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Surfaceand. Radiological. ANATOMY. Third Edition. A. Halim . Surface and radiological anatomy form an important subdivision of anatomy. SURFACE AND RADIOLOGICAL ANATOMY (For Students and General Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (K), or click on a page image . Download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd Surface and Radiological ANATOMY THIRD A. Halim EDITION MBBS M S F I M S A.

Surface And Radiological Anatomy By Halim Pdf

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Trove: Find and get Australian resources. Books, images, historic newspapers, maps, archives and more. This thoroughly revised edition of the popular book features diagrams of surface anatomy in colour since colour captures a reality that is more consistent with the. Surface & Radiological Anatomy (3rd Ed) [PDF]. February 20, Medical books Anatomy, Radiology 0. Sharing is Caring!!! 2. 0. Shares.

Transtubercular plane is drawn at the level of the tubercle on the iliac crest. It is drawn below the 10th rib. Put a point on the median plane 2. Join these points by two parallel lines 3. Join these points by two parallel lines about 2 cm apart. Mark a point 1. Splenic artery Median plane- Left gastric artery Coelic artery Hepatic artery. Lower two-thirds will represent external iliac artery Hepatic Artery Fig. Join these points by a line to get the marking of the artery. Put a point 3 cm vertically above the second point.

Transpyloric plane Left renal artery Right renal artery- Superior mesenteric artery Inferior epigastric. Abdomen and Pelvis 53 Coeliac Artery Fig. Arteries of abdomen. Mark a point 2. Upper one-third will represent common iliac artery. Draw a broad line joining these points and presenting a slight convexity to the lateral side. Join these two points to indicate the course of this artery which forms the outer boundary of inguinal triangle of Hesselbach. Join these points by a broad line which will cross the transpyloric plane.

Join the point of intersection of median and transpyloric planes to the point of intersection of transtubercular and right lateral planes by a line gently convex to the left. Renal Arteries Fig. Inferior Mesenteric Artery Fig.

Join these points by a line which runs downwards and slightly to the left from the first to the second point. Draw a broad line parallel to the transpyloric plane and joining the above two points.

Left Gastric Artery Fig. Draw a wavy line 10 cm long going to the left and slightly upwards. Join these points by a line going upwards and to the left. Splenic Artery Fig. Place a point 2. Put a point just below the trans-tubercular plane 2. Join the two points by a line slightly convex to the lateral side. Upper one-third will represent the common iliac and lower two-thirds the external iliac vein.

Inferior Vena Cava Fig. Draw the transtubercular plane and the median plane. Put a point just below the transtubercular plane and 2. Draw two vertical lines 2. Portal Vein Fig. Draw the transpyloric and the median planes. Put a point on the transpyloric plane 1. Draw a broad line 5 cm long and 1. Draw two short parallel lines 2 cm apart inclining downwards and to the left from the above point. Draw two short parallel lines 2 cm apart, directed upwards and to the right.

Fundus can be indicated by a line drawn from the left margin of the cardiac orfice with upward convexity reaching its summit at the above point. Draw a curved line convex to the left from the fundus to the point marked and reaching downwards to the subcostal plane and then reaching the lower margin of pylorus. Join the last two points.

Draw the second part 2. Draw the third part transversely from the end of the second part at the level of the subcostal plane and ending just to the left of median plane. Join the end of the third part with this point to indicate the last part of the duodenum. Draw the median, right lateral, transpyloric and trans-tubercular planes.

Join these points to indicate the attachment of the mesentery. Lies opposite the point of intersection of the transtubercular and the right lateral planes. Mark the figure of caecum 6 cm long in the triangular area bounded by the above two planes and the fold of the groin.

Abdomen and Pelvis 59 Draw two lines 5 cm apart lying to the right of the right lateral plane starting on the transtubercular plane and ending midway between subcostal and transpyloric planes. Join the first point with the second and second with the third point. At the second point it forms the splenic flexure. Join these points by a line 7. Mark a point on the trans-tubercular plane 2. Draw the subcostal plane and mark a point on it 1. Draw two lines 2 cm apart starting at the first point and ending at the second and lying wholly to the left of the lateral plane.

