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TYBSC IT SEM 6 NOTES PDF

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Get the latest BSc IT Notes & Resources for FY, SY and TY BSc IT from Vidyalankar. Log on to yazik.info, the resource hub for BSc IT students . yazik.info IT- Sem I · yazik.info IT- Sem II · yazik.info IT- Sem III · yazik.info IT- Sem IV · yazik.info IT- Sem V · yazik.info IT- Sem VI · yazik.info Colleges · yazik.info IT Important Dates yazik.info IT (Sem II). TYBSC IT SEM 6 PROJECT MANAGEMENT NOTES. 1. .. 6. It prepares user manual which includes all the steps which give guidance to user. TYBSC(IT) SEM 6 layer 7, D6 data means the data unit at layer 6, and so on. Write a short notes on ProxyARP A static table is one with manual entries.


Tybsc It Sem 6 Notes Pdf

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They later found that the dye did not derive from seeds but the cochineal bug. The dye was used throughout Mexico and Guatemala where the bug thrived on the nopal or opunti cactus.

As the insect matured the wingless dye-yielding females were swept off the leaves to which they were attached and plunged into hot water. The dead insects were then laid in the sun or placed in a bag and put in the oven to dry.

After the insects were dried they were ground into a fine powder. It takes 70, dried insects to produce a pound of dye. An acre of nopal cactus yields approximately to pounds of insects.

Cochineal is more costly than madder and is easily adulterated. Dark burgundy to bright red to soft lilac and pink can be obtained from cochineal.

Both wool and silk are successfully dyed with cochineal when tin or alum is used as the mordant. Cochineal insects or plant seeds — plant or animal?

Cochineal dye was introduced into Europe in the late s by Spanish explorers from South and Central America. No information was provided on the source or nature of cochineal because the Spaniards closely protected their supply.

More on the history and origins of cochineal in Latin America here Dried cochineal looks like small silver-grey peppercorns or plant seeds. Before microscopes where in use, European scientists argued for a long time as to whether cochineal was a plant, an animal or a mineral.

We now know that cochineal is a female scale insect that lives on prickly pear cactus plants Opuntia or nopal native to Central and South America. Scale insects are plant-sucking bugs that are covered by a white fluffy, protective coating and cochineal bugs produce carminic acid as a by- product to deter predators. Crimson, fuchsia, raspberry and scarlet reds can be obtained from cochineal. The red colorant is used in drinks e. Campari and in foods under the code E , and in drugs and cosmetics.

The term cochineal may be applied either to the living or dried cochineal insects or to cochineal dye which is obtained from them. It takes about , cochineal insects to produce 1 kilo of cochineal dye. Carmine is today primarily used as a food colouring and for cosmetics. It is time consuming to extract from the raw materials.

Availability of the natural dyes are limited. As the natural dyes are extracted from plants mostly, they are dependent on the growing seasons, which is unlike the synthetic dyes that are produced in the laboratories. Even though natural dyes produce bright colors and variety of shades but tend to fade faster than the synthetic dyes.

Consistency is an issue as no two dye lots are identical due to the impurities in them. Some mordant used along with natural dyes may to toxic to an extend. Alum is safer to use though entirely not nontoxic. Some fibers such as silk and wool can be dyed by simply dipping them in the dye but cotton requires a mordant.

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Mauveine In , Griess discovered diazotisation and coupling on in the fibre In , Martius developed Bismarkbrown. Clavel introduced disperse dyes which is solved the problem of dyeing hydrophobic fibres. Procian dyes and Remozal dyes. Dye molecule are attracted by forces at the molecular level of textile.

The amount of this attraction is known as substantivity, the higher the substantivity the gerater the attaction of dye for the fibre.

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It should have a chromophore and auxochrome Chromophore color bearing color of the organic compound is associated with the certain group of atoms which are called chromophores.

They are unsaturated groups, responsible for giving color to the organiccompounds, e. Nitro, nitroso, azo, carbonyl.

The conventional basic waterfall model is risky and failure prone. This is because as the testing phase occurs at the end of the development life cycle, and as a result, the changes identified are likely to be so troublesome to implement right from the software requirements on which the design is based.

Mostly, Designing was done between SRS and analysis phases. Program designer first checks the storage, timing, and data. The software development design process is always built by the program designers, and not by the analysts. It includes the elaboration of architecture by distributing the system into components, and representing these components in a layered architecture. For example, the Rational Unified process RUP includes use-case driven, architecture-centric, iterative development process.

