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Manuel de Faria e Sousa, The Portugues Asia ( ), ; see also Fernanda Durão Ferreira, The Portuguese Origins of Robinson Crusoe (London: Minerva. PDF version of Robinson Crusoe by Daniel Defoe. Español Português When Robinson Crusoe is shipwrecked on a deserted island, he builds a house. Available in PDF, ePub and Kindle. When Robinson Crusoe is shipwrecked on a deserted island, he builds a house, grows crops, and saves the life of a.

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PDF | This paper examines the history and development of books From Odysseus to Robinson Crusoe: A Survey of Early Western Island Literature 'O motivo da ilha mítica na literatura medieval portuguesa,' Tese de. robinson crusoe chapter i - start in life i was born in the year , in the city of york, of a nokia portugues,non destructive testing proceedings of the fifth . Robinson yazik.info - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online.

Here is a recurrent illusion about the idea that the state, while promoting the collective interest, is the common good production pillar. Well, once capital is the process of money accumulation by extracting a surplus-value, the state takes its higher expression as an intrinsic relation with the capital logic. Once money is the universal equivalent, it is important that, for its circulation, a guarantee does exist, being an indispensable agent to promote such.

Without commodities' production and circulation there is no capital. Without such guarantee agent which shall consolidate the daily exchange process through the universal equivalent money , there is no capital.

Without a guarantor of such production and circulation - the state - there is no capitalism. The common good production through the public policies is linked to social rights in their context and we need a critical Marxist reading to understand such an issue.

Public Good; State; Marxism The limited common good production institutionalist view We've learned that the State is responsible for producing common good. This way, it also protects the community and always acts accordingly with public interest - which, in theory, would be convergent with all that make up those under its domain. In an institutionalist view, we were learnt that, like any institution, the State consists of the following elements: a set of people who, under a regency, are directed to a single end.

The common purpose is constantly highlighted to give everyone a sense of collective work to be done in the institutional perspective. The Catholic Church, for example, would be an institution. Catholics grant powers to the pope and other religious persons who are organized in a hierarchical way, and who are inducted from the task of carrying out the common purpose embodied in the consecration of dogmas of the faith they profess.

In this view, the State would be, for many, one of the most perfect examples of institution. The citizens deliver the pursuit of a common end, by means dictated by a legal way and consistent with the bourgeois democracy the completion of public good.

The collective good appears as an end to be achieved. It is not without reason that the Supreme Court decisions often accentuate the institutional character of state-owned shares of collective protection, as we can see, for example, with the demands involving social security.

This is a good example, since even with the loss of thousands, it allows for the modification of social security protection systems in pejus. The reason put on trial is always the same: that is, firstly the sacrifice of those "few" than that of all the others. In general, when we are not directly affected, we wholeheartedly agree with these premises - until one day we are and we will be affected by the solutions in favor of what is usually called collective interest.

Of course that on health's issue, we could also enjoy the same hypothesis. It is not unknown to anyone that we should, yes, in certain cases, have our individual interests sacrificed on behalf of the collective.

Nevertheless, the failure of the answers from the institutionalist theory is obvious. Some issues remain which put us in daily difficulties: do we really are in a position to say that the produced common end is effectively collective? Does the common end is actually being sought? With the current conditions observed, would it be possible to effectively identify and distinguish collective good? Is there really a way to identify those who claim to be promoters of a collective good?

In conclusion , we are confused.

What is the meaning of immanent critique In our view, the best way to address common good production draws from a Marxist reading. It deals with what we know as immanent critique. Which are, however, the elements for this type of critical analysis? It is therefore an analysis method levied on certain topic studied. Finally, a priori , if it is not possible to say exactly what are the results when performing such immanent critique, it is feasible to realize what is avoided with its use: a the methodological individualism - the individualized solution in understanding the facts put under observation, in particular in way of science realization.

This often appears in Marx, under the name "robinsonada" referring to the solitary Robinson Crusoe's island where he was lost, to the extent that the solutions would be conceived in view of isolated individuals, not in a collectively way ; b it avoids the utopian abstraction - that is, solutions that go back to an empty terminology and action, which, ultimately, nothing express and do not necessarily underlie the real. In fact, here, we start from the distinction between utopian socialists and scientific socialists to realize that the scientific elaboration of such immanent critique requires a historical-materialist dialectic construction from the surplus value theory, with which there will be no spaces for musing constituting idealizations.

Thus, for example, very opened determinations are avoided by solving everything from only terms like "capitalism is bad" and "socialism is good" - the requirements need to be more closed and based on historical facts and their dialectical constant.

These are some of the basic elements for immanent critique realization on how the common good production is understood in the current institutionalist logic.

The immanent critique to achieve common good from the role featured by the State in the capitalist mode of production As we highlighted from the beginning hereof, there is a recurring illusion around the idea that the State, while the collective interest promoter, is the common good production pillar. We will see that this is just a recurring and indispensable illusion to the consolidation of the bourgeois democracy. However, it is essential to think about a Marxist state theory for later than, understand the existing limits on such performance while supposed to be the most important common good producer.

However, as he had not made his mind, it is an indispensable task that has been consolidated by many Marxists. Within the limits of this work, we just give some contributions to the subject, without intending to, obviously, exhaust it. Our intention is to only suggest some State forms of analysis in the capitalist mode of production, for the purposes of understanding its role in the realization of what is meant by collective good. Rubens Enderle.

Para entender o capital. Moreover, as noted by Luiz Gonzaga Belluzzo: It is rarely mentioned that, as in the chapters which takes care of the simple circulation of commodities and money, Marx presents the modern state as an inseparable companion of general commoditization. In chapters on the genesis of money in its market formatting, Marx presents the State as guarantor of the currency and guarantor of producers' confidence in the result of their toil.

The liberal legal system - particularly the encodings of civil and commercial law - is designed to allow the seamless movement of goods and money and at the same time contain the individual pulses of wishing to scratch the illusions of equivalence and equality.

In essence, the monetary sovereignty rests in the legal architecture that supports free individuals in their capacity as commodities producers, only subject to the rules of contracts guaranteed by the State MARX, K. And, on the fiduciary currency and the State's role in the preservation of that trust, Belluzzo says in the same work: Ultimately, the reproduction of society based on private enrichment depends on the State's ability to maintain the integrity of social convention which serves as a standard to independent producers' acts.

The monetary order is inseparable from the State sovereignty, and its survival assumes that private owners abide by the currency with a necessary agreement for repetition of the process of circulation of goods, settlement of debts and evaluation of possessions p.

Now, as we shall see, with the money capital accumulation process through the extraction of a surplus value, the first time where the State emerges in the Marxian text is already to evidence its intrinsic relationship with the logic of capital.

Being the money the universal equivalent, it is important to have guarantees of its existence and its circulation, making itself an indispensable agent promoting them. Without production and movement of goods, there is no capital; without the guarantee that these will be consolidated on the daily exchange process, from the universal equivalent money , there is no capital. Without a guarantor agent of such production and circulation, the State, there is no capitalism.