Draw two lines 5 cm apart starting at the first point and descending downwards and medially to the umbilicus and then ascending upwards and laterally to the second point. Attachment of Pelvic Mesocolon Fig. Xiphisternal joint Nipple Right ninth costal catilage Transpyloric plane Fundus of gallbladder Subcostal plane Median plane Right tenth costal catilage Fig. Draw a line through the xiphisternal joint ascending to the right point and ascending less sharply to the left point.

Hepatobiliary tract Liver Fig. Draw a convex line from below the right nipple to the above point.

Join the lower end of the right border to the left end of the upper border by a line crossing the median plane at the transpyloric plane. Pancreas Fig. Mark the hilum 5 cm away from the median plane. Join these five points by a curve indicating the concavity of the duodenal loop which also outlines the head of the pancreas.

Draw the shape of the kidney 8. That of the right kidney a little below and of the left kidney a little above the transpyloric plane. The left kidney should be drawn a little higher than the right. This will be just internal to the anterior extremity of the ninth costal cartilage.

It can be indicated by drawing the curve of the duodenum thus: Abdomen and Pelvis 61 iii.

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This border should show a slight notch opposite the tip of the ninth right costal cartilage for the fundus of gall bladder. Morris' parallelogram Right kidney Right ureter Posterior superior iliac spine Fig. The long axis of the spleen lies in the line of the tenth rib and width of the spleen extends throughout the ninth and tenth intercostal spaces.

Join the last two points to trace the ureter in abdomen and pelvis. Draw the pelvis of the ureter between the first two points. Ductless Glands Spleen Fig. The kidneys are drawn with their long axes oblique so that the upper poles are nearer and the lower poles farther from the median plane. Locate the dimple which overlies the posterior superior iliac spine. Join these two ends by a curved line extending upwards and forwards to the ninth rib.

Kidneys Posterior Surface Marking Fig. Join these to get the surface marking of the ureter on the back. Put another point on the left eleventh rib in the mid-axillary line to indicate the lower pole. Right ninth r i b - Right eleventh rib— Mid-axillary line Fig.

Draw a triangle measuring 3 cm long and 3 cm wide placed at the upper pole of the right kidney. Its anterior border and lateral aspect can be felt easily. Inion is the highest point on the external occipital protuberance Lambda corresponds to an irregular depression above and in front of the maximum occipital point which is a backward convexity above the external occipital protuberance. Mastoid process is hidden by the lobule of the ear. Bregma can be marked at the centre of the line drawn across the vertex from one external auditary meatus to the other.

It is the outer margin of the angle of mandible. Fronto-zygomatic suture can be recognised as a slight irregular depression on the lateral orbital margin. Mental protuberance. Condyloid process can be felt to pass downwards and forwards immediately in front of the lower part of the tragus when the mouth is opened. Nasion is a well marked depression at the root of the nose and overlies the junction of frontonasal and internasal sutures.

Pre-auricular point is situated immediately in front of the upper part of the tragus of the ear and the pulsation of superficial temporal artery can be felt there. External occipital protuberance can be felt at the upper end of the nuchal furrow on the back of neck. It is situated about 7 cm above the external occipital protuberance. Gonion or the angle of mandible can be seen and palpated below and in front of the lobule of the ear.

The insertions of sternomastoid and splenius capitis obscure its posterior border and the tip. It can also be located by placing the thumb behind the frontal process of the zygomatic bone and two fingers above the zygomatic arch. Q Reid's base line passes through a point on the lowest level of the infra-orbital margin and another point on the upper border of the external auditary meatus.

The angle thus formed lies on pterion Stiles. The cerebrum lies entirely above the level of this line while the cerebellum occupies the area immediately below the posterior third of this line and can be given no definite surface marking. Surface landmarks—back of Head O Pterion is neither a visible nor a palpable surface landmark. Its centre can be located approximately 3. Head and Neck f 67 Q Supra-orbital notch is present at the junction of rounded medial third and sharper lateral two-thirds of supra-orbital margin.

