ARTHASHASTRA PDF IN TAMIL
Kautilya's Arthashastra. 3. Book I, "Concerning Discipline". CHAPTER I. THE LIFE OF A KING. Óm. Salutation to Sukra and Brihaspati. This Arthasástra is made. Now in Tamil Kautilya, also known as Chanakya, is India's most illustrious political economist of all time. He regarded economic activity as the driving force . Shocking things in Chanakya life - Duration. Free PDF ebooks (user's guide, manuals, sheets) about Arthashastra tamil ready for download.
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Tamil Book Man is the leading Online Book Store in Chennai,India. Home»; Tamil translation self motivation books. KAUTILYAs ARTHASHASTRA-Tamil. Books For You offers book Kautilyas Arthashastra (Tamil Edition). Free Tamil books online for download. Large collection of popular Tamil PDF eBooks and ePub Tamil eBooks. Topics include Tamil literature, stories, Siddha.
Kautilya has a great deal to say about civic responsibility; the obligation of every householder to take precautions against fire is mentioned; so is a prohibition on cutting trees in public parks. Equally, some of Kautilya's suggestions will be seen by us as unethical. What is essential is that we understand both aspects and use them to learn history as well as to apply to the modern situations.
These duties also meant that the King needed an elaborate support system. The highly centralized Kautilyan state was to be regulated by an elaborate and intricate system as laid out by Kautilya.
While at first glance we might think that this high centralization is repulsive, we should also appreciate the difficulties of the time.
Most of the empires of the world relied on tight centralization to ensure some degree of success. The extensive responsibilities of the state for promoting economic wellbeing and preserving law and order demand an equally extensive administrative machinery. Any text on Arthashastra thus has to contain details of the organization of the civil service as well as the duties and responsibilities of individual officials.
Thus we can see how The Arthashastra was bound to be an elaborate manual that dealt with every minute aspect of administration and daily life.
The Arthashastra is a through discussion on the science of living, along with being a valuable historical document on the conduct of administration. It is thus supremely valuable for the historian but also for a modern political scientist or sociologist or economist or administrator. A Modern Kautilya All this shows us how close to modern life and administration the Kautilyan ideas come.
Reading ancient books is the best way to rid ourselves of modernist fantasies — except for communication and transport, in the basic institutions, we are still where we were. The same thing can be said of the role of technology in daily life as well.
We can get more things done because we can, but precisely because we can, there are always more things to do. Reality And The Ideal The picture of the ideal Kautilyan state that emerges from our discussion above is one of a well-run state, prosperous and bustling with activity. But if we are to comprehend clearly Kautilya's teachings and apply them judiciously to the modern world, we also have to be aware of the essential characteristics of the work. The treatise is about an ideal state - not that such a state actually ever existed or is even likely to exist now or in the future.
To the extent any of the six constituent elements of a state - the ruler, the ministers, the urban and the rural population, the economic power and the military might - differ from the ideals Kautilya has set out, to that extent the advice given by him has to be modified.
I cannot imagine that much would change if a modern Kautilya were to write an Arthashastra today, except that he would have a broader, faster reach, and a better chance of enforcing things.
The Illusion of Governance? This realization should lead us to wonder why Kautilya attempted such an elaborately and minutely planned state architecture — we should consider the possibility that perhaps this level of intrusion into daily life was required, at least at the planning level, precisely because real control was so impossibly difficult?
Maybe the Plan was needed for any semblance of governance? Maybe the illusion of minute micro-managed and all-pervasive governance can cover up for the inability to really govern? The Best in the Market We have seen that the Arthashastra is an exhaustive and detailed inventory of everything a state should do and everything every minor official should do. A more detailed secular constitution of governance and daily life cannot be imagined.
With this legacy, it is no wonder that the much less ambitious Indian Constitution is still the longest in the world, the most detailed and most concerned with trying to micro manage the nuts and bolts of administration. We have also seen how the problems that Kautilya tried to tackle are more or less the same as what modern states fail spectacularly at, even when aided by more gee-whiz technology.
And this immutability of problems and of solutions is precisely why the level of detail that Kautilya goes into is still valuable for government officials, administrators and citizens. A better guidebook has not hit the market yet.
View all 43 comments.
