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Find the most up-to-date version of RTCA DO at Engineering This document is DOB issued December 2, with Corrigendum 1 (described above) issued December 13, included as Appendix W. This document contains Minimum Operational Performance Standards (MOPS) for airborne equipment for Automatic Dependent Surveillance – Broadcast. Standards (MOPS) for MHz. Automatic Dependent Surveillance. – Broadcast (ADS-B) – including. Change 1. RTCA DO September 13,.

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Abstract · Full-Text PDF · Full-Text HTML · Full-Text ePUB · Full-Text XML · Linked References These transmissions can also be received by other aircraft to allow aircrews knowledge of nearby traffic. .. DOB, “Minimum operational performance standards for MHz extended Rep., RTCA, 4 days ago PDF · EPUB Primary Flight Display SCADE Display OpenGL SC DOC anyone developing software for safety critical systems must follow RTCA DO guidelines in order . Comput Eng –Google Scholar. (epub) . DO Appendix C published in , groups, and during plenary sessions and meetings as well as other Some of the vendors listed provided data points to RTCA SC and these were included in .. (*) Assumed average Flight Hours per aircraft per month = Hours ( this only.

Introduction Current radar surveillance cannot track aircraft beyond sight of land, requiring traffic over the ocean to use inefficient and imprecise procedural techniques to provide separation. Provision of continuous surveillance in this airspace would increase safety and security of air traffic, as well as allowing aircraft to follow more direct routes, saving time and fuel while reducing engine emissions. Such a system could also be used over land, for example, in Canada's high arctic, where large areas are without air traffic surveillance.

An alternate method of providing aircraft position data is by automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast ADS-B , in which aircraft continually transmit their identity and navigational information.

These transmissions can also be received by other aircraft to allow aircrews knowledge of nearby traffic. ADS-B has the advantage that the ground stations are less complex and have lower power requirements than radar installations, so ADS-B stations can be installed in remote areas for lower cost [ 1 ].

ADS-B networks have already been implemented in areas around the world, but ground stations cannot be installed in midocean and are difficult to build and maintain in the Arctic, leaving a coverage gap for oceanic and high latitude airspace. A potential solution for the accurate surveillance and tracking of aircraft anywhere in the world is through the monitoring of aircraft-transmitted ADS-B signals using satellite-borne receivers. Larger aircraft are required to have MHz mode S transponder equipment for collision avoidance, so the use of the ES carrier for ADS-B is the most cost-effective path.

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The ES ADS-B message is a bit transmission that contains the aircraft identification, position, velocity, and status. The message is broadcast with a period that ranges randomly between 0. This randomization function is designed to prevent aircraft from having synchronized transmissions on the same frequency, and thus obscuring each other's transmissions.

Required transmitter power for the ADS-B signal varies with the aircraft category. For smaller aircraft, a minimum transmission power of 75 W is specified while larger aircraft require a minimum power of W or W with a maximum output power for all classes of W [ 6 ].

Aircraft use a quarter-wave monopole antenna for ADS-B transmissions that transmit vertically polarized signals [ 6 ]. The system was carried by a self-bursting stratospheric sounding balloon, capable of reaching altitudes higher than 90, ft 27, m ASL. Airline traffic commonly cruises at altitudes from 29, to 43, ft ASL [ 7 ], so the goal was to detect ADS-B signals above these altitudes.

For redundancy, observed ADS-B data was recorded onboard for later recovery and transmitted by radio to a ground station at the launch site. The system was designed as a lightweight payload to allow its accommodation on a sounding balloon of the type used by meteorological agencies for daily upper air monitoring.

The total payload mass was 3. The FLOAT payload system consisted of an insulated canister containing the sensor systems and supporting hardware. It was designed with a ten-hour operational lifetime, sufficient for preflight checks, launch process, flight operations, and estimated recovery time, with a two-hour margin.

The primary sensor was a commercial ADS-B detector and antenna. Position and tracking data were provided by a space-qualified GPS receiver, so there was no restriction on the altitude for determining positional information. A thermocouple was also included to sense internal and external temperature during the mission.

This temperature information was intended for later technical analysis and potential fault diagnosis, but it also served to provide a sounding of the atmospheric temperature profile.

The operations of the sensor subsystems were supported by an onboard computer. Data was stored both on the computer hard disk and a solid-state storage device.

International Journal of Navigation and Observation

Additionally, a UHF radio was used to send the data to the ground station as it was recorded. These support subsystems, and the sensor elements were powered by a system of batteries and a power regulation unit. All of the components were housed together in a payload canister for protection against the elements during the mission.

The canister was built of rigid insulating polymer foam faced with aluminum foil and sealed with aluminum tape. Aside from the radar-reflective external layer, the key external features of the canister were the housing for a secondary commercial GPS tracking system, the antennas for the ADS-B and GPS receivers and telemetry radio, and the external portion of the thermocouple wire of the temperature sensor.