These architectures are THEN designed and developed in parallel with planning and requirements definition. These manuals are called as User manuals. These included operational manuals, software maintenance manuals, staff user manuals, test manuals and etc. Maintaining such a huge amount of documentation becomes really troublesome. It was MUST for each designer to communicate with various stakeholders such as interface designers, managers, customers, testers, developers so as to finalize the designs and prepare the manuals.

Modem designing tools and notations, and new methods produce self documenting artifacts from development activities. For example, Rational Rose is a very popular design tool that produces the self-documenting artifacts and program code from the developed model. But, later on, keeping track of the most recent version of these programs become troublesome. Therefore, there is a need to track the correct version of the program and also, if needed the first version is thrown away sometimes.

Then version 2 is called as the refinement of version 1 which includes the implementation of major requirements. Therefore, it involves greatest risks also in terms of cost and schedule.

The testing phase occurs in the last of software development and this last phase is reached when any other changes or any alternatives are least available and expenses are at a maximum. This phase involves: Employing a team of test specialists and these specialists not involved in the original design and development of the software product. Employing visual inspections to detect the obvious errors. These inspections include the procedure of code reviews, technical reviews and interfaces.

Testing every logical path 4. Software inspections - are conducted by automated tools but they are assisted by the code analyzers, optimizing compilers, static and dynamic analyzers.

Testing every path - This is practically impossible. It is especially very difficult with distributed systems and reusable components and there are even many other factors that need to be tested. This involvement is necessary for the overall project success.

It demonstrates the increments, the customer feedback, making favorable changes, cyclic and iterative activities that yield in an evolving software. Involvement of customers helps in addressing the risks in very initial phases of software development. The old versions of software development plan defines: Projects that are developed using Conventional waterfall process often faced following symptoms: Protracted integration and late design breakage 2.

Late risk resolution 3. Requirements-driven functional decomposition 4. Adversarial stakeholder relationships 5. Focus on documents and review meetings 1. Requirements - Design - Code - Integration — the integration of components very late in the SDLC, then it results in late changes in the designed models. This is known as late design i. This late designing causes the breakages in the developed product. The late integration test and designing also increases the expenditures of the software project.

Table 1. Expenditures per activity for a Conventional Software Project Generally, the requirements are noted down in English, designs are drawn using flowcharts, detailed designing is done in pal, and implementations are basically done in Fortran, Cobol, or C. Actual risks and issues are still unknown and difficult to detect and understand.

The below figure shows a sample risk profile for projects that follow waterfall model. It involves four different periods of risk exposure; Even in the design phase, where we are clear enough with the software requirements and have better understood them, then also it is still difficult to analyze and finalize the objectives.

During the coding phase, some of the risks are resolved, but more than that, especially at the time of integration, many of the risks become quite clear and accordingly changes are made to the artifacts and reduction in expenditures can be achieved.

Even if we achieve success in reducing the expenditures, it often results in extending the scheduled dates of delivering the product. This may also hamper the quality a little bit due to frequent changes and extensibility, or in the process of maintainability. Thus, it ultimately results in the loss of original design and integrity. Developers must focus on gathering and writing complete, clear, precise, consistent, necessary, and feasible user requirements.

But this case was rarely observed. Very often, it is seen that too much time is spent on treating all requirements such as the requirements that are normally listed in. That means, in traditional way of development, prioritizing of requirements was given least importance.

Also, much time is spent on documentation i. This conversion of requirements into functions and then leading to decomposition of Functions into sub-functions, etc. Lot of misunderstandings occur between the stakeholders about the matter written in the documentation because of the English jargons.

Requirements are only documented on papers but in actual practice, they are not really modeled. Universally-agreed notations are rarely used, no common notations, no GUIs. Subjective reviews and different stakeholder opinions are not given enough value. Few common events that take place in contractual software are: Contractor prepared a draft that constitutes of contract-deliverable document that involves intermediate artifacts and delivered it to the customer for approval.

Thisis usually done after interviews, questionnaires, and meetings. Customer was ought to give feedback within days. Contractor incorporated this feedback and submitted within days.

