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Ernestine Elster, Colin Renfrew, and Marija Gimbutas (from left to Download full-text PDF . She believed that while other languages in the. Gimbutas Marija - Learning the Language of the Goddess - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. Marija Gimbutas, a new professor in the In addition to Marija's contributions to . She believed that while other languages in the yet fully identified language of.

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The Language of the Goddess book. Read 28 reviews from the world's largest community for readers. The goddess is the most potent and persistent feature i. The Language of the Goddess [Marija Gimbutas, Joseph Campbell] on site. com. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. The first authoritative work on the. The work of Marija Gimbutas has been crucial to the growth of feminist spirituality, feminist religious scholarship, feminist psychology, and the Download entry PDF , Language of the Goddess illustration materials (boxes , ).

We have archaeological evidence that this was a clash. And then of course, who starts to dominate? The ones who have horses, who have weapons, who have small families and who are more mobile. Rebecca: What was daily life like, do you think for the people living in the matrifocal society? Marija: Religion played an enormous role and the temple was sort of a focus of life. The most beautiful artifacts were produced for the temple. They were very grateful for what they had.

They had to thank the Goddess always, give to her, appreciate her. The high priestess and queen were one and the same person and there was a sort of a hierarchy of priestesses.

David: Was the Goddess religion basically monotheistic? Marija: This is a very difficult question to answer. Was it monotheistic, or was it not? Was there one Goddess or was there not? The time will come when we shall know more, but at this time we cannot reach deep in prehistory.

What I see, is that from very early on, from the upper Paleolithic times, we already have different types of goddesses.

Gimbutas Marija - Learning the Language of the Goddess

So are these different Goddesses or different aspects of one Goddess? Before 35, or 40, B.

C there is hardly any art but the type of the Goddess with large breasts and buttocks and belly, existed very early in the upper Paleolithic. The snake and bird Goddess are also upper Paleolithic, so at least three main types were there. But in later times, for instance, in the Minoan culture in Crete, you have a Goddess which tends to be more one Goddess than several.

Even the snake Goddesses which exist in Crete, are very much linked with the main Goddess who is shown sitting on a throne or is worshipped in these underground crypts. Perhaps, even in the much earlier times, there was also a very close interrelationship between the different types represented. So maybe after all, we shall come to the conclusion that this was already a monotheistic religion even as we tend now to call it - the Goddess religion. We just have to remember there were many different types of goddesses.

7 editions of this work

Rebecca: Do you see remnants of the Goddess religion in different religions throughout the world today? Marija: Yes, very much so.

The Virgin Mary is still extremely important. She is the inheritor of many types of Goddesses, actually.

She represents the one who is giving life, she is also the regenerator and earth mother together. This earth mother we can trace quite deep into prehistory; she is the pregnant type and continues for maybe 20, years and she is very well preserved in practically each area of Europe and other parts of the world. David: Do you see the Gaia hypothesis as being a resurgence of the original Goddess religion? Marija: I think there is some connection, perhaps in a Jungian sense.

This culture existed so deep and for so long that it cannot be uninfluential to our thinking. Rebecca: It must have conditioned our minds for a long time. How do you respond to criticism that the Goddess religion was just a fertility rite?

Marija: How do I respond to all these silly criticisms? Fertility was important to continuity of life on earth, but the religion was about life, death and regeneration. Our ancestors were not primitive. David: Did you experience a lot of resistance from the academic community about your interpretations? Marija: I wouldn't say a lot, but some, yes. It's natural. For decades archaeologists rarely touched the problem of religion. Rebecca: So far back in time, you mean?

Marija: Well, they probably accepted the existence of the Upper Paleolithic and Neolithic religion, but the training was such that the students have no occasion to be exposed to these questions. There was no teaching about prehistoric religion. Only in some places, like in Oxford University, sixty or seventy years ago, Professor James was teaching a course on the Goddess.

Nobody at that time was resisting. Now we have more resistence because of the feminist movement. Some people are automatically not accepting. This kind of criticism ie. What is true is true, and what is true will remain. Maybe I made some mistakes in deciphering the symbols, but I was continually trying to understand more.

