# TWO PORT NETWORK PDF

This chapter discusses the application of MATLAB for analysis of two-port networks. The describing equations for the various two-port network represen-. A pair of terminals at which a signal (voltage or current) may enter or leave is called a port. • A network having only one such pair of terminals is called a one- port. Analysis of the Terminated Two-Port Circuit Two-port circuits are useful in communications, For two-port networks, four parameters are generally.

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Two-Port Circuits. The Terminal Equations. The Two-Port Parameters. Analysis of the Terminated Two-Port. Circuit. Interconnected Two-Port. PDF | On Nov 22, , Hamza Kaouach and others published Two port networks (Lecture for students) [Introduction]. Click on the above link to learn more about Two Port Networks, T-parameters, Z- Parameters and so on. These GATE Study Notes are useful for GATE EE.

Decibel attenuation Decibel is logarithmic ratio therefore has no units. T-pad attenuator, Pi-pad attenuator, and bridge-T attenuator is a symmetrical attenuator. Bridge-T Attenuator It is another purely resistive design that is a variation on the symmetrical T-pad attenuator.

As it name implies the bridged-T attenuator has an additional resistive element forming a bridge network across the two series resistors of the standard T-pad. This additional resistors enables the circuit to reduce the level of a signal appears to bridge across the T-pad network.

The difference this time is that this type of attenuator is used in frequency dependent circuit to create loss in transmission or to match the impedance of unbalanced source and load networks.

The L-pad attenuator network comprises of two purely resistive elements in series with each other connected across a voltage source. Related Questions and answers Q. The image impedance as the type of the impedance which when connected to the input and the output of the transducer it will make both the impedances equal.

It is defined as the particular value of the load impedance which has the ability to produce an input impedance with the value same as the value of the load impedance.

In this respect T -parameters fill the same role as ABCD parameters and allow the T -parameters of cascaded networks to be calculated by matrix multiplication of the component networks. T -parameters, like ABCD parameters, can also be called transmission parameters.

## Electric Circuits and Networks by K. S. Suresh Kumar

The definition is, [15] [19]. T -parameters are not so easy to measure directly unlike S -parameters. However, S -parameters are easily converted to T -parameters, see main article for details. When two or more two-port networks are connected, the two-port parameters of the combined network can be found by performing matrix algebra on the matrices of parameters for the component two-ports.

The matrix operation can be made particularly simple with an appropriate choice of two-port parameters to match the form of connection of the two-ports. For instance, the z-parameters are best for series connected ports.

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The combination rules need to be applied with care. Some connections when dissimilar potentials are joined result in the port condition being invalidated and the combination rule will no longer apply. A Brune test can be used to check the permissibility of the combination. This difficulty can be overcome by placing 1: This does not change the parameters of the two-ports, but does ensure that they will continue to meet the port condition when interconnected.

An example of this problem is shown for series-series connections in figures 11 and 12 below. When two-ports are connected in a series-series configuration as shown in figure 10, the best choice of two-port parameter is the z -parameters.

The z -parameters of the combined network are found by matrix addition of the two individual z -parameter matrices.

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As mentioned above, there are some networks which will not yield directly to this analysis. The z -parameters for this network are;.

Figure 11 shows two identical such networks connected in series-series. The total z -parameters predicted by matrix addition are;.

The discrepancy is explained by observing that R 1 of the lower two-port has been by-passed by the short-circuit between two terminals of the output ports. This results in no current flowing through one terminal in each of the input ports of the two individual networks. Consequently, the port condition is broken for both the input ports of the original networks since current is still able to flow into the other terminal.

This problem can be resolved by inserting an ideal transformer in the output port of at least one of the two-port networks. While this is a common text-book approach to presenting the theory of two-ports, the practicality of using transformers is a matter to be decided for each individual design.

When two-ports are connected in a parallel-parallel configuration as shown in figure 13, the best choice of two-port parameter is the y -parameters.

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The y -parameters of the combined network are found by matrix addition of the two individual y -parameter matrices. When two-ports are connected in a series-parallel configuration as shown in figure 14, the best choice of two-port parameter is the h -parameters.

The h -parameters of the combined network are found by matrix addition of the two individual h -parameter matrices.

When two-ports are connected in a parallel-series configuration as shown in figure 15, the best choice of two-port parameter is the g -parameters. The g -parameters of the combined network are found by matrix addition of the two individual g -parameter matrices.

When two-ports are connected with the output port of the first connected to the input port of the second a cascade connection as shown in figure 16, the best choice of two-port parameter is the ABCD -parameters. The a -parameters of the combined network are found by matrix multiplication of the two individual a -parameter matrices.

A chain of n two-ports may be combined by matrix multiplication of the n matrices. To combine a cascade of b -parameter matrices, they are again multiplied, but the multiplication must be carried out in reverse order, so that;.

Suppose we have a two-port network consisting of a series resistor R followed by a shunt capacitor C. We can model the entire network as a cascade of two simpler networks:.

Certain pairs of matrices have a particularly simple relationship. The admittance parameters are the matrix inverse of the impedance parameters, the inverse hybrid parameters are the matrix inverse of the hybrid parameters, and the [ b ] form of the ABCD-parameters is the matrix inverse of the [ a ] form. That is,. While two port networks are very common e.

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Summary Chapter 2 describes two port parameter definitions h , z , y and S illustrating the common nature of these parameters and how this enables the different elements of equivalent circuit models to be deduced including:Any linear circuit with four terminals can be regarded as a two-port network provided that it does not contain an independent source and satisfies the port conditions.

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## Electronic Engineering Applications of Two-Port Networks

When two-ports are connected in a series-parallel configuration as shown in figure 14, the best choice of two-port parameter is the h -parameters. A degree of freedom is lost. To combine a cascade of b -parameter matrices, they are again multiplied, but the multiplication must be carried out in reverse order, so that;.

Any circuit can be transformed into a two-port network provided that it does not contain an independent source.

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An example is a mass connected to a spring in which the driving force is applied to one end of the spring, and the mass is attached to the other end, as shown in Fig. S -parameters are used primarily at UHF and microwave frequencies where it becomes difficult to measure voltages and currents directly.

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