CHEMICAL MAGIC BOOK
Chemical Magic (Dover Books on Chemistry) [Leonard A. Ford, E. Winston Grundmeier] on yazik.info *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Classic guide. Chemical Magic (Dover Books on Chemistry) - Kindle edition by Leonard A. Ford, E. Winston Grundmeier. Download it once and read it on your Kindle device. The book Chemical Magic is a resl).lt of Dr. Ford's carefully written instructions that have been used by his students. The demon- str'llions have been Iril~d alld.
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For many years, Leonard A. Ford, formerly Chairman of the Division of Science and Mathematics at Mankato State College, Minnesota, devised "chemical. Chemical Magic book. Read 3 reviews from the world's largest community for readers. Classic guide provides intriguing entertainment while elucidating sou. This is another book from my personal electronic library on chemical magic and chemistry.
Ok this one is most certainly for the chemist geek in me. It's basically a series of demonstration experiments used to show how visual and interesting chemistry can be.
Ok some of the experiments have the potential for serious bodily harm and I question how easy if it all the ingredients are to secure out side the professional world, but still they are really fascinating and make me want to don the lab coat and go "play".
Fun collection of ways to use chemical reactions in a magical looking way. Reminds me of Professor Julius Sumner Miller and his 'why is it so'? Experiments to perform at home or in the lab with visual and surprisingeffects.
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About Leonard A. Leonard A. You can easily make this piece of apparatus from a ml flask, a 2-hole stopper, a short length of rubber tubing, and three pieces of glass tubing. Bend two of the glass tubes as shown in the photo at upper right. The glass part of a medicine dropper will make a good nozzle, or you can draw one from a short length of tubing. Porcelain crucibles are used instead of test tubes and beakers for work at high temperatures that would crack or melt glass.
Use them for melt- ing metals and preparing alloys, for burning off residues, and for chem- ical reactions producing great heat. To exclude oxygen and to increase the heating effect, they may be covered. Crucibles may be heated directly in a flame and are generally supported by a pipestem-covered triangle of wire on a tripod or ring stand. Porcelain evaporating dishes are used for evaporating solutions to a small volume or dryness, and for baking. Except in the very smallest sizes, they should be heated on a wire gauze and never over an open flame.
Heating solid chemicals or evaporating to dryness in an evaporat- mming dish more than about in diameter may cause it to break. A mortar and pestle of porcelain is handy for grinding coarse chem- icals to a powder. Because porcelain is brittle, though hard, never at- tempt to pulverize substances that require heavy pounding in this equipment.
Tools for measuring are needed in almost every step of chemical ex- perimenting. Here is the minimum: graduated cylinders to measure the volume of liquids, a scale to measure weight, and a thermometer to measure temperature. Graduated cylinders with straight sides are easier to read than the traditional graduate of the pharmacist and so are preferred by the chemist.
One of 25 ml and another of ml capacity will do for a beginning. To read the volume of a liquid in a cylinder, hold the cylinder so that the bottom of the curved surface of the liquid is at eye level.
The graduation then directly in your line of sight indicates the correct volume.
Be sure you get a model with metric weights. With this, you can weigh up to 60 g with an accuracy of about 0. Thermometers for general laboratory use come in different ranges. The price as well as the length of a thermometer goes up with the temperature range. Odds and ends. Besides the basic apparatus already mentioned, the home chemist will need a few supplementary items before he can start work. Here are the most important. Sizes 2 to 6 are those most often used. To economize, you can get an assort- ment of 2-hole stoppers and close unused holes with short lengths of glass rod, cut off and fire-polished as explained on page Corks are cheaper than rubber stoppers and are just as good for many purposes around the lab.
In cases where solvents may attack rubber, corks are actually better. The "velvet" grade is a smooth cork of best quality and is recommended for use with volatile liquids and in distilla- XXXXtion. Next comes and XXX, in descending order.
Cork borers for cutting holes in corks and rubber stoppers are tubes of thin brass or steel with a cutting edge at one end and a handle at the other.