The middle-third of the line joining these points represents the parotid duct. Put a point midway between the ala of the nose and the red margin of the upper lip.

Salivary glands and tonsil Position of tonsil Submandibular gland. Parotid Gland Fig.

Upper border is drawn by a curved line below the external auditary meatus across the lobule of the ear and joining the following points: The general transparotid course of the nerve and the direction of its buccal branch may be indicated by a line drawn forwards parallel to and below Parotid duct from the lobule of the ear see page Join these markings with an oval figure.

Lingual Nerve Fig. Mark a point on the lower border of mandible midway between angle and the symphysis. Tonsil Fig. Place a point midway between upper and lower borders of the mandible and vertically below the interval between the premolar teeth to represent the mental foramen.

Mark a point a little below and behind the last molar tooth. Nerves Facial Nerve Fig. Submandibular Salivary Gland Fig.

Mark the centre of the masseter muscle to represent the mandibular foramen. The upper vertical part of the line represents the mandibular nerve and the rest represents the inferior alveolar nerve. Draw a line joining these points with an upward concavity. Draw a horizontal line across the upper part of the lobule of the ear. Draw a line downwards and forwards joining the first and second points and continue it forwards with an upward concavity along the body of the mandible.

Join these two points to represent the course of the maxillary nerve and its infraorbital branch. It is at a distance of 4. Join these points by a line which should curve forwards almost to the ala of the nose.

Nerves of face Maxillary and Infra-orbital Nerve Fig. Mark another point 2 cm above the middle of the zygomatic arch. Draw a line from the end of the trunk of the middle meningeal artery upwards and backwards towards the lambda through the first point. The frontal branch of the anterior division takes origin close to the pterion and passes upwards and forwards superficial to the motor speech centre of the left side.

Arteries of face. Draw a line from the end of the trunk of the middle meningeal artery running upwards and slightly forwards to the first point with slight anterior convexity and then upwards and backwards in the direction of the second point. Anterior division of middle meningeal artery Frontal branch of middle meningeal artery Lambda Pterion Facial artery Posterior division of middle meningeal artery Middle meningeal arte Fig.

Join the above two points by a line which goes forward and slightly upwards and represents the trunk of the artery Its divisions can be marked as under: Mark the inion. Draw a line u p w a r d s and b a c k w a r d s f r o m the first point and continue it downwards and posteriorly to the second point.

Superior Sagittal Sinus Fig. Sigmoid Sinus Fig. The line should be narrow in front and widen to about 1. Draw two lines 1. The anterior border is seen extending from the sternum to the anterior border of mastoid process.

Arch of the cricoid cartilage lying at the level of C6. When the head is rotated to one side and tilted forwards. Q First rib: The upper surface of the first rib has been outlined dotted.

Draw the sinus by two lines 1. Mead and Neck. The posterior border ascends from the junction of the medial and middle thirds of the clavicle to the mid-point between the mastoid process and inion. Q Sternomastoid muscle. Isthmus of thyroid gland Supra-sternal notch. Mark the asterion by a point 1.

First ring of trachea. M e d i a n Line Landmarks of the N e c k By running a finger from the symphysis menti downwards the following can easily be felt in the order given below.

Tip of the transverse process of atlas lies midway between the tip of the mastoid process and the angle of mandible. Laryngeal prominence or Adam's apple.

Can be palpated on the back of neck at the lower end of the nuchal furrow and is the first spine to be felt when the finger is run from above downwards Fig.

Thyroid cartilage lies at the level of C4 and C5. The trunks of brachial plexus can be palpated and rolled against it. Greater cornu can be traced laterally. The highest point will lie a little below the highest part of the external ear and will end on that portion of the mastoid process which lies behind the external ear. Surface Anatomy Position of transverse process of atlas Sternomast Hyoid bone Trapez Position of can tubei Thyroid cartilage Position of first Cricoid cartilage First tracheal ring Isthmus of thyroid gland Clavicular part of sternomastoid f — V " ' Supra-sternal notch Fig.

