TAREEKH IBN KHALDUN PDF
COMPLETE SET OF 13 VOLUMES OF TAREEKH IBN E KHALDUN WITH ITS AMAZING WORLD RENOWNED MUQADDIMAH THAT LAID. 2 Tareekh Ibne Khaldoon(Part 12) · 3 Tareekh Ibne Khaldoon(Part 3) 8 Tareekh Ibne Khalidoon-(Part 2) · 9 Tareekh Ibne Khuldoon Tareekh Ibn Khaldun Written by Allamah Abdur Raḥman Bin Muhammad Bin Khaldun. Translated in to Urdu by Hakeem Ahmd Hussain Elahabadi. Complete .
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Tareekh Ibn Khaldun Urdu 13 Volumes Pdf Free Download Tareekh Ibn Khaldun Written by Allamah Abdur Raḥman Bin Muhammad Bin Khaldun. Translated in. Jan 7, Tareekh Ibn Khaldun, tarikh ibn khaldun in urdu, tareekh ibn Rasoolullah Ki Nasihatein Muhammad, Book Lists, Islamic, Pdf, Reading Lists. Tareekh Ibne Khaldoon-5 (This file is too large to preview). Tareekh Ibne KhaldoonPreview ebook · Tareekh Ibne Khuldoon 07Preview.
The key to guarantee the stability of the country or the state, was to gain the support from the people Ibn Khaldun thought that the method to prolong the regime were to strengthen the religion and social solidarity, in order to strengthen the social cohesion.
In his concept, solidarity is a material method, and religion is a spiritual method, the ruler needed to understand the importance of balancing the religion and social solidarity.
This point is similar to the political theory in ancient China, they thought that the combination of Confucianism and the concern to the common people should be combined and used on political administration, especially the king.
The first was the stage of establishment, in this stage, he suggested the founder would establish his state or regime by connecting his family, or the dominant religion or could be regarded as an ideology They were performed as a nomadic character, they did not forget the living style and difficulties in desert, and thus they were stronger, braver and rapacious Capability of the leader during the stage of establishment, in eyes of Ibn Khaldun, needed to balance the importance of religious and political propaganda too The second was the stage of development, in this stage the ruler would try to maximize the ruling power and its consolidation by enhancing the administrative methods, such as the elimination of his potential threats inside and outside the court.
On the other hands, the ruler might try his best to gain support from the officials and peasants, these might be achieved by nomination of some important positions in the court, or to introduce some favorable and friendly socio-economic policies, in order to perform a positive image in front of his subject—the citizen in his empire.
In other words, Ibn Khaldun thought that the rise or the fall of the dynasties depended on whether the rulers would like to share some powers with his subjects or not. Becoming a leader, the regime did not only represent to his family and tribal supporters, but also the religion, here he stood for the Islamic law.
Ibn Khaldun also suggested the potential occurrence of the traitors, whom might provide a bad advice to the ruler in order to gain political interest. Actually he implied the leaders during the second and third stage in his Cyclical Theory needed to pay attention on the regional administration as it implied more of population would be under the management of these leaders, once the leaders failed to it, the dynasty would face with the risk of collapse.
He added the length of the dynasty and the coverage of population existed positive proportional relation with the duration of the dynastic collapse The rulers were able to rule their countries with effective systems and the stable trustworthy between the rulers, tribes and the foreign countries, and the state was able to collect wealth from taxation, which could also be able to fulfill with the personal desire of the king or ruler, it was exactly the palace life, these king or ruler, might not have experience on the stage of establishment, and came to the throne from their father, grandfather or ancestors, then tried to maximize the personal desire on gaining wealth from his subject.
Increasing numbers of the infrastructure projects would be appeared in order to beautify the city, the wedding party by the rulers became more and more luxurious These kind of the ruler thought their subjects should have obligation to follow with his order, because the subject had enjoy some privileges from the previous ruler.