Mar 27, Hadrian added it Shelves: For a more complete review, you'd likely be better off looking at my friend Riku's excellent remarks here. He's made the effort of writing a more comprehensive summary; I'll stick with a few brief comments.
I'm reminded of a remark that President Kennedy made when he was forming his cabinet after the election in One of his top choices waffled about the decision, saying he wasn't qualified.
Kennedy deferred by saying, "There's no school for Presidents. It is, as noted elsewhere, exceedingly wide in scope. The book addresses such wide topics as resource management, the formation of a civil service, espionage, and the writing of treaties. Kautilya is strict in his definitions of terms - he knows that law is a cornerstone of the state, and refuses to allow ambiguity there. My knowledge of pre-industrial economics is lacking so I can't comment in detail about that, but I can vaguely praise his thoroughness.
He does prescribe the conservation of natural resources such as forests and wild animals, which is a very astute remark for 2, years ago. The Romans did drive one of their more useful plant species to extinction and deforested almost the whole area around the Mediterranean, to show a negative counterexample.
Much has been made about Kautilya's harsh reputation. It is true that he does advocate extensive spying both within and outside of the king's domain, but he does not relish in it.
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He just includes it as something worth knowing for every ruler. Although I obviously can't comment on the details of modern intelligence methods, I was surprised by the variety of his methods.
Using spies posing as religious figures and people faking disabilities? Smart stuff. The Arthashastra's views on foreign policy the 'Six-Fold Policy' is a clear forerunner to the modern school of 'realism', based on the premise that states act only in their own interests and how to advance their own interests.
His concept of the 'silent war' is useful in that it describes states that are not openly at war, but attempt to undercut each other's interests through power plays and espionage. In any case, he views the establishment of a strong army as the foremost task of the state, as all other activities are impossible without the power to back them up.
There's obviously a lot more to the Arthashastra than this my copy was an abridged translation but I was deeply impressed with what I did find. This is as thorough a manual in statecraft as can be found. View all 6 comments. Dec 01, Frank O'donnell rated it it was amazing. This work is most commonly likened to Machiavelli, although it predates 'The Prince' by several centuries. With a similar attitude to statecraft to that of Machiavelli, this offers a far more comprehensive and detailed manual for realist power aggrandisment.
It also differs from Machiavelli in its genuine concern for the welfare and economic prospects of domestic citizens, where Machiavelli dismisses such issues outright and instead advises that a king merely rule through fear. I would recommend This work is most commonly likened to Machiavelli, although it predates 'The Prince' by several centuries.
I would recommend this over Machiavelli as an introduction to classical realist thought, as it offers the more complete guide to how a ruler interested in power aggrandisement should govern both domestically and externally following realist principles. Exhaustive and exhausting. View 1 comment.
Nov 04, David Withun rated it liked it Shelves: My video review: Aug 21, Paden rated it really liked it. Don't think I'd do justice by reviewing it. Think would recommend it to read for yourself. The Arthashastra is apparently one of the first books on political theory and was written in the 3rd century BC.
The book itself is doesn't solely focus on political issues, but talks about statecraft, economy, military stragety and other topics. The book itself is a very dry read, at least it was to me. The content was interesting enough though and showed a lot of insight into the ancient empires of India. It was especially intereting to me, knowing almost nothing about indian history to find ou The Arthashastra is apparently one of the first books on political theory and was written in the 3rd century BC.
It was especially intereting to me, knowing almost nothing about indian history to find out how complex those old states were. This was probably the most interesting part of the book to me. It is hard to recommand this book to anyone. People who are interested in political theory or military strategy might be better of with other works. Those that want to learn about the history of the Mauryan Empire might also be better off with other works.
Chanakya Arthashastra PDF in Hindi, English, Sanskrit
In the end I'd recommand it to people who are interested in the topics of this work, meaning political theory, statecraft, economics and military theory AND who are also interested in the history of those things and want to see how ancient civilisations handled it.
Apr 15, Ashok Krishna rated it really liked it. Arthashastra - a book that I had wanted to read ever since I read 'The Art of War' and learnt this to be a similar treatise but on political details.