However, to better understand the State and its intrinsic commitment to the capital process, it is essential to understand how, in the Marxist theory, the logic of that method of production materializes itself.

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It would be very simple to reduce the State to a reality that was only materialized because of the capitalist society advent. However, as the law, the State, although only materialized to its fullness within capitalism, has been woven with the very gradual transformation of relations of production and the full realization of this method of production.

Thus, for example, until reaching law in its current form, there are several proto-forms, which cannot be neglected for its understanding as a specific form of capitalism.

The same is true with the State - notwithstanding, its most immediate interpenetration with politics, the question is immensely complex. In like manner, let's observe, for example, the slow passage of craftsmanship which characterized feudalism, for the manufactured work and then to the work of the industrial era with the introduction of machinery Marx, MARX, K.

The transformation is slow and does not take place instantaneously. In the case of the State, that also occurs. Until the advent of capitalism, earlier forms to the State were important, as noted, even if indirectly, of chapter 24 from The Capital, which describes "The so-called primitive accumulation" p.

However, we do not disagree on the conclusion that, in its most evolved expression, the rule is a specific form of capitalism. Only this finding makes possible to understand the capture of common good production by the capital rationality. Or rather, in capitalism some kind of magic takes place where we see the State as the only way of expressing the collective interests satisfaction and more, one as the eternal expression of these interests.

To understand such proposition, it is necessary that we remember the processed change and the transformation on the mode of production to feature it as capitalist. Beginning with Marx himself, according to whom "[ This inference is important in that: capitalism's prosperity is presented i. However, behind this appearance, there is the essence: capitalism's prosperity does not express these lines but the work value.

However, it is important that people do not notice that the work is a value that makes up capitalism's prosperity. Even though, it is essential that they do not present themselves as an illusion appearance of such capital opulence, as it is attributable to the goods.

This illusory character is not perceived by the classical political economy, which, while departing from the value of work for constructing their theories albeit with a few key differences that we cannot identify in this work , even before Marx, they do not operate with such a category from the relationship between essence and appearance - and even more do not care about the commodity fetish character.

In addition, to the capital logic, it is important that the individual commodity presents its elemental form. However, capitalist society basic form is not composed of individual goods, but its consideration as a social phenomenon that has, in its collectivization or rather its dissemination , the most appropriate way to understand the phenomenon of capitalism. This game of essence and appearance hides the relationship between the use value and the exchange value of goods and will culminate at the end of Chapter I of The Capital, as Marx called the " the commodity fetishistic character.

For this reason, I consider the fetishism concept as being fundamental to both the political economy as to Marx's argument as a whole. The capital cannot be explained by the particular commodity, but the totality of goods. Not mainly as concrete work, but for its passage to the abstract work. All this will only be clear from the relationship established in duality between use value and exchange value. This duality that communicates itself with two windows.

Marx passes from one window to another and will establish the dialectical relationship, the perspective not of ideas, but in terms of social factors as essential for constructing his thought. Therefore, we must understand that: a the capital is a process in which the capitalist seeks accumulation of money in his power, and b it is essential to capture the surplus aiming to process such accumulation, the surplus realization.

It appears that The Capital book only seeks to explain how the capitalism can be proceeded, being a scientific finding of this text. Marx notes how the conception of use value and exchange value in the logic of capital goes, and the importance of money accumulation and the extraction of surplus value for the capitalist mode of production. He does not create the production relations and nor indicates the dynamics of such productive forces, as they are simply noted by Marx from the capital drive.

There is no way to be attributed to The Capital the ills of capitalism, that there are only dissected. It is also realized that in Book I, money and movement of goods are only ordered to indicate how the capital production process occurs.

The specific process of movement of goods, after explained how the capital is produced, is the subject of reflection of Book II from The Capital "The process of circulation of goods" in which Marx analyzes things like the cycles of this movement and their rotations, for example. Finally, in Book III, already knowing how to handle the formation of capital and how the movement of goods is, inside it, the author dedicated to comprehensively understand what was already explained in its genesis: the goods' production global process, discussing topics such as the way in which capitalist accumulation processes by the gain in the commercial or financial capital, for example, or the analysis of phenomena such as competition.

In a brief summary, Marx seeks to show in Book I hat, for that capitalist accumulation process, the simple circulation is not enough commodity-money-commodity - M- D- M , and the ideal environment for such concentration is the gateway to the complex movement, where money plays a fundamental role: where money -commodity- -money D- M- D flows to money - commodity- -money plus any value - D-M-D '.

Note that Marx is not specifically here taking care of the merchandise circulation process, which will be done in Book II of The Capital, but as such movement carries out the capital production. Therefore, circulation and production, in this compass, are two sides of the same coin, and one comes from the other and the other dependent on the former.

It is a Hegelian development which, to succeed, observing the Marx own method, must be analyzed in the material and historical process. Also in a brief summary, it would be not enough, in order to produce the capital that the goods were exchanged for money and then changed again for merchandise M-D-M.

This is a rudimentary exchange of goods, which would make that the equivalent logic was preserved and there is no typical capitalism accumulation. It is necessary to make that money up to universalize as a commodity, as a universal equivalent, and then someone seeks its accumulation with the appropriation of the surplus value. And this added value cannot be something contingent, but must qualify the capital. Otherwise, we would have an exchange of equivalents, no one would have advantages: "The equivalent, according to its determination, is only the identity of the value itself.

The surplus value as consequent can never sprout equivalent; therefore, can either originally spring from circulation; it must spring from the production process equity Marx, MARX, K. To give someone advantages to earn money, it is required to discover that merchandise is the former of all other values. Anyway, if equivalence is treated from the abstract labor necessary for designing goods, the only value able to generate value is the workforce.

Therefore only appropriating it someone can achieve D': The thing can also be expressed as follows: if the worker needs only half a day to live an entire day, then he needs only to work half a day to perpetuate his existence as a worker. The second half of the working day is forced labor, surplus labor.

Robinson Crusoe

What appears on the capital's point of view as a surplus value appears on the worker's point of view just as most work-up over his immediate need for conservation of his vitality. In this manner I used to look upon my Condition with the utmost Regret.

The Merchant in London vesting this Hundred Pounds in English Goods, such as the Captain had writ for, sent them directly to him at Lisbon, and he brought them all safe to me to the Brasils, among which, without my Direction for I was too young in my Business to think of them he had taken Care to have all Sorts of Tools, IronWork, and Utensils necessary for my Plantation, and which were of great Use to me.

When this Cargo arrived, I thought my Fortunes made, for I was surprised with the Joy of it; and my good Steward the Captain had laid out the Five Pounds which my Friend had sent him for a Present for himself, to download, and bring me over a Servant under Bond for six Years Service, and would not accept of any Consideration, except a little Tobacco, which I would have him accept, being of my own Produce.