Additionally, some traitors might be appeared since the previous ruler, or appeared in this stage, the negative political and socio-economic consequence might be occurred in this stage and the subjects of this kingdom would start to decide whether they would like to overthrow this regime or not. Without an effective system on balancing the power of the ruler or the king, the state or civilization began to decline. In the forth stage, it could be regarded as a stage of decline, or degradation of the state or kingdom, even though it could be regarded as a stage of contentment and peacefulness Because the rulers were trying to maximize their desires by abnormal methods, the subjects, including the peasants, the slavery or the foreign tribes or countries, felt discontented with this regime.
The ruler had chance to declare the war on foreign tribes or countries in order to fulfill with his personal interest or desires. To the peasants, it could be regarded as tyranny, and they felt discontented with the ruler.
Generally speaking, the ruler was facing with internal uprising and foreign invasion, they might be incapable to solve the problem at that time. They only tried to imitate the ruling method from his predecessors in order to reduce the chance of making mistakes and to prolong their regime. Ibn Khaldun seems had basic understanding on the history of Spain, India and China while he took these examples to explain the disintegration of a dynasty The final stage, according to the Cyclical Theory suggested by Ibn Khaldun, could be regarded as the collapse of the regime.
The ruler lost support from the people and followers of his predecessors The final stage always characterized with social disorder may be by peasants or the victims under this regime , a lot of disloyal traitors, heavy taxation levied by the ruler in order to fulfill with endless luxurious life, unfair treatments and judicial cases, natural hazards such as famine or pestilences, and rebellions occurred at that time.
The rulers would spend more money on dealing with the rebels, rivals and seceders, his income would be lower, and then levied more tax from his subjects to solve his financial problems, he was losing his supporters at that time. But because he was living in backward period, and the abnormal desertification resulted by overdeveloped in North Africa, and his families died in Black Death while he was young, he linked the causation relation between the overpopulation and the pestilences, with reference to the similar cases in Cairo and Fez, he then concluded those hazards could become the source of the collapse of dynasty.
It is also noticed that Ibn Khaldun existed a little bit of democracy, as he thought that the people would have chance or the right to call for the rebellion or uprising if they thought that the king or ruler was incapable to rule the country, or perform immoral in daily life, or if the basic necessary could not be fulfilled in daily life. That could also explain why the instabilities among different sects and the nobles frequently occurred in early stage of Islam.
He also supposed the dynasty invaded by the foreign power or tribe, if these tribes were living in the desert, due to the cultural gap between them, the invading tribes would destroy the cities and towns, and a lot of cities and towns ruined and till to the collapse of dynasty.
Sometimes the dynasty would be divided into many separated regimes or kingdoms, like the latter stage of Abbasid dynasty.
Similar writing style could also been seen in another example, for instance, he used Bedouin people to explain his historical theory, but sometimes Bedouin people could be interchanged as another founder of the empire, he just to mention the importance of the political spirit in understanding the role of the rise of another dynasties or regimes.
To increase his persuasion, he also gave some historical examples, especially the usage of reliable and authenticated examples, including the account on Umayyad, Abbasid, Fatimid, this is a basic work of the historians while they were writing an essay. He claimed that the ruler in the earlier stage would balance more on the sword, because they were grown up under harsh desert environment, and the role of sword was to protect their families, life and the people.
It is noticed that the applicability of the Cyclical Theory in real world, would face with some challenge or limitations. It could be said that he was familiar with the Islamic history, but sometimes the reality could not be happened exactly as his description. We need to understand one important thing, the relation between his suggestion and his real experience during his lifetime.
Ibn Khaldun was born in Tunisia, tribal factor still dominated the society, and sometimes it could affect to the development of history. Marinid, Hafsid and Zayyanid established by the foundation of tribal factors in early stage, they were Berber people, nomadic lifestyle dominated in Berber people.
As mentioned before, Sahara Desert covered a large percentage of the land in North Africa, people would be hopeless if they missed the route inside Sahara Desert, it is exactly an endless desert with extreme hot and dry climate and people are always facing with permanent drought and potential famine.