Gifted to me by a friend during September '10, it has taken me almost 5 years to finish reading this book. A worthy reference material for anyone who wants to have a glimpse into how things were in the past. An exhaustive treatise of politics, diplomacy and war, this proves that the past was neither golden as we think with an assumed nostalgia, nei Arthashastra - a book that I had wanted to read ever since I read 'The Art of War' and learnt this to be a similar treatise but on political details.
An exhaustive treatise of politics, diplomacy and war, this proves that the past was neither golden as we think with an assumed nostalgia, neither were the people so backward in science and technology as we perceive them to be.
Past is a mixed bag. Ideal laws, contradictory realities, preferential and protective treatment for the upper-castes, Brahmins especially, looking down upon women on every areas, government running brothels and liquor shops, kings striving to be just and ethical, cruel methods to get rid of one's enemies, pleasant ways to rule one's subjects - you will get to learn in all in this book.
Read it if you want to peek into the past through the eyes and ideals of Kautilya! No one.
Other than providing a perspective on governing a petty kingdom in the Subcontinent between BC and AD, there is hardly anything worthwhile to say about this book. Kautilya has recently been promoted to a semi-Machiavellian status. This is undeserved. Some of his advise is laughable: Making seige of a city?
How do you assure its fall? Why, simply infiltrate your troops with the defenders!
I guess Kautilya's novelty will wear off and he will be relegated to the dustbin of history. I only w Other than providing a perspective on governing a petty kingdom in the Subcontinent between BC and AD, there is hardly anything worthwhile to say about this book.
I only wish I had the time back that I had wasted reading him. View all 3 comments. Jul 12, Rohit Harip rated it it was amazing.
His thoughts about foreign policy,administration,economic reforms and policies are completely well articulated and relevant even today.
Indians dont need to look at any kisinger or western thinker like aristotal or Socrates about guidelines of polity. Mar 12, Lindsay rated it really liked it. Amazing detail and thoroughness in this treatise on statecraft in ancient India. I took this on after being intrigued by how the circular perspective of foreign policy compared with the more typically binary views in western academia. Found what I needed. Aug 01, Vidur Kapur rated it it was amazing Shelves: A fascinating read.
The Arthashastra is one of the earliest works of political realism to have been written, along with Sun Tzu's The Art of War and Thucydides' History of the Peloponnesian War and is perhaps the most elaborate of these.
Elaborate is an apt description, given that the treatise describes all sorts of weird and wonderful ways in which seditious ministers can be identified, and enemies can be toppled and weakened. Many of these involve some quite inventive uses of spies. For Kautil A fascinating read. For Kautilya, "the king, the minister, the country, the fort, the treasury, the army and the friend are the elements of sovereignty.
Hence a king shall always endeavor to augment his own power and elevate his happiness. Mearsheimer's 'offensive realism'. Who are the "friends" that Kautilya writes of? As it happens, the concept "the enemy of my enemy is my friend" originated in The Arthashastra: The king who, being possessed of good character and best-fitted elements of sovereignty, is the fountain of policy, is termed the conqueror.
The king who is situated anywhere immediately on the circumference of the conqueror's territory is termed the enemy.
The king who is likewise situated close to the enemy, but separated from the conqueror only by the enemy, is termed the friend of the conqueror … In front of the conqueror and close to his enemy, there happen to be situated kings such as the conqueror's friend, next to him, the enemy's friend, and next to the last, the conqueror's friend's friend, and next, the enemy's friend's friend.
It is important to note here that Kautilya was describing a 'pre-Westphalian' state of affairs in India circa BC. Though, given the United States' support for militant groups in nearby Afghanistan, the logic of "the enemy of my enemy is my friend" doesn't always work out so well. Some also see elements of Kautilyan political strategy being deployed by the Republic of India even today; friendships with Afghanistan and Japan are cultivated, as they are seen as allies against Pakistan and China respectively.
In other domains, India maintains its famed stance of 'non-alignment', in keeping with Kautilya's advocacy of "neutrality" in certain circumstances.
Meanwhile, Kautilya does not advocate for the Mauryan Empire of which he was part to expand out of South Asia. Again, this is in keeping with an India which has rarely expanded beyond its frontiers excepting the Cholas' expansion into an already Indianized Southeast Asia in the 11th Century AD. Morality does not really enter into the equation in The Arthashastra , except in some rare instances, demonstrating that the preservation of the State is not an end in itself.