I went on the next Year with great Success in my Plantation: As I had once done thus in my breaking away from my Parents, so I could not be content now, but I must go and leave the happy View I had of being a rich and thriving Man in my new Plantation, only to pursue a rash and immoderate Desire of rising faster than the Nature of the Thing admitted; and thus I cast my self down again into the deepest Gulph of human Misery that ever Man fell into, or perhaps could be consistent with Life and a State of Health in the World.

We had very good Weather, only excessive hot, all the way upon our own Coast, till we came the Height of Cape St. In a word, we sat looking upon one another, and expecting Death every Moment, and every Man acting accordingly, as preparing for another World, for there was little or nothing more for us to do in this; that which was our present Comfort, and all the Comfort we had, was, that contrary to our Expectation the Ship did not break yet, and that the Master said the Wind began to abate.

And now our Case was very dismal indeed; for we all saw plainly, that the Sea went so high, that the Boat could not live, and that we should be inevitably drowned. In a word, it took us with such a Fury, that it overset the Boat at once; and separating us as well from the Boat, as from one another, gave us not time hardly to say, O God!

I had so much Presence of Mind as well as Breath left, that seeing my self nearer the main Land than I expected, I got upon my Feet, and endeavoured to make on towards the Land as fast as I could, before another Wave should return, and take me up again. But I soon found it was impossible to avoid it; for I saw the Sea come after me as high as a great Hill, and as furious as an Enemy which I had no Means or Strength to contend with; my Business was to hold my Breath, and raise my self upon the Water, if I could; and so by swimming to preserve my Breathing, and Pilot my self towards the Shore, if possible; my greatest Concern now being, that the Sea, as it would carry me a great Way towards the Shore when it came on, might not carry me back again with it when it gave back towards the Sea.

I stood still a few Moments to recover Breath, and till the Water went from me, and then took to my Heels, and run with what Strength I had farther towards the Shore. I say, I do not wonder that they bring a Surgeon with it, to let him Blood that very Moment they tell him of it, that the Surprise may not drive the Animal Spirits from the Heart, and overwhelm him: In a Word, I had nothing about me but a Knife, a Tobaccopipe, and a little Tobacco in a Box, this was all my Provision, and this threw me into terrible Agonies of Mind, that for a while I run about like a Mad-man; Night coming upon me, I began with a heavy Heart to consider what would be my Lot if there were any ravenous Beasts in that Country, seeing at Night they always come abroad for their Prey.

Now I wanted nothing but a Boat to furnish my self with many things which I forsaw would be very necessary to me. My next Work was to view the Country, and seek a proper Place for my Habitation, and where to stow my Goods to secure them from whatever might happen; where I was I yet knew not, whether on the Continent or on an Island, whether inhabited or not inhabited, whether in Danger of wild Beasts or not: After this I went every Day on Board, and brought away what I could get.

But I was gotten home to my little Tent, where I lay with all my Wealth about me very secure. That I had lost no time, nor abated no Dilligence to get every thing out of her that could be useful to me, and that indeed there was little left in her that I was able to bring away if I had had more time. I now gave over any more Thoughts of the Ship, or of any thing out of her, except what might drive on Shore from her Wreck, as indeed divers Pieces of her afterwards did; but those things were of small use to me.

In search of a Place proper for this, I found a little Plain on the Side of a rising Hill; whose Front towards this little Plain, was steep as a House-side, so that nothing could come down upon me from the Top; on the Side of this Rock there was a hollow Place worn a little way in like the Entrance or Door of a Cave, but there was not really any Cave or Way into the Rock at all. This Plain was not above an Hundred Yards broad, and about twice as long, and lay like a Green before my Door, and at the End of it descended irregularly every Way down into the Low-grounds by the Sea-side.

It was on the N. Sun, or thereabouts, which in those Countries is near the Setting. The two Rows did not stand above Six Inches from one another. This cost me a great deal of Time and Labour, especially to cut the Piles in the Woods, bring them to the Place, and drive them into the Earth. It cost me much Labour, and many Days, before all these Things were brought to Perfection, and therefore I must go back to some other Things which took up some of my Thoughts.

O my Powder! I had a dismal Prospect of my Condition, for as I was not cast away upon that Island without being driven, as is said, by a violent Storm quite out of the Course of our intended Voyage, and a great Way, viz. Did not you come Eleven of you into the Boat, where are the Ten?

Why were you singled out? Is it better to be here or there? And now being to enter into a melancholy Relation of a Scene of silent Life, such perhaps as was never heard of in the World before, I shall take it from its Beginning, and continue it in its Order. I am cast upon a horrible desolate Island, void of all hope of Recovery.

I have not Clothes to cover me. I have no Soul to speak to, or relieve me. But God wonderfully sent the Ship in near enough to the Shore, that I have gotten out so many necessary things as will either supply my Wants, or enable me to supply my self even as long as I live. Having now brought my Mind a little to relish my Condition, and given over looking out to Sea to see if I could spy a Ship, I say, giving over these things, I began to apply my self to accommodate my way of Living, and to make things as easy to me as I could.

This gave me not only Egress and Regress, as it were a back Way to my Tent and to my Storehouse, but gave me room to stow my Goods. And now I began to apply my self to make such necessary things as I found I most wanted, as particularly a Chair and a Table, for without these I was not able to enjoy the few Comforts I had in the World, I could not write, or eat, or do several things with so much Pleasure without a Table.

So I went to work; and here I must needs observe, that as Reason is the Substance and Original of the Mathematicks, so by stating and squaring every thing by Reason, and by making the most rational Judgment of things, every Man may be in time Master of every mechanick Art. It is true, by this Method I could make but one Board out of a whole Tree, but this I had no Remedy for but Patience, any more than I had for the prodigious deal of Time and Labour which it took me up to make a Plank or Board: For Example, I must have said thus.

But, it seems, this was the rainy Season. In the Afternoon went to work to make me a Table. Now it began to be settled fair Weather. Note, I soon neglected my keeping Sundays, for omitting my Mark for them on my Post, I forgot which was which. Note, Two Things I wanted exceedingly for this Work, viz. Upon this Disaster I had a great deal of Work to do over again; for I had the loose Earth to carry out; and which was of more Importance, I had the Seiling to prop up, so that I might be sure no more would come down.

Much Rain all Night and all Day, no stirring out. Rain all Day. No Rain, and the Earth much cooler than before, and pleasanter. Of which in its Place.

While I sat thus, I found the Air over-cast, and grow cloudy, as if it would Rain; soon after that the Wind rose by little and little, so that, in less than half an Hour, it blew a most dreadful Hurricane: These two whole Days I took up in grinding my Tools, my Machine for turning my Grindstone performing very well.

I left the Iron Crow in the Wreck for next Day. I spent in cooking the Turtle; I found in her threescore Eggs; and her Flesh was to me at that Time the most savoury and pleasant that ever I tasted in my Life, having had no Flesh, but of Goats and Fowls, since I landed in this horrid Place. Very ill, and shivering, as if the Weather had been cold.