The canister also carried markings identifying the payload and its launching authority, as required by the relevant regulations, and, to aid in the recovery of the payload in the event the retrieval team was unable to locate it. Following an ascent to 92, ft ASL Telemetry was unreliable during the late phases of the flight, but the secondary tracking system allowed recovery of the payload. Shortly after recovery, it was ascertained that a complete data set had been recorded by the payload, with ADS-B, GPS, and temperature data as planned.

All hardware survived the flight, with the exception of the ADS-B antenna, which was torn from its mount during the landing. During the 2. In the event that no messages were detected in the corresponding one minute period, no file was created. Notably, there was a period of reduced data recording, spanning During this time, only two ADS-B messages were detected, significantly less than the average of The antenna provided with the commercial ADS-B receiver was a full-wavelength monopole connected to the antenna mount by a threaded plastic fastener that butts the end of the antenna against the antenna lead.

It is possible that the thermal contraction of the antenna and the lead caused these elements to lose contact with each other at the butt joint. This is compatible with the idea that inner brain opsins also serve other, more fundamental functions in the vertebrate brain.


Our study provides strong evidence that in addition to neurosecretory cells, specific subsets of inter- and motorneurons are light-sensitive. As we show, not only the sequence of TMT-Opsins, but also their expression sites are highly conserved across evolution, arguing that these genes are involved in critical functions of the vertebrate brain.

The fact that each of the tested inner brain opsins is able to render cultured neuronal cells photoreceptive, and that response kinetics differ between subgroups, suggests that light can influence distinct cellular properties of inner brain opsin-expressing neurons.

Consistent with this hypothesis, we show that some neurons at the position of tmt-opsin expressing cells in the adult fish tectum directly respond to light by changes in membrane potential.

This puts forward the possibility that information processing in some vertebrate inter- and motor- neurons can be influenced directly by environmental light. This hypothesis is further backed by our finding that TMT-Opsins differ from VAL-Opsins [33] in spectral preference blue versus green light, respectively , allowing these neurons to perceive light of wider spectral range.

In these organs, co-expression is suggested to mediate color vision eye photoreceptors, e. Based on these examples, the co-expression of inner brain opsins in inter- or motorneurons might represent a fast possibility to adapt behavior to unpredictable environmental light changes.

This is compatible with the observation that both TMT-Opsins this study and VAL-Opsins [47] , [48] display most ancient-type sequence features when compared with other opsins, and that the superfamily of c-opsins can already be distinguished in cnidarians [49]. This view also has implications for the interpretation of the few known light-dependent modulatory functions, such as the direct influence of light on the electrophysiological response of retinal interneurons [45].

In addition, it has been thought to reflect the evolutionary relationships of retinal interneurons to ciliary-type versus rhabdomeric-type photoreceptors [50].

Our data suggest that both the light sensory ability of interneurons, as well as their evolutionary relationship to ciliary photoreceptors might also hold true for interneurons of the inner brain and are no specialty of the eye. Materials and Methods Zebrafish and Medaka Fish Husbandry All animal work was conducted according to Austrian and European guidelines for animal research.

NJ trees were generated using ClustalX software [51] , correcting for multiple substitutions and bootstrapped by 1, repetitions.

Original Research ARTICLE

Predicted opsin sequences are given as Ensemble coordinates in Table S1. The following eutherian genomes were screened for TMT-Opsin orthologs as described above: Tursiops truncatus, Bos taurus, Loxodonta africana, Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus, Pan troglodytes, and Homo sapiens. Opsin coding sequences were codon optimized for mammalian usage Entelechon and Geneart , cloned into pcDNA3. The RTCA system detects changes in cellular morphology and possibly also channel conductance elicited by surface receptor activation, which are reflected in changes of the CI value Figure S13A [23].

CI values were collected every 15 s, normalized by dividing the CI at the time point before light onset Figure S13B , and baseline-corrected by subtracting the CI obtained under non-light-sensitive conditions human Oxytocin receptor-transfected Figure S13C.


A black box with windows facilitated the illumination of the three plates with differently filtered light Lee filter; blue, no.Considering the presence of a complete rTCA cycle and the alternative of direct acetate import and assimilation, the organism is equipped for a mixotrophic lifestyle, which was proposed for other Epsilonproteobacteria as well Campbell et al. ADS-B networks have already been implemented in areas around the world, but ground stations cannot be installed in midocean and are difficult to build and maintain in the Arctic, leaving a coverage gap for oceanic and high latitude airspace.

However, the reconstructed population genome is incomplete as shown by the completeness estimation based on the Minimal Gene Set and the CSCG set. Both enzymes necessary for sulfur assimilation from sulfide, serine O-acetyltransferase EC 2. Example of the Primary Flight Display will be taken for proving the efficacy of the model—based approach. It is possible that the thermal contraction of the antenna and the lead caused these elements to lose contact with each other at the butt joint.