At this time I know more than when I was writing thirty years ago. My first book was not complete, therefore I had to produce another book and another book to say more. It's a long process. Rebecca: Wasn't it incredibly difficult to find written sources and references for your research? Marija: There was so little, it was amazing! There were some good books in the 's.

In a book was published on the mother Goddess by a Jungian psychologist, Eric Neumann. Then there were very good works on symbolism by Mircea Eliade. Rebecca: When I tried to get hold of some of your books from the library they were all checked out and the librarian said that this was normally the case, so works on this subject are definitely in demand now. Marija: I never dreamed of that. I always thought that archaeology books are not generally read and that you just write for your own colleagues.

David: Were you surprised in yours and others' excavations by the advanced designs of the habitats and the settlements of the Goddess religion?

Marija: Yes, I was. This was a revelation, to see that the later culture is much less advanced than the earlier one. The art is incomparably lower than what was before, and it was a civilization of 3, years, more or less, before it was destroyed.

For thirty years now we've had the possibility to date items, using carbon dating. When I started to do my research, chronology was so unclear and we were working so hard to understand what period the object belonged to.

Then in the 's it became so much easier. I spent a lot of time doing chronology, which is very technical work.

That gave us a perspective on how long-lasting these cultures were, and you could see a beautiful development from the more simple to the really sophisticated, in the architecture and the building of temples. Some houses and temples were two stories high and had painted walls. Catal Huyuk was such a great discovery in Anatolia.

The wall paintings there were only published in , twenty-five years after Myler's excavation. One hundred and forty wall paintings - and archeologists don't believe him because it's so sophisticated.

And this is from the 7th millennium! Rebecca: Do you think the matrifocal society could have sustained cities, or do you think that the nature of the religion and the lifestyle kept it small, usually no bigger than the average village? Marija: It would have sustained cities. It did start to develop into an urban culture, especially in one area of the Cucuteni civilization which is presently Romania and the western part of the Ukraine.

There we have cities of ten to fifteen thousand inhabitants in around 4, B. So urban development began, but it was truncated. Rebecca: You have said that you think the meaning of prehistoric art and religion can be deciphered and that we need to analyze the evidence from the point of view of ideology.

Do you think that we can honestly do this without being unduly biased by our own ideologies? Marija: That's always difficult. Most archaeologists have great difficulty in accepting that the life was so different.

For instance, an excavator publishes a plan of a village. This is a circular village in a concentric circle of houses and in the center there is a house also. The explanation at once is, here is a chieftain's house and around him is his retinue and then the last ring around is everyone else. And then, when you analyze the material, it is totally the reverse. The large ring of houses were the most important houses, the largest houses with the best floors and so on, then growing into the inside the smaller houses are in the middle.

So you can write anecdotes about the interpretation because we see only through the twentieth century prism. David: What does your research indicate about the social status of women in the pre-Indo-European culture? Marija: Women were equal beings, that is very clear, and perhaps more honored because they had more influence in the religious life.

The temple was run by women. Rebecca: What about the political life? Marija: My findings suggest that the political life - of course, it's all hypothesis, you cannot reconstruct easily, but we can judge from what remains in later times and what still exists in mythology, because this again reflects the social structure - was structured by the avuncular system.

The rulers of the country; the queen which is also the high priestess and also her brother or uncle. The system is therefore called avuncular, which is from the word, uncle. The man, the brother or uncle, was very important in society, and probably men and women were quite equal.

In mythology we encounter the sister-brother couples of female goddesses and male gods. It is wrong to say that this is just a woman's culture, that there was just a Goddess and there were no Gods.

In art the male is less represented, that's true, but that the male Gods existed, there's no question. In all mythologies, for instance in Europe, Germanic or Celtic or Baltic, you will find the earth mother or earth Goddess and her male companion or counterpart next to her. Also there are other couples like the Goddess of Nature, Regenerator, who appears in the Spring and gives life to all earth animals and humans and plants.

