult to keep from falling when you stand on one foot. The reason that 1am doing this is to help children. I think it will work. Her routine of exercising after work is common for many people. The Earth has a solitary moon. My teacher will make me want to get good grades. I usually release them back into the water b.

G 3 3 0 Choose the right word for the given definition. When I catch fish.

The Words Essential for an Educated Vocabulary.pdf

If you try hard. When she heard I was leaving. It started to rain. This required a lot of time. When he released it. It was her brother!

He ran into the woods. She wanted to know who did this to her. The smoke went into the air. This time it was even more beautiful. They tell a story about a beautiful girl. She even balanced beautiful jewels in it. The lights went off. The purpose of this was to catch the person. Someone grabbed her hair and tore her clothes. When she saw that person. The girl ran after him. The girl was having fun. In contrast. They attended the party together. They became huge.

Then she had an idea. She looked perfect. She wanted to encourage the person to grab it again. They chase each other forever. Then they went into space. The Inuit people of Alaska have a theory. One day he proposed something. The girl accepted. She became the moon. The girl returned to the party.

They both carried fire so they could see in the dark. She ran out of the bathroom. As they ran. She put black dirt in her hair.

She knew there was only a single person with a black hand. She went to the bathroom again. She was very nice. She arranged her hair and put on nice clothes. But the girl worked hard. She fixed her hair again. He wore a shirt with a beautiful pattern.

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She wants to become huge and hang in the sky. Why does the girl encourage someone to grab her hair? The purpose of the sun and the moon d. She sees someone familiar with a black hand. He accepted the invitation when his sister proposed a party. Why does the girl become angry? He was the only person with a black hand. The contrast between the sun and the moon b. A theory of how the moon and the sun were made c. What was true of the boy in the story? She is required to arrange her hair. The smoke from her fire went into the air.

How does the girl get ready for the party? She wants to know who grabbed her hair. She wants the party to be a success. Why it is necessary for the moon to balance in the sky 2.

If you are frank. The ocean is all of the salt water that surrounds land. To be against something is to be touching it or opposed to it. To fix something is to make it work. To discover something is to find it for the first time. To damage something is to break it. Word list r against [agenst] prep.

To identify something is to be able to name it. An island is land in the middle of water. An emotion is how you feel. The beach is a sandy or rocky place by the ocean. If something is pleasant. A wave is a line of water that moves higher than the rest of the water. Still is used when you say that a situation keeps going on. A rock is a hard thing in the dirt. To throw something is to use your hand to make it go through the air. To prevent something is to stop it from happening. Perhaps is used when you say that something could happen.

To step is to walk. O ta S te [teist] n. A taste is the flavor something makes in your mouth. To save something is to keep it from being hurt. I am scared of some animals that live in the 3. It was a very nice time. I sat and watched the waves and listened to the ocean. I discovered pretty things and enjoyed the taste of new foods. Some starfish went back into the water. They would die if they did not get into the water. She stopped to look at me.

She wanted to prevent all of them from dying. She just threw as many starfish as she could. When the waves came in. The Starfish Last summer I took a trip to an island. She sat back against a rock and thought for a while. The little girl started to cry. There were many starfish on the beach that night. But other starfish were still on the sand. Then she picked up a very big starfish and said. She asked me if I could perhaps help her.

I had a lot of fun. She stopped crying and stood up. I cannot save them all. It made me sad. Then she picked up a starfish and threw it into the water. I stepped very carefully so I did not damage them. I learned to identify birds. She was also sad about the starfish.

One evening I took a pleasant walk by the ocean. Then I saw a little girl. But she did not answer me. A girl who wants to save starfish b. Which starfish were safe on the beach? Take a walk on the beach c.

Discover something pretty d. Identify birds b. Identifying birds c. What does the girl think the man can perhaps do? The starfish dying on the sand d. Tasting new food 4. She discovers starfish in the water. A girl who is too frank d. What does the man think is NOT good about the island? She steps on a rock and hurts her foot. She cannot prevent starfish from dying in the sand.

