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Constructing Landscape Pdf

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of prototypes a landscape design which grants more space to the river. Operations - additions and subtractions - applied on the existing. Antoine Picon, “Constructing Landscape by Engineering Water”, in A. Berrizbeitia (ed.), Urban Landscape: Critical Concepts in the Built Environment, vol. Constructing Landscape is a systematic introduction to technical and constructional open space planning, with all the relevant topics, from the most common.

Claret leaves in Virginia creeper Fig. Green scenic effect in an inner courtyard Fig. It is shade-loving and slow-growing. As they grow to only in combination with the wall or the trellis structure cre. Ivy Low-climbing plants can also be used for partially Boston Ivy is striking because of its precisely defined greening tall facades if adequately large.

Shade spurs it on to grow even more quickly. The branches in the One important design motif can be the color of climbing darker areas then lose their leaves. Walls that are already slightly damaged make ideal victims. They can gener. Boston Ivy has no trouble in climbing to heights of ginning.

Self-supporting climbers Ivy Hedera helix is a particularly robust. It can create dense. Its roots can penetrate cracks and joints in the wall and cause dam- age.

Its ample multiple fruits are attractive. A light structural support should be provided to pre- vent storms from tearing parts of the plant off the wall. Protective grid for Parthenocissus tricuspidata which is why structural protection should be afforded. The plant produces striking orange trumpet flowers on the sunny upper side. Climbing rose on horizontal wooden trellis tersweet indeed. Ranun- shoots from slipping off. Because individual branches spread over Celastrus also known as Campsis or Wisteria is a good the trelliswork they always tend to look a little messy choice.

Care is needed if actually planting oriental bittersweet by trees. Aristolochia macrophylla Fig. It is also striking in winter when it has The shade-tolerant pipevine Aristolochia macrophylla.

A climbing construction made up of hori. But the plants must be accessible for trimming twigs on its side facing the sun. Artistolochiaceae radiates the refined elegance of This wild variety grows higher. Young trees can be literally choked by the plant in their trunk area. Oleaceae they grow slowly and thus remain small.

Green roofs have become more widespread with in water vapor balances extremes of temperature and the development of roof seals and root barriers and the the vegetative surface filters fine dust and heavy met- emergence of the ecology movement that followed the als out of the air.

The retentive properties of green roofs also allow An extensive green roof is indicated when a roof will water to be better managed. Intensive roof Fig. Rainwater runoff is slowed only tolerate minimal superstructure and loads. Small-scale simple intensive greening of a carport with greening in an inner courtyard water surfaces.

Compared with wind direction. Conse- of the Middle East.

Construction intervention in a sensitive landscape compensated for by green roofs Fig. Creating and Fig. They are an important conditions in context amount of precipitation. A tection and building insulation. Extensive sloping green roof: Technical requirements roof incline. A variety of green housing development roof types on different levels of a building. Roof load permitting. Height of superstructures varies from about 25 cm to cm in some cases.

Except during the growing phase. Sim- ple intensive green roofs involve superstructures of about 15—25 cm. A load. As well 1 2 3 4 5 6 as plants used in the extensive green roof.

Standard simple intensive green roof structure Adequate watering. Depending on construction. These surfaces and components usually have the same substructure as the intensive green roof. When designing a simple intensive green roof. Many of these plants originate in high alpine vapor seal locations. Standard extensive green roof structure Simple intensive green roofs are the intermediate form of extensive and intensive green roofs.

Due to the minimal structure and the 4 2. As well as the plants already mentioned. Hard surfaces and terraces are often created in combi- nation with intensive green roofs. An extensive green roof imposes functional loads 1 planting 2 approx. Standard intensive green roof structure Fig. Extensive green roof containing many species in an ecological Fig. This roof form is used.

As an 5 vapor seal 6 beam course additional layer beneath the roof seal. Standard warm roof construction light shell mal insulation must be able to tolerate the pressure. Water- structure open tight concrete gives the optimum protection from conden- to diffusion superstructure: For a cold roof also known as a multishell roof.