This is interpreted as the final version for approval. It was often seen that, once approved is rendered obsolete later. But in this procedure, little attention is given on producing credible increments of the desired products. It follows the Big bang approach i. Milestones are decided and passed over to all stakeholders via review meetings. These meetings may be technical or managerial. Lot of energy is spent on producing paper documentation to show progress versus efforts and to address the real risk issues and also the integration issues.

These issues can be such as; o Stakeholders did not go through design. Many issues could have been avoided during early life-cycle phases rather that caused serious problems in later life cycle phases. Typical Software product design Reviews: Big briefing to a diverse audience Only very small percentage of audience understands the software programming and development.

Briefings and documents represent few of the important assets and risks of that particular complex software. A compliant design But, there is no tangible proof of compliance Compliance with unclear requirements is of little value. Requirement Coverage Only few are the real design drivers, but many are presented as to be real Dealing with all requirements diverts the focus on critical drivers.

Basic Software Economics: Detecting and fixing the software bugs after the delivery to customer costs times more than finding and fixing the problem in early design phases. You can compress i. Addition of staff requires more management overhead and training of the new staff. Some compression is sometimes proved to be troublesome to add new people. For every penny, you spend on software development, you will spend the double on maintenance.

A good development organization will most likely NOT spend this kind of extra money on maintenance. Software development and maintenance costs are primarily the results of number of source lines of code.

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Component-based development weakens this by increasing the reuse but not in common use in the past. Variations among stakeholders and especially variations in staff results in the biggest differences of software productivity. Development organization must always try to hire good people.

Overall ratio of software to hardware costs is growing. Software-system products i.

The more software you build, the more expensive it is per source line. Walkthroughs are good for catching errors, but they require deep analysis to catch significant shortcomings.

Major problems such as performance and resource contention are also not caught.

Review Questions Q. Software Economics Syllabus: Reducing Software Product size, improving software process, improving team effectiveness, improving automation, achieving required quality, peer inspections 2. Software costs often dominate computer system costs. The costs of software on a PC are often greater than the hardware cost. Software costs more to maintain than it does to develop. For systems with a long life, maintenance costs may be several times development costs.

Software engineering is concerned with cost-effective software development. Costs of Software Engineering: The total cost required in developing a software product can be categorized as below; i. But, these costs differ depending on the type of the project being developed and the required system attributes such as the performance, reliability, flexibility, security andso on. The required cost in various phases also depends on the development model either prototyping or spiral or waterfall or any other model that is used.

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Cost Estimation: Is the art of approximating the probable cost of something based on information available at the time. Leads to a better understanding of the problem. Improves management insight into resource allocation problems. Provides an objective baseline to measure progress. The reliability of cost estimates varies over time. The closer you get to the actual completion of a project, the estimate becomes more accurate.

Inability to accurately size a software project, Inability to accurately specify a software development and support environment, Improper assessment of staffing levels and skills, and Lack of well-defined requirements for the specific software activity being estimated Four types of cost estimates represent various levels of reliability: Conceptual Estimate: Often inaccurate because there are too many unknowns.

Preliminary Estimate: Used to develop initial budget, more precise. Detailed Estimate: Serves as a basis for daily project control. Definitive Estimate: Cost Estimations are constructed based on the following tasks: Identifying the purpose and scope of the new system-New software development, software reuse, COTS integration, etc.

Choosing an estimate type - Conceptual, preliminary, detailed, or definitive type estimates. Laying out a program schedule. Collecting, evaluating, and verifying data.

Choosing, applying, cross-checking estimating methods to develop the cost estimate. Performing risk and sensitivity analysis Providing full documentation. Step 1: Estimate the size of the development product Size of the software may depend upon: Step 2: Estimate the effort in person-hours The effort of various Project tasks expressed in person-hours is influenced by various factors such as: Estimate the schedule in calendar months.

Tight Schedules may impact the Cost needed to develop the Application. Step 4: Estimate the project cost in dollars or other currency. Based on the above information the project effort is expressed in dollars or any other currency.

Expert Opinion: Also called as Delphi method, proposed by Dr. Barry Boehm is useful in assessing differences between past projects and new ones for which no historical precedent exists. Little or no historical data needed.

Suitable for new or unique projects. Very subjective. Experts may do partiality Qualification of experts may be questioned. Estimates costs by comparing proposed programs with similar, previously completed programs for which historical data is available. Actual costs of similar existing system are adjusted for complexity, technical, or physical differences to derive new cost estimates Analogies are used early in a program cycle when there is insufficient actual cost data to use as a detailed approach Compares similarities and differences Good choice for a new system that is derived from an existing subsystem.