No Rest all Night, violent Pains in my Head, and feaverish. Very ill, frighted almost to Death with the Apprehensions of my sad Condition, to be sick, and no Help: A little better, but under dreadful Apprehensions of Sickness. Very bad again, cold and shivering, and then a violent Head-ach. Much better. The Ague again so violent, that I lay a-Bed all Day, and neither eat or drank. I was ready to perish for Thirst, but so weak, I had not Strength to stand up, or to get my self any Water to drink: In this second Sleep, I had this terrible Dream.

He was no sooner landed upon the Earth, but he moved forward towards me, with a long Spear or Weapon in his Hand, to kill me; and when he came to a rising Ground, at some Distance, he spoke to me, or I heard a Voice so terrible, that it is impossible to express the Terror of it; all that I can say, I understood, was this, Seeing all these Things have not brought thee to Repentance, now thou shalt die: At which Words, I thought he lifted up the Spear that was in his Hand, to kill me. I had alas!

When I was on the desperate Expedition on the desart Shores of Africa, I never had so much as one Thought of what would become of me; or one Wish to God to direct me whether I should go, or to keep me from the Danger which apparently surrounded me, as well from voracious Creatures as cruel Savages: If I should be sick, I shall certainly die for Want of Help, and what will become of me!

Then the Tears burst out of my Eyes, and I could say no more for a good while. I rejected the Voice of Providence, which had mercifully put me in a Posture or Station of Life, wherein I might have been happy and easy; but I would neither see it my self, or learn to know the Blessing of it from my Parents; I left them to mourn over my Folly, and now I am left to mourn under the Consequences of it: But I return to my Journal.

As I sat here, some such Thoughts as these occurred to me. Well, but then it came on strangely, if God has made all these Things, He guides and governs them all, and all Things that concern them; for the Power that could make all Things, must certainly have Power to guide and direct them.

If so, nothing can happen in the great Circuit of his Works, either without his Knowledge or Appointment. And if nothing happens without his Knowledge, he knows that I am here, and am in this dreadful Condition; and if nothing happens without his Appointment, he has appointed all this to befal me. Dost thou ask, What have I done? But however, the Words made a great Impression upon me, and I mused upon them very often. But certainly I lost a Day in my Accompt, and never knew which Way.

Had I done my Part? But leaving this Part, I return to my Journal. I saw several Sugar Canes, but wild, and for want of Cultivation, imperfect. By this I concluded, there were some wild Creatures thereabouts, which had done this; but what they were, I knew not.

And this Work took me up to the Beginning of August. From the fourteenth of August to the twenty sixth, incessant Rain, so that I could not stir, and was now very careful not to be much wet.

Robinson Crusoe

September the thirtieth, I was now come to the unhappy Anniversary of my Landing. A little after this my Ink began to fail me, and so I contented my self to use it more sparingly, and to write down only the most remarkable Events of my Life, without continuing a daily Memorandum of other Things. But I bought all my Experience before I had it; and this I am going to relate, was one of the most discouraging Experiments that I made at all: While this Corn was growing, I made a little Discovery which was of use to me afterwards: I could not tell what Tree to call it, that these Stakes were cut from.

Dry, the Sun being then to the North of the Line. Rainy, the Sun being then come back. Dry, the Sun being then to the South of the Line.

After I had found by Experience, the ill Consequence of being abroad in the Rain. To make Broth, and stew a Bit of Meat by it self.

The Second Thing I would fain have had, was a Tobacco-Pipe; but it was impossible to me to make one, however, I found a Contrivance for that too at last. I saw Abundance of Parrots, and fain I would have caught one, if possible to have kept it to be tame, and taught it to speak to me. However, at last I taught him to call me by my Name very familiarly: I was exceedingly diverted with this Journey: But I had no Need to be ventrous; for I had no Want of Food, and of that which was very good too; especially these three Sorts, viz.

I had a great Mind to bring it Home if I could; for I had often been musing, Whether it might not be possible to get a Kid or two, and so raise a Breed of tame Goats, which might supply me when my Powder and Shot should be all spent. I cannot express what a Satisfaction it was to me, to come into my old Hutch, and lye down in my Hamock-Bed: In the midst of the greatest Composures of my Mind, this would break out upon me like a Storm, and make me wring my Hands, and weep like a Child: From this Moment I began to conclude in my Mind, That it was possible for me to be more happy in this forsaken Solitary Condition, than it was probable I should ever have been in any other Particular State in the World; and with this Thought I was going to give Thanks to God for bringing me to this Place.

Thus, and in this Disposition of Mind, I began my third Year: My Case was this, It was to be a large Tree, which was to be cut down, because my Board was to be a broad one. I only observe this in Particular, to shew, The Reason why so much of my Time went away with so little Work, viz.

But notwithstanding this, with Patience and Labour I went through many Things; and indeed every Thing that my Circumstances made necessary to me to do, as will appear by what follows. But as the Beasts ruined me before, while my Corn was in the Blade; so the Birds were as likely to ruin me now, when it was in the Ear; for going along by the Place to see how it throve, I saw my little Crop surrounded with Fowls of I know not how many sorts, who stood as it were watching till I should be gone: However this I bore with, and was content to work it out with Patience, and bear with the badness of the Performance.

This therefore was not my Work, but an assistant to my Work, for now, as I said, I had a great Employment upon my Hands, as follows, viz. But all this would not answer my End, which was to get an earthen Pot to hold what was Liquid, and bear the Fire, which none of these could do. This set me to studying how to order my Fire, so as to make it burn me some Pots.

No Joy at a Thing of so mean a Nature was ever equal to mine, when I found I had made an Earthen Pot that would bear the Fire; and I had hardly Patience to stay till they were cold, before I set one upon the Fire again, with some Water in it, to boil me some Meat, which it did admirably well; and with a Piece of a Kid, I made some very good Broth, though I wanted Oatmeal, and several other Ingredients, requisite to make it so good as I would have had it been.

And now indeed my Stock of Corn increasing, I really wanted to build my Barns bigger. But all this while I made no Allowance for the Dangers of such a Condition, and how I might fall into the Hands of Savages, and perhaps such as I might have Reason to think far worse than the Lions and Tigers of Africa.

This at length put me upon thinking, Whether it was not possible to make my self a Canoe, or Periagua, such as the Natives of those Climates make, even without Tools, or, as I might say, without Hands, viz. If after all this, I must leave it just there where I found it, and was not able to launch it into the Water.

I went to work upon this Boat, the most like a Fool, that ever Man did, who had any of his Senses awake. I was twenty Days hacking and hewing at it at the Bottom. After this, it cost me a Month to shape it, and dub it to a Proportion, and to something like the Bottom of a Boat, that it might swim upright as it ought to do.

It cost me near three Months more to clear the In-side, and work it out so, as to make an exact Boat of it: When I had gone through this Work, I was extremely delighted with it.

It lay about one hundred Yards from the Water, and not more: This I begun, and it cost me a prodigious deal of Pains; but who grutches Pains, that have their Deliverance in View: There were no Rivals. I had no Competitor, none to dispute Sovereignty or Command with me. I had Tortoise or Turtles enough; but now and then one, was as much as I could put to any use. I had Timber enough to have built a Fleet of Ships.