Its anterior border can be seen when resistance is opposed to the elevation of the shoulder. Surface landmarks—neck Q Trapezius. Lines joining the upper pole to the lateral end of the upper border of isthmus and to the lateral end of the lower pole complete the outline of the lateral lobe of the gland. Nerves Brachial Plexus Fig.

Join these points by a line running downwards and laterally. First tracheal ring. Draw a line from this point across the muscle. Thyroid gland Muscle Scalenus Anterior Fig. Cervical Plexus Anterior Cutaneous nerve of neck Fig.

Supra-clavicular Nerves Fig. Draw a line from this point running upwards towards the lobule of the ear.

Surface and Radiological Anatomy

Bronchial plexus and cutaneous nerves of neck. Draw a line from this point ascending along the posterior border of the muscle to reach the scalp. Draw three lines descending towards the medial. Phrenic Nerve Fig. Join these points to get the surface marking of the phrenic nerve. Put a point at the junction of the upper one-third and lower two-thirds of the posterior border of sternomastoid. Mark the tip of the transverse process of the atlas.

Glossopharyngeal Nerve Fig. Mark a point just above the angle of mandible. Mark a point a little above and behind the tip of the greater cornu of the hyoid bone. Tragus of ear Position of transverse process of atlas Glossopharyngeal nerve Outline of lower border of mandible Accessory nerve Hypoglossal nerve Vagus nerve Phrenic nerve Fig.

Join these points by a line which should continue along the lower border of mandible for a short while. Join these points by a line which goes downwards and backwards across the elevation produced by the sternomastoid and the depression of the posterior triangle of the neck.

Surface and radiological anatomy by halim

Cranial nerves. Mark a point on the sterno-clavicular joint.

Middle cervical ganglion by a small circle opposite the arch of the cricoid cartila iii. Join these points by a line to represent the trunk. Inferior cervical ganglion by a circle about 3 cm above the sterno-clavicular joint.

Mark the medial end of the clavicle. Scalenus anterior nerve and sympathetic trunk. Join these points by a line which should bend sharply forwards and curve upwards between the second and third points.

Vagus Nerve Fig. Position of transverse process of atlas Condyle of mandible Middle cervical ganglion Superior cervical ganglion Phrenic nerve Scalenus anterior muscle Thyroid cartilage Cricoid cartilage Sympathetic trunk Inferior cervical ganglion Fig. Join these points to represent the nerve. Superior cervical ganglion is represented on this line by a spindle extending from transverse process of the atlas vertebra to the level of the greater cornu of the hyoid bone. Sympathetic Trunk Fig.

Internal carotid artery External carotid artery Comr Subclav Fig. Subclavian Artery Fig. Join these points by double lines. Arteries of neck.. Internal Carotid Artery Fig. For thoracic part of left artery see page 38 External Carotid Artery Fig. Mark a point midway between the tip of the mastoid process and the angle of Join these points by double lines gently convex forwards in the lower half and gently convex backwards in the upper half.

Put a point on the anterior border of the sternomastoid at the level of upper border of thyroid cartilage. Draw a line downwards and backwards joining these points. Mark another point on the upper border of the clavicle immediately lateral to the posterior border of sternomastoid muscle. Veins of neck Internal Jugular Vein Fig.

Internal jugular v e i n External jugular vein - Subclavian vein N Fig. Join these marks by a short double line convex upwards. Join these points by a curved double line. Join these points by a double line making a dilatation at its lower end between the sternal and clavicular heads of sternomastoid to represent the inferior bulb. Mark another point 2 cm above the clavicle midway between the first and second points.

Put a mark on the middle of the lower border of the clavicle. Mark the medial edge of the clavicular head of sternomastoid. Draw a line from the first point to arch upwards and laterally a little above the eyebrow to the second point and then to ascend to the third point.

Mark another point a little above and a little lateral to the inion. Draw a line with the convexity forwards joining these points. Join these two points by a paramedian line.