Help her save starfish 5. Birds and animals at the ocean 2. Watching the waves b. She cannot fix the damage she finds to homes. How to throw starfish c. If you are certain about something, you know it is true. A chance is an opportunity to do something. An effect is a change made by something else.

If something is essential, it is very important and necessary. If something is far, it is not close. To focus on something is to think about it and pay attention to it. The function of something is what it does.

Grass is the green leaves that cover the ground. To guard something is to take care of it. The image of something is a picture of it. If something is immediate, it happens quickly. If something is primary, it is the most important thing. If someone feels proud, they are happy about what they have done. To remain somewhere is to stay there. To rest is to stop being active while the body gets back its strength. If two things are separate, they are not together.

Trouble is a problem ora difficulty. The good thing about being old is that you know many things,. That is the place where they met,. I saw his picture on TV. His part that comes out of his rear was shaking because he was happy, t. Every year for my birthday. It causes me trouble 4. It has many functions b. My new watch is great. The most essential part of his job was to keep the cow alone.

Argos was very sad. He was a husband and a proud father. Zeus saw how much trouble he had caused Argos. Zeus was certain Argos would go to sleep. His primary function was to guard a special cow. The song had an immediate effect. The cow just ate grass all day. Even today. We can still see him in the night sky.

Zeus saw this. He wanted to take it away from Hera. While sleeping.

It had to be kept separate from all the other cows and far away from people. He fell asleep. This was an easy job for Argos. She put his many eyes on his tail. He worked for Hera.

Having many eyes was usually a benefit to him. He turned Argos into a group of stars. He found a great music player. He had a plan. He made another plan. The cow was very important to Hera. He had a chance to see many things. But the god Zeus wanted the cow. He was born with eyes. He wanted Argos to remain in the sky forever. Hera was very angry with Argos. It was her favorite pet. He asked the man to play a beautiful song for Argos. She turned him into a peacock.

The others stayed awake. He worked hard and did well at his job.

He had a chance to listen to music. It was kept separate from all the other cows. He wanted to make Argos remain in the sky forever. Why did Zeus turn Argos into a group of stars? To see the effects of music on the cow d. How being born with eyes benefited a man 2. To keep the cow far away from people c. How did Argos sleep?

He was able to sleep instead of focusing on it. To make sure the cow was never sad b. He wanted Argos to see the site of his trouble. How to play beautiful music c. All it did was eat grass all day.

Work for a proud goddess named Hera 5. Why it is essential to guard cows b. He was certain that Argos would fall asleep. How the image of a peacock in the sky came about d. He wanted to cause Argos immediate trouble. A conversation is a talk between people. A decision is a choice. When a person is asleep. A berry is a small round fruit that grows on certain plants and trees.

A forest is a place with lots of trees and animals. To compete is to try to be better than someone. Anymore means any longer. A creature is any living thing.

To collect things is to group them together all in one place. When something is serious. The ground is the top part of the Earth that we walk on.

When something is strange. To spend is to use time doing something or being somewhere. To marry is to legally become husband and wife. To wake is to not be sleeping anymore. To introduce someone or something is to say who they are. The truth is a fact or something that is right. To prepare is to get ready for something.

The doll broke when it fell onto the floor. I like to use my time taking long walks in the forest. The area was full of trees and plants. He loved to travel in his boat to many islands. I stop sleeping when the dog barks. He was so tired that he fell. To decision serious conversation. He lies a lot. I had to make a about which book I wanted to download. I had to study a long time. Fill in the blanks with the correct words from the word bank.

Many countries. Playing with a knife can lead to 3. She did not know my name. The princess had a dream. Let me introduce myself. Rose and Henry spent the day together. It was a very serious thing to do. The queen felt bad that she was not the most beautiful woman in the kingdom anymore.

B to most Americans, now, however, most Americans accept it. C to most Americans; now, however, most Americans are desirable of it.