But all I could make use of, was, All that was valuable. I had enough to eat, and to supply my Wants, and, what was all the rest to me? The Trees that I cut down, were lying to rot on the Ground.

I could make no more use of them than for Fewel; and that I had no Occasion for, but to dress my Food. I spent whole Hours, I may say whole Days, in representing to my self in the most lively Colours, how I must have acted, if I had got nothing out of the Ship. I had now been here so long, that many Things which I brought on Shore for my Help, were either quite gone, or very much wasted and near spent. The same Day of the Year I was born on viz. The Reason why I could not go quite naked, was, I could not bear the heat of the Sun so well when quite naked, as with some Cloaths on; nay, the very Heat frequently blistered my Skin; whereas with a Shirt on, the Air itself made some Motion, and whistling under that Shirt was twofold cooler than without it; no more could I ever bring my self to go out in the heat of Sun, without a Cap or a Hat; the heat of the Sun beating with such Violence as it does in that Place, would give me the Head-ach presently, by darting so directly on my Head, without a Cap or Hat on, so that I could not bear it, whereas, if I put on my Hat, it would presently go away.

I must not omit to acknowledge that they were wretchedly made; for if I was a bad Carpenter, I was a worse Tayler.

After this I spent a great deal of Time and Pains to make me an Umbrella; I was indeed in great want of one, and had a great Mind to make one; I had seen them made in the Brasils, where they are very useful in the great Heats which are there. This made my Life better than sociable, for when I began to regret the want of Conversation, I would ask my self whether thus conversing mutually with my own Thoughts, and, as I hope I may say, with even God himself by Ejaculations, was not better than the utmost Enjoyment of humane Society in the World.

So that by digging a Canal to it of six Foot wide, and four Foot deep, I brought it into the Creek, almost half a Mile. I lay here, however, two Days; because the Wind blowing pretty fresh at E. And now I saw how easy it was for the Providence of God to make the most miserable Condition Mankind could be in worse.

O happy Desart, said I, I shall never see thee more. O miserable Creature, said I, whether am I going: Thus we never see the true State of our Condition, till it is illustrated to us by its Contraries; nor know how to value what we enjoy, but by the want of it.

They who know what it is to have a Reprieve brought to them upon the Ladder, or to be rescued from Thieves just a going to murther them, or, who have been in such like Extremities, may guess what my present Surprise of Joy was, and how gladly I put my Boat into the Stream of this Eddy, and the Wind also freshning, how gladly I spread my Sail to it, running chearfully before the Wind, and with a strong Tide or Eddy under Foot.

However, I found that being between the two great Currents, viz. I was now at a great Loss which Way to get Home with my Boat, I had run so much Hazard, and knew too much the Case to think of attempting it by the Way I went out, and what might be at the other Side I mean the West Side I knew not, nor had I any Mind to run any more Ventures; so I only resolved in the Morning to make my Way Westward along the Shore and to see if there was no Creek where I might lay up my Frigate in Safety, so as to have her again if I wanted her; in about three Mile or thereabout coasting the Shore, I came to a very good Inlet or Bay about a Mile over, which narrowed till it came to a very little Rivulet or Brook, where I found a very convenient Harbour for my Boat and where she lay as if she had been in a little Dock made on Purpose for her.

Where are you? And such things as I had taught him. However, even though I knew it was the Parrot, and that indeed it could be no Body else, it was a good while before I could compose my self: First, I was amazed how the Creature got thither, and then, how he should just keep about the Place, and no where else: I would have been very glad to have had my Boat again on my Side of the Island; but I knew not how it was practicable to get it about as to the East Side of the Island, which I had gone round; I knew well enough there was no venturing that Way; my very heart would shrink, and my very Blood run chill but to think of it: But I think I was never more vain of my own Performance, or more joyful for any thing I found out, than for my being able to make a TobaccoPipe.

But being now in the eleventh Year of my Residence, and, as I have said, my Ammunition growing low, I set my self to study some Art to trap and snare the Goats, to see whether I could not catch some of them alive, and particularly I wanted a She-Goat great with young. To this Purpose I made Snares to hamper them, and I do believe they were more than once taken in them, but my Tackle was not good, for I had no Wire, and I always found them broken, and my Bait devoured.

At length I set three Traps in one Night, and going the next Morning I found them all standing, and yet the Bait eaten and gone: This was very discouraging.

I say they will smile at my Forecast, when I shall tell them I began my enclosing of this Piece of Ground in such a manner, that my Hedge or Pale must have been at least two Mile about. Nor was the Madness of it so great as to the Compass, for if it was ten Mile about I was like to have time enough to do it in.

But I did not consider that my Goats would be as wild in so much Compass as if they had had the whole Island, and I should have so much Room to chace them in, that I should never catch them. This was acting with some Prudence, and I went to work with Courage.

How can he sweeten the bitterest Providences, and give us Cause to praise him for Dungeons and Prisons. I could hang, draw, give Liberty, and take it away, and no Rebels among all my Subjects. My Dog who was now grown very old and crazy, and had found no Species to multiply his Kind upon, sat always at my Right Hand, and two Cats, one on one Side the Table, and one on the other, expecting now and then a Bit from my Hand, as a Mark of special Favour.

I did so: As for my Face, the Colour of it was really not so Moletta-like as one might expect from a Man not at all careful of it, and living within nine or ten Degrees of the Equinox. But all this is by the by; for as to my Figure, I had so few to observe me, that it was of no manner of Consequence; so I say no more to that Part.

But when I began to think of putting it in Practice, I had such a Terror upon my Spirits at the Remembrance of the Danger I had been in, that I could not think of it again with any Patience; but on the contrary, I took up another Resolution which was more safe, though more laborious; and this was, That I would build, or rather make me another Periagua or Canoe; and so have one for one Side of the Island, and one for the other.

Adjoyning to this I had my Enclosures for my Cattle, that is to say, my Goats: But now I come to a new Scene of my Life.

I slept none that Night; the farther I was from the Occasion of my Fright, the greater my Apprehensions were, which is something contrary to the Nature of such Things, and especially to the usual Practice of all Creatures in Fear: For how should any other Thing in human Shape come into the Place? Where was the Vessel that brought them?

What Marks was there of any other Footsteps? And how was it possible a Man should come there? Abundance of such Things as these assisted to argue me out of all Apprehensions of its being the Devil: And I presently concluded then, that it must be some more dangerous Creature, viz.

Such is the uneven State of human Life: In Answer, I thankfully laid down the Book, and was no more sad, at least, not on that Occasion.

However, as I went down thus two or three Days, and having seen nothing, I began to be a little bolder; and to think there was really nothing in it, but my own Imagination: So that I had now a double Wall, and my outer Wall was thickned with Pieces of Timber, old Cables, and every Thing I could think of, to make it strong; having in it seven little Holes, about as big as I might put my Arm out at: Thus I took all the Measures humane Prudence could suggest for my own Preservation; and it will be seen at length, that they were not altogether without just Reason; though I foresaw nothing at that Time, more than my meer Fear suggested to me.

