THE KNOWING DOING GAP PDF
The Knowing Doing Gap. Jeffrey Pfeffer and Robert I Sutton. Harvard Business School Press Why do so much education and training, management. The Knowing-Doing Gap: How Smart Companies Turn Knowledge into Action Hardcover – January 15, Jeffrey Pfeffer and Robert Sutton, well-known authors and teachers, identify the causes of the knowing-doing gap and explain how to close it. The message is clear--firms that turn. I CAN describe the Knowing-Doing Gap. • 2. I UNDERSTAND ways to assess current reality. • 3. I UNDERSTAND potential barriers that create a. K-D gap. • 4.
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PDF Full Text (MB). Title: KNOWING `WHAT' TO DO IS . happens in their organizations? Implementation or Ignorance: Does a Knowing-Doing Gap Really . PDF | On Oct 3, , Sue Greener and others published The knowing-doing gap in learning with technology. PDF | In the field of professional, continuous, and corporate education One of the main reasons for this knowing-doing gap (Pfeffer & Sutton.
French and Bell define action research as: We chose to study an organization from a social constructionist angle Wieck, ; Gergen, ; Bouwen , and to see an organization as the result of ongoing negotiations between all the concerned parties in the organization. The creation of meaning is the basic process of organization. This means that an organization is seen as a co-creation, as something in a constant state of becoming. Members have their own meaning, their own viewpoint, their own views about everything.
The members of the organization are continually involved in negotiating shared views of reality in order to define a common basis for joint action. The organization is the result of these permanent negotiations. In social constructionism organization diagnosis and organization intervention give out into each other completely.
Working on a diagnosis and seeking joint visions implies a constant construction and deconstruction of shared meaning. A productive interaction can then be created between research and implementation, between perception and action. We regard this action component, working alongside with TNG-employees and the implementation of research results, as a particular mission and challenge.
This action-research research strategy implies an iterative process of purposeful data-collection, feedback to the client group, discussion of data, action planning, action and evaluation.
The perceptions yielded by this cyclical process are continuously the subject of implementation and testing. This increases the validity of the generated knowledge in the context of the professional university sector. This increases the relevance and usefulness of the acquired insights and, in so doing, we avoid this research ending up filed away under F for Forget. In choosing action-research, we opted for a win-win operation between TNG and research.
We opted for co-operation between researcher and clients and worked in close contact with top-management of the TNG. In line with this action research study, based upon a social constructionist approach, we work with each group and diagnose together with them their actual situation, discuss their preferred or ideal situation, their own expectations and those of their superiors, and discuss the way to act in order to reach the next step to the desired situation.
We organized this process within each group and in between all groups. This process of collectively negotiate the new way of organizing is the most decisive within the learning process. Swieringa Knowledge creation, benchmarking, and knowledge management may be important, but transforming knowledge into organizational action is at least as important to obtain organizational success.
Although there are differences in knowledge across organizations, a much larger source of variation in performance stems from the ability to turn knowledge into action. The key to quality and productivity, to obtain sustained, superior performance is employee commitment. This is especially true in services, e. The four supports of commitment read as follow: For commitment to a job an employee must have a focus.
Focus is created by communicating the strategic goals and core values of the organization downward through each level. At each level, these goals and values must be translated into the work and decisions of each manager and employee.
It is impossible to overestimate the importance of establishing and communicating organizational values. It is equally impossible to measure the confusion and loss in performance that is created when values are not communicated or, are communicated and then not adhered to.
Values bring clarity if they are real, if bosses and other people embody the values. Supervisors and their subordinates have to have the same opinion over: People develop commitment toward what they believe they can do well.
People do not like to fail. They will try to avoid the things that they think they cannot do. If managers want commitment, they must make sure that employees have the ability and willingness to be successful in their jobs. There are two elements that managers must address in building employee competence.
They must ensure that their employees have the knowledge, skills, and experience to perform their tasks, and they must ensure that their employees have the confidence to perform their tasks. These competencies have to be built by all kinds of training and learning. The most personal strategy for building competence - and, therefore, one of the most powerful ones - is coaching. It is the only way for managers to find out exactly what their employees do not know and what they need to know.
Coaching also is a way to provide support and reassurance to employees who are taking on new tasks. Coaching facilitates learning because it is temporary and focuses exactly on the individual needs of the employee. Employees do not perform nearly as well when they are consistently denied any input in their jobs and are expected to follow unquestionably the decisions of their leaders.
Inputting means identifying problems, researching data, providing technical information and expertise. Decision making means participating in decisions about problem definition, about which problems will be addressed, etc.