Inexpensive Easily changed Based on actual experience of the analogous system Disadvantages: Very Subjective Utilizes statistical techniques. Can be used prior to development.

Can be excellent predictors when implemented correctly Once created, CERs are fast and simple to use Easily changed Useful early on in a program Objective Disadvantages: Often lack of data on software intensive systems for statistically significant CER Does not provide access to subtle changes Top level; lower level may be not visible Need to be properly validated and relevant to system 4. Also referred to as bottoms up or detailed method. Start at the component level and estimate the effort required for each component.

Add these efforts to reach a final estimate. Future costs for a system are predicted with a great deal of accuracy from historical costs of that system. Involves examining separate work segments in detail. Estimate is built up from the lowest level of system costs. Includes all components and functions. Can be used during development and production.

Objective Reduced uncertainty Disadvantages: Expensive Decides future costs on recent historical costs of same system.

Used later in development or production. Costs are calibrated to actual development or production productivity for your organization Advantages: Most accurate Most objective of the five methodologies Disadvantages: Data not available early Time consuming Lab our intensive to collect all the data necessary Choice of methodology depends upon: Type of system - software, hardware, etc Phase of program - Development, Production, Support Available data - Historical data points from earlier system versions or similar system or Technical parameters of system.

All these cost estimating models can be represented on the basis of five basic parameters: The size of the proposed software product is weighed in terms of components i. The process includes the phases and activities carried out in each phase. So whatever process used to produce the proposed product is measured on the ability of the Target process to avoid unnecessary activities such as rework, bureaucratic delays, communications overhead and such other overhead activities which may delay the delivery of the product.

This deals with the capabilities and experience of software engineering personnel team members in the field of computer science issues and the applications domain issues of the project.

The environment constitutes of the tools and techniques that are required to develop efficient software and also to automate the process. The required quality of the proposed product depends upon the features, performance, reliability, and adaptability of the software. The above described five parameters size, process, personnel, environment and quality can be related with each other so as to calculate the estimated cost for the proposed software development: This relationship represents a diseconomy of scale.

This diseconomy of the software development is because the process exponent is greaterthan 1. The below figure demonstrates how the technology, tools, component development and processes evolved and enhanced through the three generations of software economy.

Con The estimated level of quality and personnel person capabilities per hour are , considered to be constant. The ordinate of the graph represents the software unit costs interpreted by an organization. Conventional Craftsmanship: From to , the conventional software development process was referred to as craftsmanship such as the Waterfall model. In this particular period, software development companies made use of tools, processes and components built in primitive languages.

That means, project performance was highly as expected and that too in the estimated cost and schedule. But the quality was not as expected. Main features: From to ,the conventional software development process was called as software engineering.

In this particular period, the software development companies used frequently repeatable processes and off-the-shelf tools, and lot of custom components developed in high level programming languages such as Java and.

That means some of the components also included commercial products such as Networking and graphical user interfaces, operating systems like Windows and Linux, database systems like Oracle and SQL Server. Modern practices software production: Since , the software development process is referred to as software production.

Now a days, software development companies make use of managed and measured processes, integrated environments such as automated tools and technologies like the Rational Rose tool that we use for drawing UML diagrams, more of off-shelf components and few custom components.

For example, consider the process advances that cannot be used successfully without the involvement of new component technologies and the enhanced tool automation. The development organizations are constantly achieving better economies of scale as shown in every successive generation with very large projects, long-lasting software products, and business cases comprising of multiple similar projects.

The figure below gives an overview of how the return on investment ROI can be achieved through continuous efforts across the life cycles of various business domains.

It is easy to collect related set of data within one particular organization but it is difficult to collect the related data from different companies following different development processes, different programming languages and different domains. Developers and customers always had an argument on software cost estimation models and tools. Three most common topics of their argument are: Whether to measure software size on the basis of lines of code LOC or function points?

Most of the cost estimation models are bottom-up i. The below figure depicts predominant cost estimation practices where: The target cost is defined so as: The process described in this figure forces the software project manager to check the risks associated in achieving the target costs and also discuss this problem with other stakeholders.