The 3 protective course 4 roof sealing root-proof watertight cement roof is generally suitable for all forms 5 reinforced concrete roof of green roof. If this is borne in mind. Standard cold roof construction The inverted roof is a special case. For new structures. A vapor barrier should be installed above the roof skin. As the roof may freeze through.

The ther- Fig. This makes whole-surface roof 2 thermal insulation seals. Standard inverted roof construction protected by a locally applied rootproof seal. Any openings and joints in the roof should be Fig. This means that the water- 1 roof planting structure carrying layer is beneath the insulation.

Standard warm roof construction Fig. Given suffi- course e. Roof drains ment. Tolerances in building construc. Intensive sloping green roof with turf and integrated Fig.

For more layer. Watering and drainage systems mulation thresholds may have to be provided. Flat roof renovation: The roof The number and placement of drainage installations pitch means that excess water quickly flows out of the such as roof drains.

In principle. Standard sloping roof lawn construction. These begin with shear barriers at drainage lev- accumulation irrigation. Installing a claw mat guttering to prevent slippage Roof incline and pitch Depending on steepness.

Standard extensive sloping roof construction Fig. Where water accumulation irrigation is in place. For this reason. Sloping green roof Fig. Drainage and inspection shaft 6 7 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 9 1 slab surface structure: Water accumulation with above-ground drip lip. Water channel molding Fig. Ducts should be provided within the roof and inside the building for water de. The terminations are at the lateral roof edges at- livery and control leads.

Accumulation barriers the top layer or the green roof should be introduced in are used. Junction with attic. Roof seals and root provided. Junction with terrace door with low threshold Fig. Roof seals and root barriers—5 or 10 cm least one water outlet is required for manual watering.

Inspection shaft for a simple water accumulation irrigation device inspection shafts in the surface. In case of curves in are found around rising components and those that the pitch of the roof. For extensive green roofs. Irrigation machine in shaft Fig. Gravel traps or similar Edge formation.

For sloping roofs. In order to avoid excessive swelling caused the roof construction. Junctions and outer gutters are possibilities. Rope anchor safety system anchored to solid drainage Fig. Extensive green roof: Personnel protection involving rope anchorage systems system and vegetation-free strips—generally 30 cm wide— For loosely laid roof layers.

They are ing filled-in lawn paving or vegetation mats.

Attic story edging Fig. In exposed therefore at greater risk from airborne burning matter. Roofs above Intensive green roofs are considered hard roofing due 20 m eaves height as well as the corners and edges of to their irrigation. Edge strip of gravel and kick plates bordering a rising Fig.

Extensive green roofs have shorter mainte. Damage caused by wind drag strip with lawn paving on gravel structural component to resist wind drag 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 superstructure: These are usually made of plastic or screed. It is possible to combine these materi- Protective plies protect the roof seal from mechani. Drainage layers made from artificial substances. Solid drainage system for extensive green roof.

The drainage layer may be er and multilayer designs. Protection and storage fleece Fig. Predominantly mineral substrate for one-layer extensive green roof. The aim is controlled storage of water for use while A fundamental distinction is made between single-lay. Solid drainage system for transport routes 1. One-layer designs consist of formed of natural mineral substances such as sands. If the roof This may comprise either secure rails or special sys.

Drainage mats for use on inclined roofs Fig. As for grain size distribution. Geotex- 1 interior with threshold tiles are commonly used. It must be structurally stable—i.

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For one-layer OKFF This may have to be balanced out by laying a thicker tiled surface. Paved and tiled surfaces can be laid in chippings directly on protective fleeces or filtration layers. This means that the protective layer.

For water accumula- tion irrigation. Wood covering at junction with lawn Fig. The use of mineral bulk materials such Fig. This value can reach Paved surface. Terrace covering on stilt bearing.