D to most Americans; now, however, most Americans accepted it as desirable. E to most Americans. Now, however, most Americans will accept it as desirable. Geologists in California have discovered a fault near the famous San Andreas Fault, one that they believe to be a trigger for major quakes on the San Andreas.

We have surpassed our sales goal of one million dollars. Here, the first person plural verb have agrees with its first person plural subject we. Note, ironically, third person singular verbs often end in s or es: He seems to be fair. Here, the singular verb was agrees with its singular subject one. Attached are copies of the contract. Here, the plural verb are attached agrees with its plural subject copies.

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The sentence could be rewritten as Copies of the contract are attached. The rising cost of government bureaucracy have made it all but impossible to reign in the budget deficit. In a co-publication agreement, ownership of both the material and its means of distribution are equally shared by the parties. The rise in negative attitudes toward foreigners indicate that the country is becoming less tolerant, and therefore that the opportunities are ripe for extremist groups to exploit the illegal immigration problem.

The rising cost Since the rising costs Because of the rising costs The rising costs Rising cost indicate that the country is becoming less tolerant, and therefore that indicates that the country is becoming less tolerant, and therefore indicates that the country is becoming less tolerant, and therefore that indicates that the country is being less tolerant, and therefore indicates that the country is becoming less tolerant of and therefore that The harvest of grapes in the local valleys decreased in for the third straight year but were still at a robust level.

Thomas—has a powerful, dynamic personality. Following are some useful tips for protecting your person and property from the FBI. As written, the sentence implies that the FBI is a threat to your person and property. To correct the sentence put the modifier from the FBI next to the word it modifies, tips: Following are some useful tips from the FBI for protecting your person and property.

Coming around the corner, a few moments passed before I could recognize my old home. As worded, the sentence implies that the moments were coming around the corner. The sentence can be corrected as follows: Drill III Answers and solutions begin on page By focusing on poverty, the other causes of crime—such as the breakup of the nuclear family, changing morals, the loss of community, etc. A the other causes of crime—such as the breakup of the nuclear family, changing morals, the loss of community, etc.

B the other causes of crime have been overlooked by sociologists—such as the breakup of the nuclear family, changing morals, the loss of community, etc. C there are other causes of crime that have been overlooked by sociologists—such as the breakup of the nuclear family, changing morals, the loss of community, etc. D crimes—such as the breakup of the nuclear family, changing morals, the loss of community, etc. E sociologists have overlooked the other causes of crime—such as the breakup of the nuclear family, changing morals, the loss of community, etc.

Using the Hubble telescope, previously unknown galaxies are now being charted. A Using the Hubble telescope, previously unknown galaxies are now being charted. B Previously unknown galaxies are now being charted, using the Hubble telescope.

C Using the Hubble telescope, previously unknown galaxies are now being charted by astronomers. D Using the Hubble telescope, astronomers are now charting previously unknown galaxies. E With the aid of the Hubble telescope, previously unknown galaxies are now being charted.

The bitter cold the Midwest is experiencing is potentially life threatening to stranded motorists unless well-insulated with protective clothing. A Traveling across and shooting the vast expanse of the Southwest, in Ansel Adams began his photographic career. B Traveling across and shooting the vast expanse of the Southwest, Ansel Adams began his photographic career in C Having traveled across and shooting the vast expanse of the Southwest, in Ansel Adams began his photographic career. D Ansel Adams, in began his photographic career, traveling across and shooting the vast expanse of the Southwest.

E In , Ansel Adams began his photographic career, traveling across and shooting the vast expanse of the Southwest. The topology course was both rigorous and a challenge. Since both rigorous and a challenge are modifying course, they should have the same form: The topology course was both rigorous and challenging. During his trip to Europe, the President will discuss ways to stimulate trade, offer economic aid, and trying to forge a new coalition with moderate forces in Russia.