Here we need to talk about the social structure of the people living in Sahara desert and Arabian desert before the coming of Islam, the people needed to live in extreme hot and dry desert climate, according to the research of palaeo-arthopoligists and palaeo-environmentalists, plenty of grasslands had been rooted on both Sahara Desert and Arabian Peninsula in pre-historic period, but the abnormal climatic change and the overdevelopment by the human activities directly resulted to the desertification, as we see from the satellite maps nowadays.
Endless desert covers on the Arabian Peninsula and North Africa, and people do not have much more choice on the selection of settlements, particularly with backward of technology in ancient time, people only chose to settle down in oasis, or along the coastal region, or luckily could find a river but sparsely distributed, i. So how did they adapt with the extreme climate in daily life? The answer is clear, they relied on the tribes, which is easy to be explained by the biological needs.
In 23 ancient time, people were inevitably to rely on their tribal settlements and tribal leader, in order to gain the protection and the equipment of daily life. Without the help of kinship and the tribal leader, they could not live solely under extreme climate, including the people in north Africa, the desertification were more serious than in Arabian Peninsula, according to the research done by scientists, the coverage area of Sahara Desert equal to the total area of America.
This can explain the reason of the importance of tribal life, they needed to gain a sense of security. Facing with the harsh living environment, they always spent time on the fulfillment of biological needs, such as food, water, safety, marriage and the funeral.
Sometimes they should struggle a better living life with other tribes, or combined the nomadic lifestyle with unwillingly farming activities, or even mobilized the tribal members to declare a war. To guarantee the future of tribe, they needed to have more birth of babies to increase the productivity of the tribal economic, and also the collective security.
Once they obtained a chance of golden age, they would be able to have higher birth rate in order to secure their desert life. This could explain why Ibn Khaldun always emphasized the tribal factor on discussing the rise and the fall of dynasty, and specified the causation between overpopulation, famine and the collapse of dynasty.
This was exactly his personal experience in North Africa, despite we are living in the 21st century, and some Africans are living in urban area, the tribal culture still deeply rooted on their daily life. In pre-Islamic period, North Africa, except ancient Egypt, always ruled by other stronger powers, Roman empire and the latter Byzantine empire were strong commanders regionally, and they left invaluable historical artifacts.
The experts tried hard on constructing the historical sources before the coming of Islam in both of North Africa, West Africa and East Africa, because it was too difficult to find out the sources, and as mentioned before, Africans could start a basic concept of history since 24 15th century, usually the historians narrated the African history shortly regarded to history before the coming of Islam, even the sources were fitful after the coming of Islam until to the arrival of European powers.
In western world, democracy is not only for the collective democracy, unlike Ibn Khaldun, the leaders responded not only to the collective demands, but also needed to guarantee every individual could enjoy the right of democracy.
In other words, the common people have the right and duty to the living place, but the king or leader also need to pay the compulsory duty while they enjoy some rights which are far more than the common people, nonetheless Ibn Khaldun had suggested the duty of leader in his book.
First, because his theory was exactly applicable in case of Dervish Movement in Somalia, they existed very similar characteristics. Meteorologically, it also suffered from the endless of desertification, resulted extreme hot and dry climate, except coastal region, thus the population densely distributed along the coastal region. According to the archaeologists and palaeo-environmentalists, a certain extent of farming activities had been existed before the desertification.
After the overdevelopment by human and the abnormal climatic change, western part of Somalia, near to the frontier of Ethiopia nowadays, directly caused to the appearance of desert and drought problem. They also needed to strive for a secured life under this variable climate and unknown challenge from the animals, and relied on their closest tribal members to gain a support for life and the protection of families. The earliest historical record about Somali history, perhaps was written by Periplus during Roman Empire, he emphasized the foreign contact with ancient Greek, Persia, Egypt and other small peripheral countries.