Standards for Designing and Constructing City Infrastructure

Topsoil sloping thermal insula- tion mixtures with grain size distribution and humus content foam glass sheets vapor seal that meet the above requirements. This allows weight to be reduced. The goal is good per- roof seal root-proof meability together with optimum water retention. All the relevant topics are vividly covered. Alexander Robinson working modes are also discussed.

Surface properties and possible for Landscape Architecture Liat Margolis. ISBN for structural components. Innovative Materials and Technologies The first part surveys various building materials used in landscape architecture. Typology and Experiments for Design Clemens Steenbergen The next section explains the fundamental principles of statics.

Flag for inappropriate content. Related titles. Jump to Page. Search inside document. Documents Similar To Landscape Constructing. Mihaela Budur. Mari Ribas. Ashok Khurana. Maja Maki. Figure Lush Mediterranean greenery as an equal con- tributor to the total design. Used with permission of the MGT. The surroundings of all the motels on the Croatian Adriatic are designed in an orthogonal system, within Figure The Trogir motel as an extension of the which all individual buildings can be reached by car.

Used with permission from the HDA. The bun- requirements of mere guest accommodation. These two-storey structures were intended to annexes with automobiles parked in front to a remarkable be occupied by a single family. On the ground floor, only level of precision, even greater than in the actual motel three metres wide, is a living room and sanitary facilities, designs themselves.

Although the size of the buildings. He displayed a specific sensibility for a close relationship While the cost estimates of all the motels demanded the between a new means of transportation and the type of elevations be made of stone, they do not specify the exact tourist structure developed to best accommodate it. He kind or finish. However, a comparison of the types of stone utilised the scenery as seen from behind the wheel as and bond patterns utilised in the cladding of each of the one of the key elements in organising his architectural motels shows an exclusive use of stone from local quarries complex.

While the structure in Rijeka was clad of the elevations, and the framing of views was particu- in plates of broken stone, the slabs aligned horizontally larly successful in the case of Preluk Motel near Rijeka. They are from its elevated position Fig. His retaining walls are sometimes core buildings. They are now set longitudinally, along the detached, as in Rijeka, but in most cases they are used ridge.

The main building and the shop stand above the either as the accentuated volumes of single units, in the access road, while the one-storey annex is dug into the case of the bungalows, or as stone-clad containers of the ground, with the ground-level terrace as its roof. Below long rows of rooms wedged between the opposing walls. Vertical retaining walls along the downward- Dalmatian context is final proof of the intentionality of sloping road are clad in stone to blend in with the sur- this assimilation and adaptation strategy.

A sharp turn would then open the view to largest of these motel complexes. The Kragujevac motel the sea in an almost ceremonious, solemn approach to the overlaps with those built on the coast in almost every parking lot, where car passengers could enjoy the views of sense, except in an aberration in the final cladding — brick, the open sea.

Constructing Landscape: Materials, Techniques, Structural Components

Monitoring nal project. Figure A perspective view of the Trieste project. This Figure A perspective view of the Preluk motel near is the first and the most complex of the Sljeme motel Rijeka located on a steep slope facing the sea.

Courtesy chain. Recently, efforts to bring them back into use have been aided by a growing interest in preserving post- war modernist heritage. Only two of the motels from the Sljeme chain were recognised by the state as cultural heritage in and , and are therefore listed for protection.

Nevertheless, the state has done little to raise awareness of their decay and the need to protect them — instead, the impetus for this has come from the work of an NGO called Loose Associations. The motel chain deserves to be systematically re-evaluated, as well as protected, as a testament to a rare, successful synergy of the technical, architectural and landscape design culture Fig.

Notes 1 Sljeme is the name of an agricultural and industrial company that produced and sold meat and meat products. In addition to investing in the only Croa- tian example of a motel chain on the Adriatic coast, they also invested in restaurants and snack bars, and worked intensively on expanding their catering ser- Figure A sequence showing segments of the eleva- vices network.