In this example, the first two verbs, discuss and offer, are active. But the third verb in the series, trying, is passive. The form of the verb should be active: During his trip to Europe, the President will discuss ways to stimulate trade, offer economic aid, and try to forge a new coalition with moderate forces in Russia. To acknowledge that one is an alcoholic is taking the first and hardest step to recovery. The first half of the above sentence has an infinitive structure, to acknowledge, so the second half must have a similar structure: To acknowledge that one is an alcoholic is to take the first and hardest step to recovery.

Common knowledge tells us that sensible exercise and eating properly will result in better health. A war brewing in Europe, the industrial revolution well-established, and a nascent communication age.

B war brewing in Europe, the industrial revolution surging, and a nascent communication age. C war in Europe, the industrial revolution well-established, and a nascent communication age. D war brewing in Europe, the industrial revolution well-established, and the communication age beginning. E war brewing in Europe, the industrial revolution well-established, and saw the birth of the communication age. It is often better to try repairing an old car than to junk it. Jurassic Park, written by Michael Crichton, and which was first printed in , is a novel about a theme park of the future in which dinosaurs roam free.

Present Tense a. Used to express present tense. He studies hard. Used to express general truths. During a recession, people are cautious about taking on more debt. Used with will or shall to express future time. He will take the SAT next year. Past Tense a. Used to express past tense. He took the SAT last year.

Past Participle a. Used to form the present perfect tense, which indicates that an action was started in the past and its effects are continuing in the present.

It is formed using have or has and the past participle of the verb. He has prepared thoroughly for the SAT. Used to form the past perfect tense, which indicates that an action was completed before another past action. It is formed using had and the past participle of the verb. He had prepared thoroughly before taking the SAT. Used to form the future perfect tense, which indicates that an action will be completed before another future action. It is formed using will have or shall have and the past participle of the verb.

He will have prepared thoroughly before taking the SAT. Used to form the present progressive tense, which indicates that an action is ongoing. It is formed using is, am, or are and the present participle of the verb. He is preparing thoroughly for the SAT.

Used to form the past progressive tense, which indicates that an action was in progress in the past. It is formed using was or were and the present participle of the verb. He was preparing for the SAT. Used to form the future progressive tense, which indicates that an action will be in progress in the future. It is formed using will be or shall be and the present participle of the verb. He will be preparing thoroughly for the SAT. It is formed with the verb to be and the past participle of the main verb.

The bill was resubmitted by the Senator. The Senator has resubmitted the bill. Unless you want to de-emphasize the doer of an action, you should favor the active voice.

In the past few years and to this day, many teachers of math and science had chosen to return to the private sector. Although World War II ended nearly a half century ago, Russia and Japan still have not signed a formal peace treaty; and both countries have been reticent to develop closer relations. A B C D E have not signed a formal peace treaty; and both countries have been did not signed a formal peace treaty; and both countries have been have not signed a formal peace treaty; and both countries being have not signed a formal peace treaty; and both countries are are not signing a formal peace treaty; and both countries have been 4.

No parking is allowed, except leave out on holidays. Account for: When explaining something, the correct idiom is account for: We had to account for all the missing money.

When receiving blame or credit, the correct idiom is account to: You will have to account to the state for your crimes. A lot: Alot is nonstandard; a lot is the correct form. Between should be used when referring to two things, and among should be used when referring to more than two things. The young lady must choose between two suitors. The fault is spread evenly among the three defendants. Being that vs. Being that is nonstandard and should be replaced by since.

Faulty Being that darkness was fast approaching, we had to abandon the search. Better Since darkness was fast approaching, we had to abandon the search. Adding an s to beside completely changes its meaning: Besides in addition , money was not even an issue in the contract negotiations.

Center on vs. Center around: Center around is colloquial. It should not be used in formal writing. Faulty The dispute centers around the effects of undocumented workers. Correct The dispute centers on the effects of undocumented workers.

