LINUX OPERATING SYSTEM PDF NOTES
Linux is one of popular version of UNIX operating System. It is open source as its source code is freely available. It is free to use. Linux was designed. The first multiuser and multitasking Operating System in the world. ○ Developed in Generic distros: ○ Redhat based: Fedora, RHEL, CentOS, Scientific Linux . -rw 1 georgios biotek Mar 26 yazik.info -rwxrw 1 . Operating Systems (Linux). Red Hat. Jon Masters. Page 2. About the speaker. Jon Masters is a Senior Software Engineer at Red Hat.
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1 General remarks on the operating system UNIX/Linux. 2 First steps reference for emacs: emacs yazik.info . notes the home directory. THE LINUX OPERATING SYSTEM. William Stallings. This document is an extract from. Operating Systems: Internals and Design Principles, Fifth Edition. Notes on Linux operating system UNIX: operating system. Linux: free I often give files Windows-like extensions (yazik.info,.pdf,.bat, etc.).
This is the shell — a command process that allows you to control the computer via commands typed into a text interface. This is what, at one time, scared people away from Linux the most assuming they had to learn a seemingly archaic command line structure to make Linux work. This is no longer the case.
With modern desktop Linux, there is no need to ever touch the command line.
Graphical Server: This is the sub-system that displays the graphics on your monitor. Desktop Environment: This is the piece of the puzzle that the users actually interact with. Each desktop environment includes built-in applications such as file managers, configuration tools, web browsers, games, etc.
Applications: Desktop environments do not offer the full array of apps. Just like Windows and Mac, Linux offers thousands upon thousands of high-quality software titles that can be easily found and installed. Most modern Linux distributions more on this in a moment include App Store-like tools that centralize and simplify application installation. For example: Ubuntu Linux has the Ubuntu Software Center Figure 1 which allows you to quickly search among the thousands of apps and install them from one centralized location.
The Ubuntu software center is a Linux app store that carries thousands of free and commerical applications for Linux. Why use Linux? This is the one question that most people ask.
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Kernel component code executes in a special privileged mode called kernel mode with full access to all resources of the computer. This code represents a single process, executes in single address space and do not require any context switch and hence is very efficient and fast.
Kernel runs each processes and provides system services to processes, provides protected access to hardware to processes. Support code which is not required to run in kernel mode is in System Library. User programs and other system programs works in User Mode which has no access to system hardware and kernel code.
Kernel Mode vs User Mode
Linux kernel and application programs supports their installation on any kind of hardware platform. Multiple teams work in collaboration to enhance the capability of Linux operating system and it is continuously evolving. It can be used to do various types of operations, call application programs.
Use of Linux distributions in home and enterprise desktops has been growing.
They have also gained popularity with various local and national governments. The federal government of Brazil is well known for its support for Linux. News of the Russian military creating its own Linux distribution has also surfaced, and has come to fruition as the G.
The Indian state of Kerala has gone to the extent of mandating that all state high schools run Linux on their computers. Design A Linux-based system is a modular Unix-like operating system.
Linux Programming Lecture Notes
It derives much of its basic design from principles established in Unix during the s and s. Such a system uses a monolithic kernel, the Linux kernel, which handles process control, networking, and peripheral and file system access. Device drivers are either integrated directly with the kernel or added as modules loaded while the system is running.
Separate projects that interface with the kernel provide much of the system's higher-level functionality. The GNU userland is an important part of most Linux-based systems, providing the most common implementation of the C library, a popular shell, and many of the common Unix tools which carry out many basic operating system tasks.
Programming on Linux D. Koteswararao Page 2 Linux Programming Most Linux distributions support dozens of programming languages. First released in , the Low Level Virtual Machine project provides an alternative open-source compiler for many languages.
Linux Advantages 1. You can start to work immediately without worrying that your software may stop working anytime because the free trial version expires.
Additionally, there are large repositories from which you can freely download high quality software for almost any task you can think of. Stability: Linux doesnt need to be rebooted periodically to maintain performance levels. It doesnt freeze up or slow down over time due to memory leaks and such.
Continuous uptimes of hundreds of days up to a year or more are not uncommon. Performance: Linux provides persistent high performance on workstations and on networks.
What is Linux?
It can handle unusually large numbers of users simultaneously, and can make old computers sufficiently responsive to be useful again. Network friendliness: Linux was developed by a group of programmers over the Internet and has therefore strong support for network functionality; client and server systems can be easily set up on any computer running Linux. It can perform tasks such as network backups faster and more reliably than alternative systems. Flexibility: Linux can be used for high performance server applications, desktop applications, and embedded systems.
You can save disk space by only installing the components needed for a particular use. You can restrict the use of specific computers by installing for example only selected office applications instead of the whole suite.
Koteswararao Page 3 Linux Programming 6. Compatibility: It runs all common Unix software packages and can process all common file formats. Choice: The large number of Linux distributions gives you a choice. Each distribution is developed and supported by a different organization. You can pick the one you like best; the core functionalities are the same; most software runs on most distributions.
Fast and easy installation: Most Linux distributions come with user-friendly installation and setup programs. Popular Linux distributions come with tools that make installation of additional software very user friendly as well. Full use of hard disk: Linux continues work well even when the hard disk is almost full. Multitasking: Linux is designed to do many things at the same time; e.
Security: Linux is one of the most secure operating systems. Walls and flexible file access permission systems prevent access by unwanted visitors or viruses.
Linux users have to option to select and safely download software, free of charge, from online repositories containing thousands of high quality packages.
No download transactions requiring credit card numbers or other sensitive personal information are necessary.
Open Source: If you develop software that requires knowledge or modification of the operating system code, Linuxs source code is at your fingertips. Most Linux applications are Open Source as well. Most UNIX systems are commercial in nature. Linux Is Just a Kernel D.
Koteswararao Page 4 Linux Programming Linux is just a kernel.
However, most UNIX operating systems are considered as a complete operating system as everything come from a single source or vendor. As I said earlier Linux is just a kernel and Linux distribution makes it complete usable operating systems by adding various applications. License and cost Linux is Free as in beer [freedom].
You can download it from the Internet or redistribute it under GNU licenses. You will see the best community support for Linux. It makes it easy to install sound card, flash players, and other desktop goodies. File Systems Linux by default supports and use ext3 or ext4 file systems. Page 5 D. System Administration Tools 1.
Suse Linux comes with Yast 3. However, editing text config file and typing commands are most popular options for sys admin work under UNIX and Linux.
System Startup Scripts Almost every version of UNIX and Linux comes with system initialization script but they are located in different directories: 1. They will use the same shell e. System Administrator Perspective Again, the differences are not that big for the system administrator. However, you may notice various differences while performing the following operations: 1. Koteswararao Page 6 Linux Programming A few popular names: 1.
The fact that Linux belongs to the GNU Public License ensures that users of all sorts can access and alter the code to the very kernel that serves as the foundation of the Linux operating system. You want to peer at the Windows code? Good luck.You are on page 1of Search inside document Linux Programming "Unit-I - Linux Utilities" Introduction to Linux Linux is a Unix-like computer operating system assembled under the model of free and open source software development and distribution.
Nothing will ever replace my favorite text-based editor, ssh, and any given commandline tool. Linux Programming Sally Chang: You can change the variable by executing the umask command to supply a new value. Linux Programming Summary By the time you enter the CD database application, you will know that programs can be written using just the shell language.
When it reaches the end of file, it returns EOF. It can perform tasks such as network backups faster and more reliably than alternative systems.
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