So, without any farther Delay, I removed ten young She-Goats and two He-Goats to this Piece; and when they were there, I continued to perfect the Fence till I had made it as secure as the other, which, however, I did at more Leisure, and it took me up more Time by a great deal. When I say my own Circle, I mean by it, my three Plantations, viz. But my Invention now run quite another Way; for Night and Day, I could think of nothing but how I might destroy some of these Monsters in their cruel bloody Entertainment, and if possible, save the Victim they should bring hither to destroy.

But now, when as I have said, I began to be weary of the fruitless Excursion, which I had made so long, and so far, every Morning in vain, so my Opinion of the Action it self began to alter, and I began with cooler and calmer Thoughts to consider what it was I was going to engage in. I debated this very often with my self thus; How do I know what God himself judges in this particular Case? They think it no more a Crime to kill a Captive taken in War, than we do to kill an Ox; nor to eat humane Flesh, than we do to eat Mutton.

These People had done me no Injury. That my Business was by all possible Means to conceal my self from them, and not to leave the least Signal to them to guess by, that there were any living Creatures upon the Island; I mean of humane Shape.

I could give many Examples of the Success of this Conduct in the Course of my Life; but more especially in the latter Part of my inhabiting this unhappy Island; besides many Occasions which it is very likely I might have taken Notice of, if I had seen with the same Eyes then, that I saw with now: Of which I shall have Occasion to give some very remarkable Instances, in the Remainder of my solitary Residence in this dismal Place.

I had the Care of my Safety more now upon my Hands, than that of my Food. The Mouth of this Hollow, was at the Bottom of a great Rock, where by meer accident, I would say, if I did not see abundant Reason to ascribe all such Things now to Providence I was cutting down some thick Branches of Trees, to make Charcoal; and before I go on, I must observe the Reason of my making this Charcoal; which was thus: But this is by the by: The Place I was in, was a most delightful Cavity, or Grotto, of its kind, as could be expected, though perfectly dark; the Floor was dry and level, and had a sort of small lose Gravel upon it, so that there was no nauseous or venemous Creature to be seen, neither was there any damp, or wet, on the Sides or Roof: I wish no English Man the ill Luck to come there and hear him; but if he did, he would certainly believe it was the Devil.

But it was otherwise directed; and it may not be amiss for all People who shall meet with my Story, to make this just Observation from it, viz. I could not perceive by my nicest Observation, but that they were stark naked, and had not the least covering upon them; but whether they were Men or Women, that I could not distinguish.

This was a dreadful Sight to me, especially when going down to the Shore, I could see the Marks of Horror, which the dismal Work they had been about had left behind it, viz. However, I wore out a Year and three Months more, before I ever saw any more of the Savages, and then I found them again, as I shall soon observe. It is true, they might have been there once, or twice; but either they made no stay, or at least I did not hear them; but in the Month of May, as near as I could calculate, and in my four and twentieth Year, I had a very strange Encounter with them, of which in its Place.

In all the Time of my solitary Life, I never felt so earnest, so strong a Desire after the Society of my Fellow-Creatures, or so deep a Regret at the want of it.

O that it had been but One! I believe I repeated the Words, O that it had been but One! And now I was to launch out into the Ocean, and either to venture, or not to venture. It was a dismal Sight to look at: I gave him a Cake of my Bread, and he eat it like a ravenous Wolf, that had been starving a Fortnight in the Snow: I then gave the poor Creature some fresh Water, with which, if I would have let him, he would have burst himself.

I concluded, as is indeed probable, that when the Ship struck, it being in a Storm, the Sea broke so high, and so continually over her, that the Men were not able to bear it, and were strangled with the constant rushing in of the Water, as much as if they had been under Water. After refreshing my self, I got all my Cargo on Shore, and began to examine the Particulars: The Cask of Liquor I found to be a kind of Rum, but not such as we had at the Brasils; and in a Word, not at all good; but when I came to open the Chests, I found several Things, of great use to me: Upon the whole, I got very little by this Voyage, that was of any use to me; for as to the Money, I had no manner of occasion for it: I had more Wealth indeed than I had before, but was not at all the richer; for I had no more use for it, than the Indians of Peru had, before the Spaniards came there.

Some-body to speak to, and to learn some Knowledge from of the Place where I was, and of the probable Means of my Deliverance; I say, I was agitated wholly by these Thoughts: Besides, I fancied my self able to manage One, nay, Two or Three Savages, if I had them so as to make them entirely Slaves to me, to do whatever I should direct them, and to prevent their being able at any time to do me any Hurt.

I was dreadfully frighted, that I must acknowledge when I perceived him to run my Way; and especially, when as I thought I saw him pursued by the whole Body, and now I expected that part of my Dream was coming to pass, and that he would certainly take shelter in my Grove; but I could not depend by any means upon my Dream for the rest of it, viz.

That he came into my Grove for shelter. From hence, I sometimes was led too far to invade the Soveraignty of Providence, and as it were arraign the Justice of so arbitrary a Disposition of Things, that should hide that Light from some, and reveal it to others, and yet expect a like Duty from both: I went indeed intending to kill a Kid out of my own Flock, and bring him home and dress it.

Friday, My Nation beat much, for all that. Master, How beat; if your Nation beat them, how come you to be taken? Friday, They more many than my Nation in the Place where me was; they take one, two, three, and me; my Nation over beat them in the yonder Place, where me no was; there my Nation take one, two, great Thousand.

Master, But why did not your Side recover you from the Hands of your Enemies then? Friday, They run one, two, three, and me, and make go in the Canoe; my Nation have no Canoe that time.

Master, Well, Friday, and What does your Nation do with the Men they take, do they carry them away, and eat them, as these did? Master, Where do they carry them? Friday, Go to other Place where they think. Master, Do they come hither? Friday, Yes, yes, they come hither; come other else Place.

Master, Have you been here with them? Friday, Yes, I been here; [points to the N. Side of the Island, which it seems was their Side. He could describe nothing of this great Person, but that he was very old; much older he said than the Sea, or the Land; than the Moon, or the Stars: From these Things, I began to instruct him in the Knowledge of the true God: That he governs the World by the same Power and Providence by which he had made it: I found it was not so easie to imprint right Notions in his Mind about the Devil, as it was about the Being of a God.

Well, says Friday, but you say, God is so strong, so great, is he not much strong, much might as the Devil? But he was too earnest for an Answer to forget his Question; so that he repeated it in the very same broken Words, as above. We had the sure Guide to Heaven, viz.

I let him into the Mystery, for such it was to him, of Gunpowder, and Bullet, and taught him how to shoot: I gave him a Knife, which he was wonderfully delighted with, and I made him a Belt, with a Frog hanging to it, such as in England we wear Hangers in; and in the Frog, instead of a Hanger, I gave him a Hatchet, which was not only as good a Weapon in some Cases, but much more useful upon other Occasions.