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Consensus of opinion: Consensus of opinion is redundant: The penalty does not correspond to the severity of the crime. He corresponded with many of the top European leaders of his time. The preferred form is different from. Only in rare cases is different than acceptable. The new Cadillacs are very different from the imported luxury cars. Double negatives: Faulty Scarcely nothing was learned during the seminar. Better Scarcely anything was learned during the seminar. Doubt that vs.

Doubt whether: Doubt whether is nonstandard. Faulty I doubt whether his new business will succeed. Correct I doubt that his new business will succeed. Use farther when referring to distance, and use further when referring to degree. He threw the discs farther distance than the top seated competitor.

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Use fewer when referring to a number of items. Use less when referring to a continuous quantity. In the past, we had fewer options.

The impact was less than what was expected. Identical with not to: This bid is identical with the one submitted by you. In contrast to not of: In contrast to the conservative attitudes of her time, Mae West was quite provocative. Independent of not from: The judiciary is independent of the other branches of government. Not only … but also: In this construction, but cannot be replaced with and. Faulty Peterson is not only the top salesman in the department and also the most proficient.

Correct Peterson is not only the top salesman in the department but also the most proficient. On account of vs. Because is always better than the circumlocution on account of. Poor On account of his poor behavior, he was expelled. Better Because he behaved poorly, he was expelled. Each other should be used when referring to two things, and one another should be used when referring to more than two things. The members of the basketball team more than two congratulated one another on their victory.

The business partners two congratulated each other on their successful first year.

Plus vs. Do not use plus as a conjunction meaning and. Faulty His contributions to this community are considerable, plus his character is beyond reproach. Correct His contributions to this community are considerable, and his character is beyond reproach.

Plus can be used to mean and so long as it is not being used as a conjunction. Acceptable His generous financial contribution plus his donated time has made this project a success.

In this sentence, plus is being used as a preposition. Note that the verb has is singular because an intervening prepositional phrase plus his donated time does not affect subject verb agreement. Regard vs. Unless you are giving best wishes to someone, you should use regard. Faulty In regards to your letter, we would be interested in distributing your product. Correct In regard to your letter, we would be interested in distributing your product.

Regardless is the correct form. Retroactive to not from: The correct idiom is retroactive to: The tax increase is retroactive to February.

To speak to someone is to tell them something: We spoke to Jennings about the alleged embezzlement. To speak with someone is to discuss something with them: Steve spoke with his friend Dave for hours yesterday. The reason is because: This structure is redundant. Equally common and doubly redundant is the structure the reason why is because.

Poor The reason why I could not attend the party is because I had to work. Better I could not attend the party because I had to work. Whether vs. As to whether: The circumlocution as to whether should be replaced by whether. Poor The United Nations has not decided as to whether to authorize a trade embargo. Better The United Nations has not decided whether to authorize a trade embargo. Whether introduces a choice; if introduces a condition. A common mistake is to use if to present a choice.

Faulty He inquired if we had decided to keep the gift. Correct He inquired whether we had decided to keep the gift.

Regarding legalization of drugs, I am not concerned so much by its potential impact on middle class America but instead by its potential impact on the inner city. Unless you maintain at least a 2. A Due to the chemical spill, the commute into the city will be delayed by as much as 2 hours. B The reason that the commute into the city will be delayed by as much as 2 hours is because of the chemical spill.

C Due to the chemical spill, the commute into the city had been delayed by as much as 2 hours. D Because of the chemical spill, the commute into the city will be delayed by as much as 2 hours.

E The chemical spill will be delaying the commute into the city by as much as 2 hours. A pronoun should be plural when it refers to two nouns joined by and. A pronoun should be singular when it refers to two nouns joined by or or nor. A pronoun should refer to one and only one noun or compound noun. A pronoun must agree with its antecedent in both number and person. The subject and verb must agree both in number and person. Intervening phrases and clauses have no effect on subject-verb agreement.

When the subject and verb are reversed, they still must agree in both number and person. As a general rule, a modifier should be placed as close as possible to what it modifies.