Draw a line backwards from the first point to cross the auricle a little above the external auditory meatus and then to descend slightly to the second point. Precentral a n d Postcentral Sulci Fig. Lateral Sulcus Fig. Draw a line from the first point going backwards with an upward inclination to the second point.

Curve the line sharply upwards to end at the parietal eminence. Draw a line from the first point running d o w n w a r d s and laterally for about 8. Brain 83 ii. Superior Temporal Sulcus Fig. Anterior horizontal ramus Draw a line 2 cm in length running horizontally forwards from the pterion. Brocas area lies between these two anterior rami. Anterior ascending ramus Draw a 2 cm long line running upwards from the pterion. Pterion can be located by the Stiles method as already described in page Motor a r e a - Central sulcus Sensory area Sylvian point- Posterior ramus of lateral sulcus Motor speechcentre Auditory area Visual area External occipital protuberance Fig.

Cortical functional areas. Draw a line running lateralwards for about 2. Parieto-occipital Sulcus Fig. It can also be roughly located by a finger tip placed immediately above the pterion on the left side in the right handed people. Two finger tips placed side by side on the head a little above and in front of the top of the auricle are opposite the centre.

Auditory Area Fig. Sensory Area Fig. Visual Area Fig. Many a fact in gross anatomy can be revealed and demonstrated in an X-ray plate radiograph and some of the organs e. It is this characteristic that permits X-rays to penetrate materials which otherwise would absorb or reflect light. Cosmic rays Gamma rays X-rays. They form a part of the spectrum of electromagnetic radiations. It is thus apparent that the X-rays are of the same nature as light rays but have the distinguishing feature that their wavelengths are very short.

Position of X-rays in electromagnetic radiations Radiographs are an essential element in clinical diagnosis and a doctor has therefore to be well conversant with the anatomy of the normal radiograph of various regions before he can be proficient in the interpretation of complexities in disease.

X-rays were discovered by Wilhelm Konrad Rontgen. The more commonly taken X-ray of the chest is a P. Fluorescent effect: Light waves are produced if X-rays strike certain metallic salts phosphorous. In the corresponding parts of the film there is.

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Some of the common positions used are: Substances absorb them according to their atomic weights and density. Posterior structures are better visualised in this view. Postero-anterior view PA In this the X-ray tube is posterior to the subject and the film anterior. Structures readily penetrated by X-rays are radiolucent. If a suitable type of photographic film is placed behind an object and an exposure made.

Bone with a high percentage of calcium absorbs the X-rays more than skin and muscle which have a low percentage of calcium. This is known as a negative picture. Antero-posterior view AP It is taken with the X-ray tube anterior to the subject and the film posteriorly placed. This is fundamental property as far as obtaining an image is concerned. This is the basis of radiotherapy. Fluoroscopy or screening depends on this effect. Radiography is. Biological effect: X-rays can destroy abnormal cells e.

Penetrating effect: The penetration of a beam of X-rays is limited partly by scattering and partly by absorption. The dense parts absorb the X-rays. This is called fluorescence. Photographic effect: X-rays affect photographic emulsions in much the same way as light.

The lower the atomic weights of the elements in a substance the more transparent will it be. Anteriorly placed structures are more clearly visible in this view. Lateral views These are used to assess the depth of the structures and can be: Plain Radiographs When X-rays are allowed to pass through the subject without the use of any medium the translucent portions appear black on the developed X-ray plate.

Oblique views These are used for special study of a particular structure. The long bones show a dense white homogenous outer layer. In the case of chest X-rays these could be: Contrast Radiographs When X-rays are taken after filling a cavity or space with a contrast medium in order to visualise the lumen of the viscus or extent of the cavity.

The contrast media are of two types: Lamellae placed on the lines of pressure are seen particularly clearly. Right lateral view: These lamellae are arranged mainly in the direction of the predominant stress. The orientation of a radiograph is marked by incorporating a lead letter into the cassette before exposing a film.

Left lateral view: O Left anterior oblique view L. Introduction 89 3. Right anterior oblique view R. These portions are therefore not normally distinguished in a skiagram e. Structure of mature bone they are subjected to great stress.