In common sizes, they come in sets of three or more. The steel variety costs more than the brass but keeps its edge longer. Glass tubing for connecting apparatus generally comes in 4-ft lengths mm mmand in sizes from 3 to about 50 in diameter.
Soft glass tubing of mm mm6 or 7 diameter will probably be the most useful. Rubber tubing used for temporarily joining glass tubing should be strong, flexible, and have an inside diameter slightly smaller than the tubes it joins. If solvent vapors or corrosive gases are to pass through the combination, make the joint short and bring the glass ends nearly together.
Always use strong, thick-wall rubber tubing for making the connection to your gas burner.
Pinchcocks are clamps, operated by spring or screw pressure, for closing off or regulating the flow of a liquid or gas through a rubber tube. For partially closing a tube, or for closing a heavy tube completely, a screw clamp should be used.
Brushes for cleaning chemical glassware come in all sizes and shapes. You should have at least a small brush that will get inside test tubes and a larger one to scrub out flasks and beakers. Ordinary wire-core, stiff- bristled household brushes will do.
Clean small glass tubing with an extended variety of "pipe cleaner," available from lab supply houses in ft lengths. For safety's sake, hold test tubes and other equipment well away from you during a chemical reaction.
Watch progress from the side. Basic Laboratory Technique THERE is almost no limit to the number of experiments which may be performed with simple equipment and only a limited number of operations. If you familiarize yourself thoroughly with the use of chem- icals and apparatus and master the best technique for carrying out various operations, your experimentation becomes safer, simpler, and more scientifically valuable. The following hints are fundamental to all laboratory practice, and should be kept always in mind when working out experiments in your home or school laboratory.
To begin with, the chemical laboratory and all operations Aconducted in it must be kept scrupulously clean.
For these reasons, never return excess chemicals to a reagent bottle. Either save the chemicals separately for another and less critical experiment or throw them away. Small quantities of dry reagent may be removed from a bottle with a clean spatula or a strip of clean paper folded lengthwise to form a scoop. Small quantities of liquids may be obtained with a clean medicine dropper or pipette.
Never lay glass stoppers on a table. Either hold them or place them in a clean glass or porcelain dish. When weighing chemicals, never place them directly on the scale pan. Use a creased square of white paper under the chemical, balancing this with a similar square on the other pan. Have a supply of these papers on hand and throw them away as they are used.
On precision scales, weights should always be handled with forceps to prevent possible contamination or corrosion of them by substances from the fingers. General rules for safety.
Spattered chemicals will quickly ruin good clothing. You won't learn anything from such a procedure and you stand a good chance of causing a dangerous accident. To use more is wasteful and a confession of poor technique. In the case of poisons and explosives, the use of more than minimum amounts may be definitely dangerous. Tilt the mouth of test tubes in which you are heating or reacting chemicals away from you.
Don't look into chemical equipment during a reaction.
It must never be handled except with tongs. First waft a little to your Anose with a cupped hand to test its identity and strength. If you are not lucky enough to be able to operate your apparatus under a ventilating hood, perform such experiments outdoors or near an open window.
Some are poisonous in extremely small amounts. Adding water to acid may cause a violent reaction that may spatter you with hot acid. Safety with dangerous chemicals.
Observe those caution signs on bot- tles of chemicals! Keep bottles containing acids or ammonia away from your face when opening them. Rinse and dry the outside of acid bottles before returning them to the shelf. Bottles marked poison should be handled with special care, and the contents should be kept away from the mouth and skin.
Wash your hands repeatedly while using poisons, and carefully clean up any spilled chemicals with rags that can be thrown away. If these precautions are observed you need not fear to use poisons. A few chemicals require extra- special handling.
Yellow phosphorus, for example, must be kept under water, as it catches fire spontaneously in the air. Never touch this chemical with your fingers. You may be seriously burned. To cut a piece for use, remove a stick of it from its bottle with tongs and place it immediately in a dish filled with water.
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Then hold it as shown above and bend the ends toward you. While still holding it with the tongs, cut pieces off the other end with a sharp knife. Be sure all phosphorus used for an experiment is either burned or returned to the bottle. Pieces left around may cause a fire. Sodium and potassium metals must be handled with similar care. These, however, must be kept under kerosene, as water causes them to decompose violently and liberate hydrogen, which often catches fire from the heat of the reaction.