Coaching is the key for extending the influence of employees. In their coaching conversations with employees, managers permit employees actively to identify their own needs and to help shape the ways these needs are met. People work best when they believe that what they do matters to someone else - especially their bosses. The question is how to leverage acts of appreciation especially the informal ones so that they have the maximum impact.
Of course, there is need to recognize superior performance. But one needs to recognize more than performance. Achievement is more than doing a job well. It may mean being a loyal employee for ten or twenty years. It may mean doing some unrewarding, routine job over and over and still doing it well.
It may even mean having the nerve to talk back to the boss. Employees often feel more appreciated for having their pain recognized than for having their performance recognized. Of course appreciation can also be something creative or even outrageous or can be deliberately made in public.
Coaching is the process by which managers stay in touch with their subordinates.
Coaching is eyeball-to-eyeball management. Every conversation between managers and employees is potentially a coaching conversation. It is a chance to clarify goals, priorities, and standards of performance. It is a chance to hear ideas and to involve employees in the processes of planning and problem solving. Coaching is the key to employee commitment because it is face-to-face leadership that enables and facilitates.
It frees up people so that they can do what they want to do: Research questions or propositions As mentioned earlier, one of the HR-experts has completed several missions since and joint diagnoses were made and improved over and over again which resulted in the following research questions or propositions. Our hypothesis is that the knowledge available in the organization is not put together and implemented because there are borderlines and obstructions in the context and in the process of implementation.
We want to refine our knowledge about implementing, the theory about the processes and the context that stimulate or hinder the implementation. This results in following questions: How can the in the organization existing knowledge about problems and possible solutions in HRD be used as much as possible? What are the conditions, the stimulating and hindering factors for using this knowledge to analyze HR- problems, formulate solutions and implement the commonly agreed upon solutions?
How can we improve the quality of the communication and interaction between the different parties and levels in the organization in order to come to a shared opinion about purposes and directions to be taken in HRD?
The Knowing-Doing Gap
How can we motivate managers of all levels to coach their subordinates, even if they themselves are not coached well and even if they themselves miss indispensable information, appreciation etc We discussed these proposals with the local coordinator in December We would like: If it should be impossible for them to provide these resources, they should explain why. Before the conference took place, the two HR-experts sat together with the rectorate and with the participants subdivided in small groups of persons to discuss and negotiate the purpose and the roles of all parties.
The following objectives were discussed and negotiated with all participants before the conference took place: Develop written and broadly accepted strategic plans for the near future 2. To work together as a HR department and line management and to learn more about - where we are standing now. Develop shared perceptions on present and future human resources management.
The preparing interviews This conference was preceded by a number of interview-sessions for the different groups or managers. The rectorate, the deans, heads of the departments and directors of administration and supporting services were all involved in these sessions. We always started with a short introduction to discuss and negotiate the purpose of the conference. Then we asked them about their experiences, expectations and concerns and what the outcome of this conference would or could be.
Then we showed them the proposed program and explained the methodological specificity. We put a lot of stress on the fact that we expected them to contribute to this conference and made very clear that we would just take up the role of facilitators.
In our interview with the top management we talked about a number of things: We also asked them to open the conference, to express their expectations and to show their commitment. In our interview with almost all academic and administrative managers, in small groups of persons, we commonly investigated and discussed their problems and frustrations. We brought various kinds of expectations together and made them more realistic and finally we discussed their roles and responsibilities, and worked on motivation and trust.
We handed out schedules with the purpose of the program and the two days procedure. The conference The rector opened the conference and pointed out the importance of finding sensible solutions to the many HRM-problems, so that TNG would be able to fulfil her mission in a better way. We proposed to work together towards a solution to the problems discussed and to stop reproaching one another.
We pursued a very participatory approach. Ideas, perceptions and interpretations were prioritized and evaluated in a sequence of sessions during the two days of the conference. These sessions dealt with: In order to assure an ordered course of events i. In each session everyone was asked to write down his own meaning on the available sheets one meaning per sheet.
After that, participants exchanged answers and opinions and voted on their importance. In this way, a ranking of topics that deserved priority was obtained. These were gathered on a central table and after an explanation by each table-leader, participants were asked to vote once more. This decision consisted of the prioritized answers of the entire group.
All this was done in accordance with a relatively tight plan. So we started with a first session: The first session took more time than expected because participants still had to get used to the procedure.
In a second session, the stakeholders of TNG were stated. Because there was a large diffusion as to what the field of HRM operations is and what the borderlines are between the work of HR department and the HR work of the managers, we decided to give a short lecture on the HR models of Tichy and Beer , the expected results of a good HRM and different possibilities to divide the HR-work between the human resources department and the line-manager.