Its route was determined by the highly indented Adriatic coast. Conclusion 5 The Slovenian town of Kopar in the immediate vicin- The development of the contemporary highway system, ity of Trieste and Italy was chosen as the beginning of which coincided with the development of air travel, irrev- this route.

Construction was continuous from north to ocably changed how tourists arrived at the Adriatic coast, south, but the intensity varied, dictated by technically thus changing their perception of it. It also brought about difficult parts of the terrain and delays in financing. He was to establish himself in Zagreb in migrations, the importance of this area has changed.

The southern part of the high- from multiple causes, primarily changes in ownership way was built with an international loan from IBRD. Ekonomska politika Partije — Socijalizam na tinctive roadside structures with emptiness between klupi.

Entitlements, Desires, by In the period between —, an aston- and the Realities of Social Tourism under Yugoslav Social- ishing fivefold increase was recorded, from km to ism.

In: Grandits, H and Taylor, K eds. Side: A History of Tourism in Socialism s—s. Turizam, 7 3 : 16— Greco, L Architetture Autostradali in Italia. Zagreb: JAZU. Faculty of Architecture, University of Zagreb. Hrvatska revija, 4 4 : 46— Academy of Sciences and Arts [Hrvatski muzej Turizam, 5 7 : 10— Ideology at the Sarajevo Winter Olympic Games. Zagreb: MGPU. In: Mauch, C and Zeller, T eds.

The izma. Turizam, 7—8: 7— Athens, Ohio: Ohio Uni- mjestima. Turizam, 9 4—5 : 21— In: Beyer, E, Hagemann, A and ske magistrale. Turizam, 11 4—5 : 18— Holidays after the Fall. Berlin: Jovis. Ceste i mostovi, 12 7—9 : 97— Ceste i mostovi, — Cambridge: MIT Press. Washington: World Bank. Turizam, 6 8—9 : hrvatske arhitekture XX. Zagreb: Arhitekton- 20— Prvi dio. OASE, 21— Measure should also be taken to. This not only prevents water from standing or ice from accumulating on the step, but also stops water penetrating the foundations, thus restricting damage from freezing water.

In order to capture water running off higher areas, and in the case of longer stair structures, drainage gutters should be placed before the top step, and below each individual step in the case of stepped paths. This applies in particular to steps in wood, metal and stone with polished surfaces, which should be used only in conjunction with antislip surface treatment.

Exceptions here are roofed stairs or climatic conditions that admit different construction methods.

Changes in direction in the flights produce a number of forms for staircases. Such changes are produced by a landing angled stairs or by arranging the steps in a spiral. Loadbearing structures Steps in the open air are often constructed directly on the subsoil. The load is then transferred either over the whole area via stepped concrete slab foundations. Schematic diagram of possible loadbearing systems. Cross-beam staircases: Stringer staircases: Spiral staircase with stringers on the Killesberg viewing tower, Stuttgart: Monolithic base slab and steps for concrete staircases: In self-supporting staircases, the steps are placed on a reinforced concrete base slab over their full area, or on point supports on one, two or more cross beams.

Base slabs and cross beams with an appropriately stepped surface can be prefabricated in reinforced concrete. If timber or steel structures are being used, the necessary support for the steps is created by placing brackets on the cross beams or by creating stepped cross beams. Timber structures are found less often in the open air because they do not stand up to weathering as well, and are most commonly used in sheltered areas, such as attics inside buildings.

They are made of flat steel minimum thickness 10 mm , as hollow or U-sections, or for cross beams also as I-sections. When steps are tied into a wall, the loadbearing capacity is provided by adequate thickness in the steps and the depth to which they are tied in. Hard stone granite, for example can project up to 1.

The steps are connected either to the central newel or via a cylindrical mating part on the steps. Suspended steps hang on cables or rods from the ceiling or a supporting member on one side. On the other side they are anchored by a bracket to a wall or a side section of the staircase.