Cut these in a dish under kerosene. Scrape off any coating of oxide and dip the pieces in a little ether to remove the kerosene. When reacting or cutting these metals, it is best to wear goggles to protect your eyes from possible spattering. Never throw waste sodium or potassium down a drain, as the reaction with water might cause a serious explosion. Small scraps may be destroyed by adding them slowly to denatured alcohol in a beaker.
After the scraps have disappeared, this alcohol may be bottled and specially labeled, to be used subsequently for the same purpose.
That keep from flame warning found on certain containers means —you must keep them at least twenty feet from any exposed flame espe- cially when opening them. The vapors of some flammable liquids travel far and fast.
Even if they do not carry a flame back to the bottle, they may form an explosive mixture with the air. Simple glassworking. Any home chemist can quickly become expert in cutting, bending, and otherwise shaping glass rods and tubes up to about mm12 or 14 in diameter. Ordinary soft glass can be worked fairly well in the flame of a bunsen burner. Pyrex glass requires the hotter flame of a Fisher burner. To cut a small-diameter tube or rod, lay it on a flat surface and make a single sharp scratch across it with a triangular file.
Then hold 13 To bend glass tubing, first rotate it in a bunsen flame until the flame turns yellow. Then remove it and make your bend. If you now bend the ends of the tube toward you, and pull at the same time, the tube should break off neatly.
To cut larger tubes, you may have to make a deeper scratch that extends entirely around the tube. To prevent cutting your hands and damaging rubber stoppers, the jagged ends of tubes and rods should always be fire-polished. This is done by rapidly rotating the end, just inside the topmost cone of a Abunsen flame until the glass starts to soften and flow.
If you want to seal the end, however, just continue to rotate it in the flame until the hole closes. A jet may be drawn in a piece of tubing by first holding both ends and rotating the center slowly in a bunsen flame until it becomes red hot.
Then remove the tube from the flame and draw the ends straight apart mmuntil the central part is about 2 in diameter. When the tube is cool, cut the narrow part as described above, and fire-polish the tip.
To make perfectly round bends without kinks, a sufficient length of tubing is first heated as shown in the photo. Use a wing top on your bunsen burner to spread the flame. Hold the tube loosely and rotate it slowly to heat it evenly on all sides.
Remove the tube from the burner when the flame turns yellow. Then, holding the ends with your fingers, bend the tube gently to the proper curvature.
Glass tubes and rubber stoppers. Cuts from the jagged edges of glass tubing broken while attempting to insert or remove the tubing from a hole in a rubber stopper are by far the commonest casualty in the home and school laboratory.
They can be avoided by using care. Moisten the tube and top photo. After washing and the inside of the hole with water. Then, pro- tecting your hand with a towel, grip the tube rinsing chemical glassware with close to the stopper and push it into the hole tap water, rinse it twice with with a gentle twisting motion.
Never use distilled water from your wash bottle, as shown above. If the tube requires too much effort to insert, substi- tute a smaller tube or enlarge the hole with a cork borer. Unless the apparatus is to be permanent, always remove tubing from stoppers imme- diately after use.
Otherwise the removal may become difficult and dangerous. If a rubber stopper has firmly hardened around a tube, remove it by slitting one side length- wise with a sharp knife and then peeling it off.
It is better to sacrifice a stopper than to risk breaking the tube and cutting yourself. This is a laboratory operation which can be speeded and improved if proper attention is paid to details.
To make a filter, first fold a disk of filter paper into halves and then into quarters. Open the folded paper to form a cone and insert this in a funnel large enough to extend slightly higher than the cone. Moisten the paper with water from your wash bottle and press it carefully against the sides of the funnel.
The remainder of the filtering set-up is important, too. Arrange the long point at the end of the funnel so that it touches the inside of the receiving beaker near its top.