Factors that lead to good cost estimation Good software cost estimation may be based on the following attributes: The cost is estimated collectively by the project manager, architectural team, development team, and test team. The estimated cost is acknowledged and supported by all stakeholders.

The cost estimation is based on some well-defined model. The cost estimation is based on the databases of similar type of project experiences that use similar methodologies, similar technologies, and similar environment with similar type of stakeholders.

The key risk areas are detected and accordingly the probability of success is determined. Barry Boehm in COCOMO is a regression-based model that considers various historical programs software size and multipliers. It is the oldest cost estimation model that is popularly used in the process of cost estimation.

COCOMO 81 was developed with the assumption that a waterfall process would be used and that all software would be developed from scratch. Since then, there have been many changes in software engineering practice and COCOMO 2 is designed to accommodate different approaches to software development.

Formulae 1: Development effort is based on system size. Formulae 2: Effort MM and Development Time.

According to Boehm, the mode of development can be classified into following 3 distinct modes: Organic mode of development - talks about the projects that involve small development teams whose team members are familiar with the project and work to achieve stable environments. This category includes the projects like the payroll systems.

Semi-detached mode of development - talks about the projects that involve mixture of experienced team members in the project. This category includes the projects like the interactive banking system.

Embedded mode of development - talks about the complex projects that are developed under tight constraints with innovations in it and have a high volatility of requirements. This category includes the projects like the nuclear reactor control systems. It is difficult to accurately estimate the KDSI in early phases of the project when most effort estimates are still not decided yet.

Easily thrown misclassification of the development mode. Its success largely depends on tuning the model to the needs of the organization and this is done based upon the historical data which is not always available. Allows the estimator to analyse the different factors that affect the project costs. The sub models are listed as follows; Application composition model. It is applied when software is being developed from existing parts. Early design model. It is applied when system requirements are gathered and concluded but design has not yet started, Reuse model.

It is applied when software is being developed using the reusable components so as to compute the effort of integrating these components, Post-architecture model. It is applied when once the system architecture has been designed and when more system information is gathered.

Multipliers reflect the capability of the developers, the non-functional requirements, the familiarity with the development platform, etc. Computer attributes describe the constraints imposed on the software product by the hardware platform. Personnel attributes describe the experiences and capabilities of the project development team members that are taken into account. Project attributes describe particular characteristics of the project. This computation predicts the nominal schedule for the project.

The time required is independent of the number of people working on the project. The Five Key parameters that can help in improving the software economics are; Reducing the product size Number of Lines of Code and complexity of the software 1. Improving the software development process 2. Using more-skilled personnel i. Creating better environment by improving the automation with more appropriate tools and technologies. Achieving required quality by peer inspections The most proper way of improving the affordability and ROI return on investment is to develop a product that achieves the design goals with minimum number of LOC Lines of Code i.

Parameters that affect the size complications are: Use of Component-based development i. This decomposition of the product first and then later integration raises complications in the code.

Automatic code generation - Various design tools generate automatic code along with the modeling of the designs. Some have come with a complaint of fever, some with a headache, a backache, or some with a toothache. Some have malaria, some have influenza and some have typhoid.

Some patients are suffering from skin disease, while others are complaining of the loss of appetite. He takes each patient by turn, examines him with his stethoscope, sees his tongue, looks into his eyes, taps his stomach and asks him to mention his complaints. Then he writes down something on his prescription paper, which none but his compounder can read. Sometimes he gives injections of various kinds of different patients. Our doctor is an M. His room are always filled to capacity with all types of patients.

There are men, women and children, rich and poor; old and young; carpenters and blacksmiths; businessmen and brokers; teachers and hawkers; millowners and milkmen all seem to have implicit faith in the doctor. The doctor makes no distinctions between one patient and another.

He is courteous to everyone. Some busy doctors examine patients carelessly and prescribe medicines hurriedly.Evolution of Software Economics: Problem of Reliability: Refer to Section 2: BSc CSIT program involves, in addition to conventional lectures, a great deal of practical and project works.

Has the project lost its key person. B Some system activities may take place at odd times causing a scheduling inconvience for the analyst. If the project is required in order to keep the system operating, the primary question becomes is the system worth saving at the estimated cost of project and if the answer is Yes, project cost will be examined to make sure they are kept as low.

Technical Feasiblity: Improves management insight into resource allocation problems. Testing every path - This is practically impossible.