Because construction loads may be distributed unevenly, staircase stringers and the steps themselves should generally be constructed separately. If the footing is not frost-protected, the nonrigid foundation e. Full foundations or strip foundations are then placed on a frost protection layer 15—20 cm thick. Alternatively, the first step alone can be supported on a frost-protected strip foundation.

Again, both variants must have stable, frost-protected foundations. Step types Various types of steps are used, depending on the loadbearing structure and the material. Almost every type of step can be executed in stone. Wood and steel are used mainly for slab steps and for variations on them. The setback line at the front of the step forms a dummy joint, making the step look lighter, and easier to walk on. Foundations for steps should be frost-protected, and in exceptional cases frost-resistant as well, on a horizontal foundation base on loadbearing subsoil settled ground or compacted subsoil.

Design Criteria for Sewers and Watermains

The foundation type is chosen in relation to the location and the anticipated loading. Frost-protected, rigid foundations in concrete should always be provided if large loads are anticipated, a staircase is being built on a public site, or long flights of steps are planned. Foundations are protected against frost by concrete strip foundations under the first and last steps in the case of foundation base slabs. For self-supporting structures, the base slabs, cross beams or stringers are supported on point or strip foundations at the first step.

The top of the staircase is often supported on a wall at the last step, or attached to a bracket fastened to the building. If such an approach is impossible, such as in long staircases, intermediate supports must be used.

In timber staircases, the first step can be in stone, as structural protection for the timber. Stepping should thus be used only on solid ground, and loose ground must not be allowed to slip off. Solid rectangular steps can also be placed on strip foundations, where the load from individual steps is transferred via point supports—similarly to cross-beam steps.

Vertical planting means growing climbing plants on more or less vertical sections of buildings or in the spaces between them. This includes planting on traditional arbors and pergolas, and on walls, industrial halls, multistory car parks, and sound insulation screens. Climbing plants grow upwards towards the light.

The disadvantage here is that they continue to depend on a support. Although upward growth predominates at first, some perennial climbing plants grow strikingly in thickness as well increased diameter. A distinction can be made between two typical climbing strategies: He chooses not to use climbing plants here, and the plants used are not in the usual soil.

Instead, special light plastic elements mounted in frames on the facade take over the mechanical aspect of soil function. Clematis alpina Actinidia kolomikta Clematis tanguitica Jasminum nudiflorum Lonicera brownii Clematis viticella Clematis Hybriden Rambler roses Lonicera heckrotti Lonicera henryi Lonicera caprifolium Lonicera periclymenum.

Consequently vertical planting, with roof planting, offer excellent ways of compensating for the lack of greenery in densely built-up areas. This is particularly true in megalopolises, where the underground car parks in the towering buildings and the general scarcity of land mean that open spaces are increasingly sited in artificial locations.

Planted facades change the surroundings and outward appearance of buildings. This raises questions about the creative aims, which are particularly strongly associated with specific plant qualities in the case of vertical planting. Should the growth be spread evenly? Should a three-dimensional, apparently solid structure be created? Should the full height of the building be planted, or just part of it e.

Is the situation sunny or shady? Considerations of this kind affect the choice of plants. But if full growth over a wall is to be achieved with trellis climbers alone, the whole facade area should be fitted with trellis or cable-net structures.

Particularly suitable for linear planting are creepers Actinidia, Akebia, Aristolochia, Celastrus, Wisteria , and trailing plants such as Parthenocissus quinquefolia. To create combined planting, linear and more expansive elements are brought together or used in parallel for structuring. A wide range of possible combinations is available here: Where there are distances between individual supporting elements to be bridged, it should be remembered that climbing plants cannot cope with unduly wide gaps, so the sections of the structure should not be more than 30—50 cm apart.

Low-climbing plants can also be used for partially greening tall facades if adequately large, water plant containers are attached on the higher levels. Sculptural vertical planting based on stainless steel wire cables can make a scenic effect between buildings or posts. Boston Ivy is striking because of its precisely defined appearance: Boston Ivy has no trouble in climbing to heights of 15—20 m.