Study of the trabecular architecture and the distribution of the cortical and cancellous layers in each bone is useful because alterations occur in many pathological conditons.

In the long bones of the limbs generaly they tend to run vertically.

Surface and Radiological Anatomy

Structure of Immature bone At birth considerable p o r t i o n s of the skeleton are f o r m e d of cartilage. In the shafts of the long bones the cancellous bone is absent and is replaced by a space. It appears as an angular notch.

Q Acromioclavicular joint as a gap between the clavicle and the acromion. O Inferior angle of scapula is seen partly superimposed on the lung field. U Acromion lying partly behind the head of humerus and superimposed on it. O Lesser tuberosity and bicipital groove are difficult to identify. O Head of the humerus lying against the glenoid cavity. Q Anatomical neck of humerus: Medial portion is on a level with the junction of the middle and lower thirds of the glenoid cavity.

O Coracoid process as a more or less circular shadow below the lateral third of the clavicle. Q Superior angle of scapula projects upwards in the angle between the clavicle and the first rib. Si Greater tuberosity of humerus as the most lateral bony point in the shoulder region.

Lateral half of the clavicle projects a little higher than the adjacent upper surface of the acromion. O Conoid tubercle as a bony prominence on the inferior surface of the clavicle near the outer third.

Q Glenoid cavity as a narrow ellipse. O Clavicle. Q Lateral epicondyle of humerus gives a flatter appearance as compared to the medial epicondyle. Q Head and tuberosity of radius is seen slightly overlapping the ulna. It separates the head of the radius from the capitulum. Q Trochlea is superimposed by ulna. Olecranon and coronoid fossae Olecranon process ateral epicondyle- Medial epicondyle Trochlea Elbow joint space Head and tuberosity of radius Fig.

Supracondylar ridges are seen as white lines passing u p w a r d s from the epicondylar shadows. Elbow—lateral view. O Coronoid process partly overlaps the shadow of the head of the radius. Olecranon process is seen projecting backwards. The shadows of lateral and medial epicondyles are superimposed.

Trapezium and trapezoid slightly overlap each other. Pisiform shadow is superimposed on that of the triquetral. They are: Proximal row— scaphoid. Wrist and hand —AP view First metacarpal Styloid process of radius. From lateral to medial side. Distal row —trapezium. Seller Inventory EUA BookVistas New Delhi, India. Printed Pages: Hefer and Sons BoundlessBookstore Wallingford, United Kingdom. Hefer and Sons, Good condition book with like DJ. Boards are clean with minor wear. Content clean with bright pages and a solid binding.

Good DJ with moderate edge wear namely small closed tears and chipping to spine ends. Fourth edition. Previous owners name to ffep. Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers Pvt. Seller Inventory Jaypee Brand New.

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Seller Inventory CBS Seller Inventory CBS 2. Item added to your basket View basket. Order Total 1 Item Items: Shipping Destination: Proceed to Basket. View basket. Continue shopping. United Kingdom. Search Within These Results: Surface and radiological anatomy for students and general practitioners, Appleton, A.

B Published by W. Lincoln, United Kingdom Seller Rating: Seller Image. Surface and Radiological Anatomy Appleton, A. Surface and radiological anatomy for students and general practitioners Appleton, Arthur Beeny Published by Heffer Surface and Radiological Anatomy W. Subjects Anatomy, Surgical and topographical.

Radiography, Medical. View online Borrow download Freely available Show 0 more links None of your libraries hold this item. Found at these bookshops Searching - please wait We were unable to find this edition in any bookshop we are able to search. These online bookshops told us they have this item: Tags What are tags? Add a tag. Public Private login e.Seller Inventory BBI Inferior Extremity 35 Its lower border runs from the tip of the malleolus to the medial tubercle of the calcaneum. Proximal row of tarsal bones is comprised of talus and calcaneum which do not lie side by side but are placed one above the other.

It is half a way down the lateral aspect of humerus. Preface to the First Edition S urface and radiological anatomy form an important subdivision of anatomy.