At least in 7th century, some Muslims resided in Somalia, the first tribe to accept Islam was Dir tribe42, who are residing around the boundary between Somalia and Djibouti until now. The coming of Islam altered the culture in Somalia, the Islamization finished around 11th to 13th century The elderly Ibn Khaldun was placed under arrest. He died on 17 March , one month after his sixth selection for the office of the Maliki qadi Judge. Al-Muqaddimah is a complete history of the world and inspects the rise and fall of empires.
The book touches on sociology, geography, history, and economics. Al- Muqaddimah Introduction ,   is considered the first book. Books Six and Seven give the history of the Berber peoples and the Maghreb. According to the Arab scholar Sati' al-Husri , the Muqaddimah may be read as a sociological work.
This social cohesion arises spontaneously in tribes and other small kinship groups; it can be intensified and enlarged by a religious ideology. Ibn Khaldun's analysis looks at how this cohesion carries groups to power but contains within itself the seeds — psychological, sociological, economic, political — of the group's downfall, to be replaced by a new group, dynasty or empire bound by a stronger or at least younger and more vigorous cohesion. Some of Ibn Khaldun's views, particularly those concerning the Zanj people of sub-Saharan Africa,  have been cited as a racist ,  though they were not uncommon for their time.
According to the scholar Abdelmajid Hannoum, Ibn Khaldun's description of the distinctions between Berbers and Arabs were misinterpreted by the translator William McGuckin de Slane , who wrongly inserted a "racial ideology that sets Arabs and Berbers apart and in opposition" into his translation of the Muqaddimah. This means that the next cohesive group that conquers the diminished civilization is, by comparison, a group of barbarians. Once the barbarians solidify their control over the conquered society, however, they become attracted to its more refined aspects, such as literacy and arts, and either assimilate into or appropriate such cultural practices.
Then, eventually, the former barbarians will be conquered by a new set of barbarians, who will repeat the process. One contemporary reader of Khaldun has read this as an early business cycle theory, though set in the historical circumstances of the mature Islamic empire.
He describes the economy as being composed of value-adding processes ; that is, labour and skill is added to techniques and crafts and the product is sold at a higher value[ dubious — discuss ]. He also made the distinction between "profit" and "sustenance", in modern political economy terms, surplus and that required for the reproduction of classes respectively. He also calls for the creation of a science to explain society and goes on to outline these ideas in his major work, the Muqaddimah.
Ibn Khaldun also outlines early theories of division of labor, taxes, scarcity, and economic growth. He emphasized that the weight and purity of these coins should be strictly followed: the weight of one dinar should be one mithqal the weight of 72 grains of barley , roughly 4. He further classified the non-religious sciences into intellectual sciences such as logic, arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, etc.
He also suggested that possibly more divisions will appear in the future with different societies. Nonetheless, he didn't think that laws were chosen by just one leader or a small group of individual but mostly by the majority of the individuals of a society. All societies must have a state governing them in order to establish a society. He attempted to standardize the history of societies by identifying ubiquitous phenomena present in all societies.
To him, civilization was a phenomena that will be present as long as humans exist. Shaykh Aalaama Salih bin Fawzan al Fawzan.
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To guarantee the prolong of their regimes, and the acceleration of the aggressive expansion policy, both the Hafsid and Marinid dynasties tried to search more talents from their countries and hoped to obtain wise suggestion from these scholars. Ahmadiyyah then separated into two branches, Salihiyyah was one of them, founded by Muhammad ibn Salih, a grand student of Ahmad Idris Al-Fasi.
Geography and cartography in medieval Islam. According to the scholar Abdelmajid Hannoum, Ibn Khaldun's description of the distinctions between Berbers and Arabs were misinterpreted by the translator William McGuckin de Slane , who wrongly inserted a "racial ideology that sets Arabs and Berbers apart and in opposition" into his translation of the Muqaddimah. How about in Islamic world? Logic is nothing more than a description of the act of thinking and in most cases follows it' .
If some foreign tribes or country wanted to invade, he should participate to the war in order to protect the subjects Nonetheless, he didn't think that laws were chosen by just one leader or a small group of individual but mostly by the majority of the individuals of a society.
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