She is Artemis in Greek mythology. She is called Mistress of Animals, and there are also male counterparts of the same kind called Master of Animals. His representations appear in Catal Huyuk in the 7th Millenium B.

There is a balance between the sexes throughout, in religion and in life. David: Is there any evidence that the takeover was violent and how much did the people try to defend themselves? Marija: It was violent, but how much they defended themselves is difficult to tell. But they were losers. There was evidence of immigration and escape from these violent happenings and a lot of confusion, a lot of shifts of population.

People started to flee to places like islands and forests and hilly areas. In the settlements you have evidence of murder. Rebecca: What about the Kurgan, invading culture, were they always patriarchal, when did the patriarchy begin?

Marija: This is a very serious question which archaeologists cannot answer yet, but we can see that the patriarchy was already there around 5, B. C for sure and the horse was domesticated not later than that. Rebecca: Do you think they came out of a previously matristic society?

Marija: It must have been so. But the trouble is that exactly there, in South Russia, where it is critical to know, we don't have evidence. We have no extensive excavations in that area of before 5, B. Marija: Again, that's for the future to decide.

Gimbutas, Marija, and the Goddess

II and in the Sixties. She continued teaching through the Seventies, Eighties and early Nineties. Many of her critics, however, are the products of the reactionary Reagan Era. Marija was not an ill taught or unaccredited scholar. She published twenty books and more than two hundred articles in various languages and taught at the best schools on this planet. She worked on many of the important archaeological digs of this century in many countries.

She brought a new and fresh vision to the interpretation of data which up until her time was nearly always interpreted by male scholars -- we see the world though our upbringing and this DOES matter in how scholars interpret their data. Marija Gimbutas, although she would have blushed at the praise, was a visionary genius.

I say this, even though I do not agree with all of her findings. However, there is enough in her theories to be of great interest and to make you comprehend the History of Western Civilization in a new way. A lot of what Marija theorizes makes incredible sense. So, I say to you -- take a gamble and decide for yourself. I find that this is an extraordinary volume of work. Miriam Robbins Dexter, Ph. I think that everyone can get a good grasp of what Marija's theories were, and they are a refreshing breath of crisp clean air, after the thick, mind numbing fog that we have sometimes had to deal with in the halls of academia.

Scholarship is supposed to foster new ideas and ways of looking at the world. It is awful to say that I do not think that this is always the case in our society. We are a society that still overvalues conformity; however, would you have your PC at the ready or be surfing the Internet if the conformists had had their way? I think not. It is a gift to the minds of the world who explore, and wish to evaluate learning for themselves.

It is a gift to the creative and visionary among us. I thank Marija Gimbutas, wherever she is, for gifting us with her knowledge, insight, and creativity. I also thank Miriam Robbins Dexter, Ph. I highly recommend that you download a copy of this book and decide its merits for yourself.

Wendilyn Emrys, B. A of people found the following review helpful. The Kirkus reviewer obviously did not read the book! By A Customer The evidence laid out in this series of works is very compelling.

The critics of these ideas seem only able to express themselves with "Preposterous! The Kirkus reviewer says it is "bordering on the ridiculous" to assume that the bull could have been a female symbol, that this is Gimbutas' imagination.

But then there is artwork remaining from this era with clear pictures of bull skulls with horns drawn over the pelvic areas of women, with the horns positioned where the fallopian tubes would be. This murals are reproduced in the book.

In each of those fields, the early belief systems and schools are not seen to be bridgetraditions. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Bibliography Conkey, M. Archeology and the goddess: Exploring the contours of feminist archeology. Stewart Eds. Ann Arbor: Univ. Google Scholar Downing, C. Google Scholar Gimbutas, M.

The gods and goddesses of Old Europe, BC. London: Thames and Hudson. The language of the goddess.

The Language of the Goddess

Interview with Kell Kearns. The civilization of the goddess J.At this time I know more than when I was writing thirty years ago. Marija: It must have been so. There were just weapons for hunting. She published twenty books and more than two hundred articles in various languages and taught at the best schools on this planet.

Whitehouse, and K. The Virgin Mary is still extremely important. Wendilyn Emrys, B.