Shade spurs it on to grow even more quickly, and it rapidly develops real trunks. They can generally be trimmed to the desired shape. Spreading climbers Spreading climbers, such as sun-loving climbing roses, jasmine and blackberries are appealing because of their abundant, pretty blossom.

As they grow to only about 5 m high, they can be used practically speaking only for partial planting for something like the height of. Self-supporting climbers Ivy Hedera helix is a particularly robust, shade-loving root climber, with dark green foliage. It can create dense, enormously high evergreen walls up to 30 m if it is allowed to develop freely. Its ample multiple fruits are attractive, though these do no appear until the plant is a few years old, and they make the plant more vulnerable to storms.

Walls that are already slightly damaged make ideal victims. The trumpet vine Campsis radicans also climbs with anchoring roots and tends to develop into a kind of extended tree crown.

The plant produces striking orange trumpet flowers on the sunny upper side. Its roots can penetrate cracks and joints in the wall and cause damage. A light structural support should be provided to prevent storms from tearing parts of the plant off the wall. The climbing hydrangea Hydrangea petiolaris attaches itself to rough walls, cracks and joints with its anchoring roots.

It is shade-loving and slow-growing, develops a full and pendulous appearance with attractive, protruding corymbose cymes, which makes the plant vulnerable to being torn off in storms and under snow, which is why structural protection should be afforded. If left to their own devices, creepers tend to look bushy, but they can be confined to a more disciplined shape by trimming.

But the plants must be accessible for trimming purposes, which can be a limiting factor in terms of height. The shade-tolerant pipevine Aristolochia macrophylla, fam.

Artistolochiaceae radiates the refined elegance of classical plants in arbors, and at the same time creates. Care is needed if actually planting oriental bittersweet by trees, as the plant quickly takes over the crown, and soon only the bittersweet leaves can be seen. Young trees can be literally choked by the plant in their trunk area, so the experience can be bittersweet indeed. Ranunculaceae attract attention with their large flowers, but they grow slowly and thus remain small.

It is also striking in winter when it has no leaves and the whitish blossom glows in the sunlight. This wild variety grows higher, winding itself around every little branch or projecting object. Because individual branches spread over the trelliswork they always tend to look a little messy and unkempt.

A climbing construction made up of horizontal slats, cables, rods or a large-mesh grid structure is needed to prevent the thorns or protruding side shoots from slipping off. Oleaceae tends to be overhanging, with its shoots hanging down in curves up to 2 m long.

The field of green structure incorporates green roofs and facade greening.

Green roofs have become more widespread with the development of roof seals and root barriers and the emergence of the ecology movement that followed the s.

They are an important aspect of sustainable building planning. Compared with conventional roof constructions, they improve roof protection and building insulation. The retentive properties of green roofs also allow water to be better managed. Rainwater runoff is slowed down and reduced, leveling out spikes in precipitation. Consequently the microclimate also improves, as the increase in water vapor balances extremes of temperature and the vegetative surface filters fine dust and heavy metals out of the air.

A distinction is made between extensive green roofs, simple intensive green roofs, intensive green roofs and hard surfaces. Creating and. Except during the growing phase, maintenance is extensive. The superstructure layers are 5 to approximately 15 cm thick. Due to the minimal structure and the extensive maintenance, only very robust and droughtresistant plants are used.

Shrubs, grasses, lichens and mosses or, more rarely, ground-covering woody plants are used. Many of these plants originate in high alpine locations.

As well as plants used in the extensive green roof, low woody plants and more demanding shrubs can be used. Simple intensive green roofs involve superstructures of about 15—25 cm. When designing a simple intensive green roof, its more labor-intensive care, especially with regard to watering and fertilizing, must be taken into account. As well as the plants already mentioned, bushes, small trees and lawn areas can be included.

