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THE BOTTOM BILLION PDF

Friday, March 8, 2019


Part 1 What's the Issue? 1. Falling Behind and Falling Apart: The Bottom Billion 3. Part 2 The Traps. 2. The Conflict Trap 3. The Natural Resource Trap 4. PDF | On Feb 1, , Paul Hoebink and others published The bottom billion: why the poorest countries are failing and what can be done about it, by Paul. A review of: Paul Collier: The Bottom Billion: Why the Poorest Countries are Failing and .. yazik.info pdf.


The Bottom Billion Pdf

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To download abstracts, personal subscriptions or corporate solutions, visit our Web site at yazik.info or call us at our U.S. office () or . In the universally acclaimed and award-winning The Bottom Billion, Paul Collier reveals that fifty failed states-home to the poorest one billion people on. The Bottom Billion: Why the Poorest Countries Are Failing and What Can Be Done About It. New York: Oxford PDF download for ■ Collier, Paul,

One of the strengths of the book is its focus on the least developed countries as over against the developing countries in general. However, there are some shortcomings.

First, the focus on poor countries instead of on the very poor in any developing country could be an issue. The problem with the country approach is that a sizeable number of the very poor in countries that have high growth rates but high or medium inequality and an average human development index HDI get ignored.

A good example is India, which is not part of the bottom billion.

However, over thirty-four percent of its one billion population lives on less than one dollar a day. I believe that, though growth is a condition for development, the main focus should still be development. For example, Botswana is cited as one of the success stories of Africa but inequality in Botswana is high.

Additionally, the number of people below the poverty line in Botswana, despite over two decades of significant growth, is significantly high.

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Botswana has a life expectancy of less than forty years and its HDI is ranked th while its per capita income is ranked sixtieth. Development is still far off for Botswana and many other slow-growing African countries, though growth has continued steadily over time.

Human capital is transmitted though health and education. Lack of education and poor health and nutrition create a vicious circle of low productivity and low growth and development. Hence, issues of health and education for the bottom billion are too critical to be left out in a discussion of traps faced by this group.

Third, and most significant, the book sometimes does not present the whole picture. This is quite worrisome because most people reading this book will assume that Collier is providing a thorough account of the events he depicts; this is not always the case. Another example is the elections in Togo mentioned in chapter eight. Collier makes the claim that Faure Gnassingbe did not win the election, but there is no substantial evidence to this effect. This is why this opposition leader, despite trying to rally protests post-election as is common in many parts of Africa when the opposition loses the present violence in Kenya provides a classic example , agreed to work to end the violence quite quickly.

Togo, since its independence, has maintained relative peace and, despite its small size and limited resources hence its slow growth , has a medium HDI and medium inequality. I feel strongly that it is inappropriate for Collier to say that the only decisive contribution Faure a graduate from George Washington University would make is dying. There is little doubt that many people within this country supported his election and, in the two years following his election and , GDP growth has at least increased between two to three percent, despite the negative effect of rising oil prices and volatile commodity prices for nonoil producing small African countries.

Collier talks about the corruption of some governments of poor nations, but he does not rightly trace this extractive culture to its roots, which are found in colonialism.

The recent work by Robinson, Acemoglu, and Simon provides evidence of the extractive institutions set up in Africa by the colonialists. Corrupt leaders are definitely one of the problems faced by the bottom billion. However, the growth and persistence of this kind of leadership is linked to the enduring nature of the extractive institutions put in place in Africa via colonialism.

It depends on how you look at it. As Christian economists, we are concerned with not only the optimal or efficient use of scarce resources, but also living according to the principles of our faith as expounded in the Bible. This sometimes creates a dilemma for Christian economists in terms of what is the best policy action to prescribe or how to approach a given situation, proposal, or research agenda.

In the universally acclaimed and award-winning The Bottom Billion, Paul Collier reveals that fifty failed states--home to the poorest one billion people on Earth--pose the central challenge of the developing world in the twenty-first century. The book shines much-needed light on this group of small nations, largely unnoticed by the industrialized West, that are dropping further and further behind the majority of the world's people, often falling into an absolute decline in living standards.

A struggle rages within each of these nations between reformers and corrupt leaders--and the corrupt are winning. Collier analyzes the causes of failure, pointing to a set of traps that ensnare these countries, including civil war, a dependence on the extraction and export of natural resources, and bad governance. Standard solutions do not work, he writes; aid is often ineffective, and globalization can actually make matters worse, driving development to more stable nations.

What the bottom billion need, Collier argues, is a bold new plan supported by the Group of Eight industrialized nations. If failed states are ever to be helped, the G8 will have to adopt preferential trade policies, new laws against corruption, new international charters, and even conduct carefully calibrated military interventions.

Collier has spent a lifetime working to end global poverty.

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The future progress of the bottom billion people is crucial for health and health system development. Inequities in access to health care suffered by this group further disadvantage it. Conflicts, bad governance and lack of development clearly have an effect on the national health systems of the worst-affected countries.

Breaking out of the traps discussed in the book is important for future health system development, and understanding these and other barriers to development is the essential first step.

Recommendation

The book is a welcome contribution to health development literature and makes excellent reading for those who are concerned about poverty and the poor, and for those who tend to think that economic growth is the sum total of human welfare. The book also serves as a timely reminder for carrying out suitable policy and development responses. A deliberately pessimistic view of the future prospects of the bottom billion is presented, but the book does provide some suggestions that the affected countries and the Group of Eight G8 countries could adopt to improve the status quo.

The book would have benefited from use of an analytical framework to better depict the evidence presented.Possibilities to deal with the problems of poverty exist in better-off countries, but the poor often lack access to them.

This is quite worrisome because most people reading this book will assume that Collier is providing a thorough account of the events he depicts; this is not always the case. Collier suggests that globalization will not help the countries in this group because they have already been left behind by other developing countries.

However, there is a need to provide evidence of the effectiveness and successes of these organizations, not just with narratives, case studies, and descriptive statistics, as we commonly do now, but with rigorous econometric analysis. References Acemoglu, Daron, J.

Easterly is right to mock the delusions of the aid lobby. Standard solutions do not work, he writes; aid is often ineffective, and globalization can actually make matters worse, driving development to more stable nations.