As Kautilya writes: In the presence of governance, the weak resists the strong. Mar 24, Thangaraj Kannan rated it it was amazing. Ancient book on how to govern. A rare literature whose content is still relevant to today's world. Discusses various things about, how the king should be, the ways to administer his kingdom, how to keep his kinsmen satisfied, military rules, covert operations, marriage laws etc.
One of the greatest linguists in world history flourished sometime in the following centuries. This was Panini. He set out highly logical rules of grammar, which formed the basis of classical Sanskrit.
Much Indian education came to be based on its principles, even if not in Sanskrit; they trained Indian scholars in a rigorous logic which acted as a major stimulus to intellectual thought and debate. Although Sanskrit was the language of learning and theology in South India, as it was in the north, the growth of the bhakti devotional movements enhanced the crystallization of vernacular literature in all four major Dravidian languages: Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, and Kannada; they often borrowed themes and vocabulary from Sanskrit but preserved much local cultural lore.
Examples of Tamil literature include two major poems, Cilappatikaram The Jewelled Anklet and Manimekalai The Jewelled Belt ; the body of devotional literature of Shaivism and Vaishnavism--Hindu devotional movements; and the reworking of the Ramayana by Kamban in the twelfth century. A nationwide cultural synthesis had taken place with a minimum of common characteristics in the various regions of South Asia, but the process of cultural infusion and assimilation would continue to shape and influence India's history through the centuries.
The Mauryan Empire By the end of the sixth century B. Kautilya also known as Chanakya, c. Kautilya belonged to the Brahmin caste the priestly class , he was originally from Northern India and a professor of political science and economics at the University of Taxila. He was fully knowledgeable concerning the Vedas literature and it is believed that he might have had some knowledge of Zoroastrianism. This book was lost for many centuries and a copy of it written on palm leaves was rediscovered in India in CE.
The Arthashastra is a handbook for running an empire effectively and it contains detailed information about specific topics.
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Even today, the Arthashastra is the number one classic of diplomacy in India. The Ardhamagadhi or simply Magadhi Prakrit, which was used extensively to write the scriptures of Jainism, is often considered to be the definitive form of Prakrit, while others are considered variants thereof. Prakrit grammarians would give the full grammar of Ardhamagadhi first, and then define the other grammars with relation to it.
For this reason, courses teaching 'Prakrit' are often regarded as teaching Ardhamagadhi. Pali, the Prakrit used in Theravada Buddhism, tends to be treated as a special exception from the variants of the Ardhamagadhi language, as Classical Sanskrit grammars do not consider it as a Prakrit per se, presumably for sectarianrather than linguistic reasons.
This collection contains poems in Tamil composed by poets, some of whom remain anonymous. Most of the available Sangam literature are from the Third Sangam, this period is known as the Sangam period, which referring to the prevalent Sangam legends claiming literary academies lasting thousands of years, giving the name to the corpus of literature.
Sangam literature is primarily secular, dealing with everyday themes in a Tamilakam context. The poems belonging to Sangam literature were composed by Tamil poets, both men and women, from various professions and classes of society.
These poems were later collected into various anthologies, edited, and with colophons added by anthologists and annotators around AD. Sangam literature fell out of popular memory soon thereafter, until they were rediscovered in the 19th century by scholars such as Arumuga Navalar, C.
Thamotharampillai and U. Swaminatha Iyer. Sangam literature deals with emotional and material topics such as love, war, governance, trade and bereavement.Also there was an estabilishment of communication between the Governor general's office which was the headquarter and its various field units and formal units of organisation.
He further states that it is the people who constitute a kingdom; like a barren cow, a kingdom without people yields nothing.
As it happens, the concept "the enemy of my enemy is my friend" originated in The Arthashastra: Mitra speaks of a poet known as Dramila.
The administration at the Centre was personal and paternal and operated with a fair degree of efficiency as long as the King kept an eye and controlled effectively. The business excellence in accordance to the Indian philosophy is more than just a business objective. A hermeneutic is defined as a specific system or method for interpretation, or a specific theory of interpretation. Apparently, Chanakya used these sutras to groom Chandragupt and other selected disciples in the art of ruling a kingdom.
The roots of the Arthashatra can be traced from the Rig Veda.
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