He said, No, they make Brother with them; that is, as I understood him, a Truce: O joy! Says he, O glad! There see my Country, there my Nation! However as my Jealousy encreased, and held me some Weeks, I was a little more circumspect, and not so familiar and kind to him as before; in which I was certainly in the Wrong too, the honest grateful Creature having no thought about it, but what consisted with the best Principles, both as a religious Christian, and as a grateful Friend, as appeared afterwards to my full Satisfaction.

Yes, he said, he be much O glad to be at his own Nation. What would you do there said I, would you turn Wild again, eat Mens Flesh again, and be a Savage as you were before? Why then said I to him, They will kill you. He meant by this, they would be willing to learn. I told him I would make a Canoe for him.

He told me, he would go, if I would go with him. No, no, says he, me make they no Eat you; me make they much Love you: I found he was a most dextrous Fellow at managing it, would make it go almost as swift and fast again as I could; so when he was in, I said to him, Well now, Friday, shall we go to your Nation?

Friday told me such a Boat would do very well, and would carry much enough Vittle, Drink, Bread, that was his Way of Talking. No angry! Yes, yes, says he, wish be both there, no wish Friday there, no Master there.

In a Word, he would not think of going there without me; I go there! Friday, says I what shall I do there? You do great deal much good, says he, you teach wild Mans be good sober tame Mans; you tell them know God, pray God, and live new Life. Yes, yes, says he, you teachee me Good, you teachee them Good.

No, no, Friday, says I you shall go without me, leave me here to live by my self as I did before. You take, kill Friday; says he. What must I kill you for? He returns very quick, What you send Friday away for? This he spoke so earnestly, that I saw Tears stand in his Eyes: Friday was for burning the Hollow or Cavity of this Tree out to make it for a Boat.

I was near two Months performing this last Work, viz. However, with a little Use, I made all these Things familiar to him; and he became an expert Sailor, except that as to the Compass, I could make him understand very little of that.

I was now entred on the seven and twentieth Year of my Captivity in this Place; though the three last Years that I had this Creature with me, ought rather to be left out of the Account, my Habitation being quite of another kind than in all the rest of the Time. O Master! O Sorrow! O bad! By his way of speaking, I concluded there were six; but on enquiry, I found it was but three: Well, Friday, says I, do not be frighted; so I heartned him up as well as I could: Me shoot, says he, but there come many great Number.

What Occasion? It was a good while before I could make him speak to me, or tell me what was the Matter; but when he came a little to himself, he told me, that it was his Father.

He shook his Head, and said, None: However, as I was very thirsty too, I took a little Sup of it.

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But when he came, he only found he had laid himself down to ease his Limbs; so Friday came back to me presently, and I then spoke to the Spaniard to let Friday help him up if he could, and lead him to the Boat, and then he should carry him to our Dwelling, where I would take Care of him: And here we made them two Beds of such things as I had viz. I was absolute Lord and Law-giver; they all owed their Lives to me, and were ready to lay down their Lives, if there had been Occasion of it, for me.

All which he punctually performed, and defaced the very Appearance of the Savages being there; so that when I went again, I could scarce know where it was, otherwise than by the Corner of the Wood pointing to the Place. Friday and me, were two Heavenly Spirits or Furies, come down to destroy them, and not Men with Weapons: This he said he knew, because he heard them all cry out so in their Language to one another, for it was impossible to them to conceive that a Man could dart Fire, and speak Thunder, and kill at a Distance without lifting up the Hand, as was done now: He said, They had many Consultations about it, but that having neither Vessel, or Tools to build one, or Provisions of any kind, their Councils always ended in Tears and Despair.

And whether, if they were all here, it might not be done? But that if in Requital they should, when I had put Weapons into their Hands, carry me by Force among their own People, I might be ill used for my Kindness to them, and make my Case worse than it was before. He told me, they were all of them very civil honest Men, and they were under the greatest Distress imaginable, having neither Weapons or Cloaths, nor any Food, but at the Mercy and Discretion of the Savages; out of all Hopes of ever returning to their own Country; and that he was sure, if I would undertake their Relief, they would live and die by me.

The Case was thus: What prodigious Labour it took up, any one may imagine. How we were to have this done, when I knew they had neither Pen or Ink; that indeed was a question which we never asked.

I gave each of them a Musket with a Firelock on it, and about eight Charges of Powder and Ball, charging them to be very good Husbands of both, and not to use either of them but upon urgent Occasion. Let no Man despise the secret Hints and Notices of Danger, which sometimes are given him, when he may think there is no Possibility of its being real. I was perfectly confounded at the Sight, and knew not what the Meaning of it should be.

Why, says I, Friday, Do you think they are a going to eat them then? Yes, says Friday, They will eat them: No, no, says I, Friday, I am afraid they will murther them indeed, but you may be sure they will not eat them. What dreadful Apprehensions I had: So little do we see before us in the World, and so much reason have we to depend chearfully upon the great Maker of the World, that he does not leave his Creatures so absolutely destitute, but that in the worst Circumstances they have always something to be thankful for, and sometimes are nearer their Deliverance than they imagine; nay, are even brought to their Deliverance by the Means by which they seem to be brought to their Destruction.

It was my Design, as I said above, not to have made any Attempt till it was Dark: But about Two a Clock, being the Heat of the Day, I found that in short they were all gone straggling into the Woods, and as I thought were laid down to Sleep.

The three poor distressed Men, too Anxious for their Condition to get any Sleep, were however set down under the Shelter of a great Tree, at about a quarter of a Mile from me, and as I thought out of sight of any of the rest. They started up at the Noise, but were ten times more confounded when they saw me, and the uncouth Figure that I made. All Help is from Heaven, Sir, said I. But can you put a Stranger in the way how to help you, for you seem to me to be in some great Distress?

Is it a real Man, or an Angel!

Where are those Brutes, your Enemies, said I, do you know where they are gone? There they lye, Sir, said he, pointing to a Thicket of Trees; my Heart trembles, for fear they have seen us, and heard you speak, if they have, they will certainly Murther us all.

He told me he could not at that distance describe them; but he would obey my Orders in any thing I would direct. Look you, Sir, said I, if I venture upon your Deliverance, are you willing to make two Conditions with me? Well, says I, my Conditions are but two. Well then, said I, here are three Muskets for you, with Powder and Ball; tell me next what you think is proper to be done.

However, seeing him still cautious of shedding Blood, I told him they should go themselves, and manage as they found convenient. He said, No: Well then, said I, you may let them escape, and Providence seems to have wakned them on Purpose to save themselves. Now, says I, if the rest escape you, it is your Fault. There were three more in the Company, and one of them was also slightly wounded: The Captain told them, he would spare their Lives, if they would give him any Assurance of their Abhorrence of the Treachery they had been guilty of, and would swear to be faithful to him in recovering the Ship, and afterwards in carrying her back to Jamaica, from whence they came: I told him, this was my Castle, and my Residence; but that I had a Seat in the Country, as most Princes have, whither I could retreat upon Occasion, and I would shew him that too another Time; but at present, our Business was to consider how to recover the Ship: And, Whether a Deliverance were not worth venturing for?