We thought that this short theoretical lecture would be more valuable than an unclear participatory discussion. In the third session the objectives for human resources at TNG were discussed and formulated. Then followed the interactive SWOT- analysis, with the present group of 56 managers out of a total of This took about half a day.
The most important part of the conference then, the development of strategic plans began. Because there are more projects on HRM running at TNG, some of the listed problematic issues are already tackled by specific project groups.
For instance, a project dealing with selection in which several people from this same group of managers had already put a lot of effort. They had already proposed plans and solutions.
For the sake of learning we discussed this as an example and a case study. As a group we investigated why and where this proposal got stuck, what the different subsequent steps of a proposal are and how quite a lot of people have to take their responsibility in order to realize any plan. Finally some people took the responsibility to come to the finalization of these plans concerning selection. We looked at 2 other projects within the framework of IPD: For the training item, we wanted to start off in a positive mood.
So we asked the participants to describe the ideal training situation at TNG, the way they see training. This first step went very well and produced outstanding results.
Implementing these kinds of solutions is the responsibility of the top management. The next step of the exercise however, when participants were asked to describe what kind of behavior, systems, procedures and rules are needed to make this desired situation possible, was more problematic. Maybe this kind of question was too abstract or too far away from their daily problems.
In our reflections afterwards, we agreed on the fact that this was a weaker point of the conference: This is also a point of self-criticism. The motivation for and the formulation of the second question were maybe obscure and certainly evoked confusion: The confusion had a rather negative effect on the energy level of the participants at noon on the second day.
They suggested three themes: We added a fourth theme that came up often during the interviews: We agreed to propose an assignment that consisted of defining objectives, activities and a timeframe.
EDITORIAL: Bridging the knowing–doing gap: know‐who, know‐what, know‐why, know‐how and know‐when
As we wanted to work with real volunteers in these four workgroups we suggested another, short term assignment for the rest of the group, a fifth group. We asked them to make a shortlist of all things a manager has to do with a new appointee to clarify mutual expectations.
They could put this immediately into practice in their jobs without asking anyone else. Making these assignments had a positive effect on the energy level of the participants. It expressed their hope for a better future. The four groups worked on very differentiated, well-equilibrated and realistic assignments.
When the four assignments were presented volunteers were encouraged to actually carry out the proposed work.
The Knowing - Doing Gap.pdf
Each taskforce chose a chairperson and was placed under the mentorship of a dean. Meanwhile, the fifth group had developed and presented a list of steps to be taken by the line manager when welcoming a new appointee.
At the very end of the conference, one of the black managers asked us the parole to initiate a short prayer of thanks and so the conference ended unforeseen in a very authentic and impressive way. When they left the conference, participants pointed out that just at the end nobody of the rectorate was there.
But one of the HR-experts was willing to personally follow up the results up till eighth months after the conference and promised to discuss possible problems with the rectorate. This meant a lot to the participants. We also asked them to take action, to provide the necessary professional staff at the human resources department in order to solve the most serious problems e.
We wanted our two-day workshop to be inspiring and motivating: Limitations of this research design This is a case study: Results cannot lead to general. This study is a snapshot of TNG in a continuing, an ongoing organizational change process. Results cannot lead to general but they can offer findings as bases for further research. Results and findings There are two kind of results: First there are the four project groups with specific strategic plans for HRM, a first on human resources policies; a second on a human resources manual, a third on staff training and development, a fourth on the division of responsibilities and work between the human resources department and the managers.
The four groups have a very differentiated, well-equilibrated and realistic assignment, that consist of objectives, activities and a timeframe; volunteers to carry out the proposed work; a chosen chairperson and is placed under the mentorship of a dean. One member of the rectorate will act as the godfather for the four taskforces and pay attention to the links between the four task forces.
Furthermore there is the result of the fifth group: And in de debriefing, the day after the conference the rectorate promised to take action, to provide the necessary professional staff at the human resources department in order to solve the most serious problems e. The consciousness between the participants of having an agreement on these questions can be a good starting point for further actions. Due to a lack of funds, TNG is not able to provide essential services i.
The difficulties they had with attracting qualified staff and providing standard facilities were also mentioned. Other struggles are: Semua pencarian terakhir akan dihapus. Batal Hapus. Tonton dalam layar penuh.
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Mister Buzz. Indian media funny report on pakistani mobile companies.All this was done in accordance with a relatively tight plan.
But one of the HR-experts was willing to personally follow up the results up till eighth months after the conference and promised to discuss possible problems with the rectorate.
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