This permits the flow of the filtrate down the side of the beaker without splashing. Hold a glass stirring rod across the top of the pouring beaker and allow the liquid gently to strike the side of the filter paper about one- fourth of the way down from the top. This glass-rod arrangement is useful whenever liquids are poured from beakers. If the beaker has no lip, the edge should be lightly greased with petroleum jelly to prevent the liquid from running down the side.
Laboratory dishwashing. Beakers, flasks, and other chemical glassware should be washed in the simplest way possible. Water solutions of acids, alkalis, and salts usually wash out easily with plain tap water. Ordinary dishwashing detergents will generally remove an oily film deposited by the fingers or petrolatum.
More stubborn grease may be removed by soaking the glassware in a 5 per cent solution of trisodium phosphate, followed by a scrubbing with a stiff brush. Some organic deposits may require the application of an organic solvent, such as alcohol, gasoline, benzene, or carbon tetrachloride.
After washing, the glassware should be rinsed several times in clear tap water and then twice with distilled water sprayed from the wash bottle. Invert the glassware to dry on a rack or drainboard. Never dry the inside with a towel, because this leaves lint and perhaps chemical contamination. Disposing of waste chemicals. Mention has already been made of methods for disposing of scrap sodium, potassium, and phosphorus. Calcium carbide also needs special attention, as it generates flammable and explosive acetylene gas when in contact with water.
Let your waste calcium carbide react completely with water, outdoors or in a well- ventilated room, before discarding it. It is probably unnecessary to warn home chemists not to pour strong acids and other corrosive chemicals down the drain of the kitchen sink.
If you live in the city, dilute such chemicals with a large amount of water and flush them down the toilet. Small amounts of less active chemicals and solid chemicals may be emptied into an earthen crock, or metal pail protected inside with several coats of acid-resisting paint, to be disposed of in the same way at the end of each experiment session. If you live in the country, waste chemicals may be buried in a special pit far from your garden and water supply.
Calcium—the Builder's Element FEW people have ever seen the silver-white metallic element calcium, for it never occurs free in nature and its commercial application is ex- tremely limited. Its compounds, however, are among the most abundant and important chemical elements on earth.
Mortar made of slaked lime, or calcium hydroxide, was used more than 5, years ago to build the pyramids of Egypt just as it is used today. Limestone and marble, sea shells and coral reefs, the great chalk —cliffs of Dover, crystal caves, double-refracting Iceland spar all are forms of calcium carbonate. Calcium hypochlorite is the well-known "chloride of lime. Largely as material for teeth and bones, calcium phosphate makes up about 1.
Chalk Precipitated chalk is formed by cliffs and beds are composed chiefly of the mixing a warm dilute solution of sodium carbonate with a similar compacted skeletons of microscopic marine solution of calcium chloride, as animals. Powdered chalk is the "whiting" shown in the top photo. Cold, used as a filler in rubber and other products, concentrated solutions of these as an abrasive, and as a pigment extender chemicals form a jelly, as at right, above.
Stirring liquefies for paints. Precipitated chalk, the principal the mass and precipitates chalk. Precipitated chalk. With the help of any soluble calcium salt and any soluble car- bonate, you can demonstrate how chalk is precipitated. Calcium chloride and sodium carbonate are the chemicals generally used commercially. Make a warm dilute solution of each and pour one into the other.
The white dense cloud that forms is finely di- vided calcium carbonate. Allowed to stand undisturbed, the chalk will settle to the bot- tom. Solid changes to liquid. Substitute cold, con- centrated solutions of calcium chloride and sodium carbonate for warm, dilute ones, and you can perform a curious feat of chemical magic. Mix these two with gentle but thorough stirring, and the result is a jellylike solid.
Continue stirring for a few minutes, and the mass turns into a milky liquid. Let it stand a few minutes longer, and the white coloring material settles to the bot- tom once more as precipitated chalk. How lime is made.Pipettes are narrow glass tubes, plain or graduated, used for measuring, transferring, or dropping small amounts of fluids. The graduation then directly in your line of sight indicates the correct volume.
Then close the pinchcock. Now, with this revised and enlarged republication of Dr. Vibratory Motion. Like Porter, the A. Training and experience in handling chemicals are required for the performance of these demonstrations.
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