When a phrase begins a sentence, make sure that it modifies the subject of the sentence. For a sentence to be parallel, similar elements must be expressed in similar form. When two adjectives modify the same noun, they should have similar forms. When a series of clauses is listed, the verbs must be in the same form.

When the first half of a sentence has a certain structure, the second half should preserve that structure. A verb has four principal parts: Present Participle -ing form of the verb a.

Choice B changes the structure of the sentence, but retains the same flawed reference. Thus, the reference is ambiguous. Choice D adds another pronoun, its, but still retains the same flawed reference.

Choice E corrects the flawed reference by removing all pronouns. The answer is E. Although choice B corrects the given false reference, it introduces another one. Their can now refer to either customers or government, neither of which would make sense in this context. Choice C also corrects the false reference, but it introduces a redundancy: The direct object of a verb should be as close to the verb as possible. Choice A is incorrect.

Since United States is denoting the collective country, it is singular and therefore cannot be correctly referred to by the plural pronoun they. Choice B is not technically incorrect, but it lacks precision since it does not state who enacted the Marshall Plan.

Further, it uses a passive construction: Choice D corrects the false reference by replacing they with the United States. Further, it uses the active verb enacted instead of the passive verb was enacted.

The answer is D. The sentence is not incorrect as written. Hence, the answer is choice A. Choice B creates a run-on sentence by replacing the semicolon with a comma.

Without a connecting word—and, or, but, etc. Choice C uses a very awkward construction: Choice D contains an error in tense.

The sentence progresses from the past to the present, so the verb in the second clause should be accept, not accepted. Choice E writes the two clauses as separate sentences, which is allowable, but it also changes the tense of the second clause to the future: A B C D E one that they believe to be a trigger for one they believe to be a trigger for one that they believe triggers that they believe to be a trigger for one they believe acts as a trigger for Choice A is incorrect since the relative pronoun that is redundant: Although choice C reads more smoothly, it still contains the double pronouns.

Generally, relative pronouns such as that refer to whole ideas in previous clauses or sentences. Since the second sentence is about the fault and not its discovery, the pronoun that is appropriate.

Choice E is very tempting. It actually reads better than choice A , but it contains a subtle flaw. One is the direct object of the verb believes and therefore cannot be the subject of the verb acts. Since they clearly is not the subject, the verb acts is without a subject.

Choice B has both the correct pronoun and the correct verb form. The answer is B. A bite from the tsetse fly invariably paralyzes its victims unless an antidote is administered within two hours. A B C D E its victims unless an antidote is administered its victims unless an antidote can be administered its victims unless an antidote was administered its victims unless an antidote is administered to the victims its victims unless they receive an antidote Choice A is incorrect since it is unclear whether the victim or the fly should receive the antidote.

Choice B is incorrect since is is more direct than can be.

Choice C is incorrect. A statement of fact should be expressed in the present tense, not the past tense. Choice D is wordy. A pronoun should be used for the phrase the victims.

Choice E is the answer since they correctly identifies who should receive the antidote. A B C D E The rising cost Since the rising costs Because of the rising costs The rising costs Rising cost Choice A is incorrect because the plural verb have does not agree with its singular subject the rising cost. Both B and C are incorrect because they turn the sentence into a fragment. Choice E is incorrect because rising cost is still singular. Choice D is the correct answer since now the plural verb have agrees with its plural subject the rising costs.

A B C D E its means of distribution are equally shared by the parties. Recall that intervening phrases have no effect on subject-verb agreement. In this sentence, the subject ownership is singular, but the verb are is plural. Dropping the intervening phrase clearly shows that the sentence is ungrammatical: In a co-publication, agreement ownership are equally shared by the parties.

Choice B is incorrect. Neither adding each of nor interchanging shared and equally addresses the issue of subject-verb agreement. Choice D contains a faulty pronoun reference. The antecedent of the plural pronoun their would be the singular noun material.