Adequate watering, usually involving water accumulation or irrigation systems, is invariably necessary. Height of superstructures varies from about 25 cm to cm in some cases. Hard surfaces and terraces are often created in combination with intensive green roofs. Roof load permitting, asphalt, paved or tiled paths, wooden decking or enclosing walls are possible.

These surfaces and components usually have the same substructure as the intensive green roof. Standard simple intensive green roof structure. Extensive green roof containing many species in an ecological housing development.

Standard warm roof construction. Roof types and loadbearing capacity 1 roof planting structure extensive: When planning a green roof, the first thing to do is to check the construction and loadbearing capacity of the roof. For new structures, the intended form of green roof should be determined at an early stage, so that the roof can be designed accordingly. It should be ensured that the required roof seals are designed to be impenetrable to roots.

For a warm roof, the roof seal is above the thermal insulation, which in turn lies atop the loadbearing construction. This form of roof is widespread and is generally suitable for green roofs without special requirements. The thermal insulation must be able to tolerate the pressure.

A vapor barrier should be installed above the roof skin, covering the above-ground construction, as otherwise condensation water may get into the building. This roof form is used, for instance, in underground garages and unheated outbuildings. Given sufficient loadbearing capacity, this creates no problems for a green roof. As the roof may freeze through, cold-sensitive plants should not be included. As an additional layer beneath the roof seal, usually a light wood construction, is involved, this often means that only an extensive green roof is possible.

Here, thermal insulation is above the roof seal. This means that the watercarrying layer is beneath the insulation, which in turn means that all materials used for the green roof must allow diffusion. If this is borne in mind, all forms of green roof are possible. Watertight concrete gives the optimum protection from condensation and root damage.

This makes whole-surface roof seals, vapor barriers and root barriers unnecessary. The watertight cement roof is generally suitable for all forms of green roof. Any openings and joints in the roof should be protected by a locally applied rootproof seal.

Title: Constructing Landscape – Materials, Techniques, Structural Components

Flat roof renovation: These begin with shear barriers at drainage level and extend to the upper vegetation layer, with erosion resistant weaves or similar measures. For more demanding vegetation types and intensive utilization, rooftop irrigation should be put in place. In principle, a variety of green roof forms are possible given careful planning. Roof incline is an important technical consideration in choosing a green roof. Tolerances in building construction do not preclude puddles forming at the drainage layer.

For this reason, the roof seal should be laid to measure especially and a drainage level should always be provided the same applies to extensive green roofs! Where water accumulation irrigation is in place, water accumulation thresholds may have to be provided. The roof pitch means that excess water quickly flows out of the drainage system. Where construction tolerances permit a siphon effect or insufficient downward water movement, these must be eliminated.

Roof drains on the roof skin should be designed to be visible via. Standard extensive sloping roof construction. Standard sloping roof lawn construction. Gravel traps or similar measures should be used to ensure that the roof drains do not become clogged. For sloping roofs, both inner and outer gutters are possibilities. In case of curves in the pitch of the roof, special drainage layers should be provided.

Accumulation barriers are used, some already integrated into the structure of the roof construction, but installations for automatic water accumulation, recessed sprinklers, or drip irrigation can also be added.Fast-growing small tree with weal wood with a round or broad pyramidal crown, branches rarely grow straight, pay attention to side clearance, flowering tree; do not use in paved areas; resistant to urban climate.

Seifert, a landscape architect with them Fig. Junctions and outer gutters are possibilities. The setback line at the front Foundations of the step forms a dummy joint. The two high- ways were to converge in Skopje in the Republic of Mace- donia and form a circulation system that would open the country up to the West and enable unrestricted travel all the way to Greece, where tourism was already booming.

Root ball goods are bred by regular replanting. A short introduction lists the requirements and possible uses for each group, and also the characteristic qualities that each plant displays. This raises questions about the creative aims, which are particularly strongly associated with specific plant qualities in the case of vertical planting.

For more layer.