As soon as they got to the Place where their other Boat lay, they run their Boat in to the Beach, and came all on Shore, haling the Boat up after them, which I was glad to see; for I was afraid they would rather have left the Boat at an Anchor, some Distance from the Shore, with some Hands in her, to guard her; and so we should not be able to seize the Boat. To leave three Men in the Boat, and the rest to go on Shore, and go up into the Country to look for their Fellows.

This was a great Disappointment to us; for now we were at a Loss what to do; for our seizing those seven Men on Shore would be no Advantage to us, if we let the Boat escape; because they would then row away to the Ship, and then the rest of them would be sure to weigh and set Sail, and so our recovering the Ship would be lost.

Those that came on Shore, kept close together, marching towards the Top of the little Hill, under which my Habitation lay; and we could see them plainly, though they could not perceive us: We waited a great while, though very impatient for their removing; and were very uneasy, when after long Consultations, we saw them start all up, and march down toward the Sea: We had nothing now to do, but to watch for them, in the Dark, and to fall upon them, so as to make sure work with them.

After some time, we could see them, by the little Light there was, run about wringing their Hands like Men in Despair; and that sometimes they would go and sit down in the Boat to rest themselves, then come ashore again, and walk about again, and so over the same thing again. My Men would fain have me given them Leave to fall upon them at once in the Dark; but I was willing to take them at some Advantage, so to spare them, and kill as few of them as I could; and especially I was unwilling to hazard the killing any of our own Men, knowing the other were very well armed.

They had not been long in that Posture, but that the Boatswain, who was the principal Ringleader of the Mutiny, and had now shewn himself the most dejected and dispirited of all the rest, came walking towards them with two more of their Crew; the Captain was so eager, as having this principal Rogue so much in his Power, that he could hardly have Patience to let him come so near, as to be sure of him; for they only heard his Tongue before: Who must we yield to?

Will they give us Quarter then, says Tom Smith and we will yield? They have been all as bad as I, which by the Way was not true neither; for it seems this Will.

He expostulated with them upon the Villany of their Practices with him, and at length upon the farther Wickedness of their Design, and how certainly it must bring them to Misery and Distress in the End, and perhaps to the Gallows. This was committed to Friday and the two Men who came on Shore with the Captain.

Well, says the Captain, I must go and tell the Governour what you say, and see what I can do to bring him to Consent to it: Our Strength was now thus ordered for the Expedition: The Captain, his Mate, and Passenger. For I saw my Deliverance indeed visibly put into my Hands, all things easy, and a large Ship just ready to carry me away whither I pleased to go.

All this while the poor Man was in as great an Extasy as I, only not under any Surprize, as I was; and he said a thousand kind tender things to me, to compose me and bring me to my self; but such was the Flood of Joy in my Breast, that it put all my Spirits into Confusion, at last it broke out into Tears, and in a little while after, I recovered my Speech. In a Word, he cloathed me from Head to Foot. It was a very kind and agreeable Present, as any one may imagine to one in my Circumstances: I should be very glad of that, says the Captain, with all my Heart.

I shewed them the new Captain, hanging at the Yard-Arm of the Ship, and told them they had nothing less to expect. I told them the Story also of the sixteen Spaniards that were to be expected; for whom I left a Letter, and made them promise to treat them in common with themselves. I left them my Fire Arms, viz. Five Muskets, three Fowling Pieces, and three Swords. In a Word, I gave them every Part of my own Story; and I told them, I would prevail with the Captain to leave them two Barrels of Gun-Powder more, and some Garden-Seeds, which I told them I would have been very glad of; also I gave them the Bag of Pease which the Captain had brought me to eat, and bad them be sure to sow and encrease them.

Having done all this, I left them the next Day, and went on Board the Ship: My Benefactor and faithful Steward, who I had left in Trust with my Money, was alive; but had had great Misfortunes in the World; was become a Widow the second Time, and very low in the World: I went down afterwards into Yorkshire; but my Father was dead, and my Mother, and all the Family extinct, except that I found two Sisters, and two of the Children of one of my Brothers; and as I had been long ago given over for dead, there had been no Provision made for me; so that in a Word, I found nothing to relieve, or assist me; and that little Money I had, would not do much for me, as to settling in the World.

The old Man did not know me, and indeed, I hardly knew him; but I soon brought him to my Remembrance, and as soon brought my self to his Remembrance, when I told him who I was. And, Whether he thought it might be worth looking after?

However, says the old Man, I shall give you a true Account of what I have received in all, and how I have disposed of it. The good Man then began to complain of his Misfortunes, and how he had been obliged to make Use of my Money to recover his Losses, and download him a Share in a new Ship: He told me, he could not say but it might straiten him a little; but however it was my Money, and I might want it more than he.

I told him, I thought to go over to it my self: I might well say, now indeed, That the latter End of Job was better than the Beginning. And thus I requited my old Man. I was now to consider which Way to steer my Course next, and what to do with the Estate that Providence had thus put into my Hands; and indeed I had more Care upon my Head now, than I had in my silent State of Life in the Island, where I wanted nothing but what I had, and had nothing but what I wanted: On the contrary, I knew not where to put it, or who to trust with it.

My old Patron, the Captain, indeed was honest, and that was the only Refuge I had. It is true, I had been very unfortunate by Sea, and this might be some of the Reason: In this Manner I set out from Lisbon; and our Company being all very well mounted and armed, we made a little Troop, whereof they did me the Honour to call me Captain, as well because I was the oldest Man, as because I had two Servants, and indeed was the Original of the whole Journey.

For in a Word, the Snow lay in some Places too thick for us to travel; and being not hard frozen, as is the Case in Northern Countries: We found indeed, that we began to descend every Day, and to come more North than before; and so depending upon our Guide we went on.This made my Life better than sociable, for when I began to regret the want of Conversation, I would ask my self whether thus conversing mutually with my own Thoughts, and, as I hope I may say, with even God himself by Ejaculations, was not better than the utmost Enjoyment of humane Society in the World.

When I had gone through this Work, I was extremely delighted with it. Without a guarantor of such production and circulation - the state - there is no capitalism. However as my Jealousy encreased, and held me some Weeks, I was a little more circumspect, and not so familiar and kind to him as before; in which I was certainly in the Wrong too, the honest grateful Creature having no thought about it, but what consisted with the best Principles, both as a religious Christian, and as a grateful Friend, as appeared afterwards to my full Satisfaction.

He told me, he could not say but it might straiten him a little; but however it was my Money, and I might want it more than he.

Then the Tears burst out of my Eyes, and I could say no more for a good while. I only observe this in Particular, to shew, The Reason why so much of my Time went away with so little Work, viz.

This illusory character is not perceived by the classical political economy, which, while departing from the value of work for constructing their theories albeit with a few key differences that we cannot identify in this work , even before Marx, they do not operate with such a category from the relationship between essence and appearance - and even more do not care about the commodity fetish character.