Choice E is incorrect since it still contains the plural verb are. The answer is choice C. A B C D E indicate that the country is becoming less tolerant, and therefore that indicates that the country is becoming less tolerant, and therefore indicates that the country is becoming less tolerant, and therefore that indicates that the country is being less tolerant, and therefore indicates that the country is becoming less tolerant of and therefore that Choice A has two flaws.

First, the subject of the sentence the rise is singular, and therefore the verb indicate should not be plural. Second, the comma indicates that the sentence is made up of two independent clauses, but the relative pronoun that immediately following therefore forms a subordinate clause. Choice C corrects the number of the verb, but retains the subordinating relative pronoun that. Choice D corrects the number of the verb and eliminates the subordinating relative pronoun that. However, the verb being is less descriptive than the verb becoming: As negative attitudes toward foreigners increase, the country becomes correspondingly less tolerant.

Being does not capture this notion of change. However, it introduces the preposition of which does not have an object: The harvest of grapes in the local valleys decreased in for the third straight year but were still at a robust level. A The harvest of grapes in the local valleys decreased in for the third straight year but were B The harvest of grapes in the local valleys began to decrease in for the third straight year but were C In , the harvest of grapes in the local valleys decreased for the third straight year but were D The harvest of grapes in the local valleys decreased for the third straight year in but was E The harvest of grapes in the local valleys began decreasing in for the third straight year but was Vocabulary Choice A is incorrect since the singular subject the harvest requires a singular verb, not the plural verb were.

Choice B is illogical since it states that the harvest began to decrease in and then it states that it was the third straight year of decrease. In choice C the plural verb were still does not agree with its singular subject the harvest. Choice E contains the same flaw as choice B.

Choice D has the singular verb was agreeing with its singular subject the harvest. Further, it places the phrase in more naturally. Thomas—could have had The sentence is grammatical as written. The answer is A.

When each, every, or many a precedes two or more subjects linked by and, they separate the subjects and the verb is singular.

Hence, in choice B the plural verb have is incorrect. Choice C is incorrect since the singular verb has does not agree with the plural subject all. When each follows a plural subject it does not separate the subjects and the verb remains plural. Hence, in choice D the singular verb has is incorrect.

Choice E also changes the meaning of the original sentence, which states that the protagonist do have powerful, dynamic personalities. Choice A is incorrect since it implies that the other causes of crime are doing the focusing.

Choice B has the same flaw. The phrase by focusing on poverty must modify the subject of the sentence, but there cannot be the subject since the construction there are is used to introduce a subject. Choice D implies that crimes are focusing on poverty. Choice E puts the subject of the sentence sociologists immediately next to its modifying phrase by focusing on poverty.

Choice B is incorrect because the phrase using the Hubble telescope still does not have a noun to modify. Choice C offers a noun, astronomers, but it is too far from the phrase using the Hubble telescope. In choice E , the phrase with the aid of the Hubble telescope does not have a noun to modify. Choice D offers a noun, astronomers, and places it immediately after the modifying phrase using the Hubble telescope. A B C D E stranded motorists unless insulated stranded motorists unless being insulated stranded motorists unless they are insulated stranded motorists unless there is insulation the stranded motorist unless insulated Choice A is incorrect.

As worded, the sentence implies that the cold should be well insulated. Choice B is awkward; besides, it still implies that the cold should be well insulated. Choice D does not indicate what should be insulated. Choice E , like choices A and B , implies that the cold should be well insulated. Choice C is the answer since it correctly implies that the stranded motorists should be well insulated with protective clothing. B In , Ansel Adams began his photographic career, traveling across and shooting the vast expanse of the Southwest.

E Traveling across and shooting the vast expanse of the Southwest, Ansel Adams began his photographic career in Choice A has two flaws.Choice E is incorrect because it leaves the thought in the sentence uncompleted.

I am scared of some animals that live in the 3. Vocabulary Home Vocabulary A Traveling across and shooting the vast expanse of the Southwest, in Ansel Adams began his photographic career. Thus, the reference is ambiguous. Soon the river rose higher and higher. A B C D E you will not graduate medical school.