OPERATING SYSTEM PDF IN HINDI
An operating system (OS) is a collection of software that manages computer understand the basic to advanced concepts related to Operating System. Operating System PGDCA Ist Sem. UNIT–I. DISK OPERATING SYSTEM (DOS): Introduction · History & Versions of DOS · DOS Basics -Physical Structure of Disk . OPERATING SYSTEM CONCEPTS PDF IN HINDI. Langouge, http seminarprojectsoperating system direct. In hindi details ofdownload free pdf hardware nov.
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Engineering Class handwritten notes, exam notes, previous year questions, PDF free download. In Hindi. कंप्यूटर विंडोज क्या होता है What is Microsoft Windows Operating System What is MS-DOS (Microsoft Disk Operating System) What is पीडीऍफ़ फाइल क्या होती है PDF File को कैसे बनाये. Computer Software; Operating System; Operating System; Microsoft Office; Horizontal Download Basic Computer knowledge PDF In Hindi.
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Programs could generally be debugged via a control panel using dials, toggle switches and panel lights. Symbolic languages, assemblers ,[ citation needed ] and compilers were developed for programmers to translate symbolic program-code into machine code that previously would have been hand-encoded.
Later machines came with libraries of support code on punched cards or magnetic tape, which would be linked to the user's program to assist in operations such as input and output.
This was the genesis of the modern-day operating system; however, machines still ran a single job at a time. At Cambridge University in England the job queue was at one time a washing line from which tapes were hung with different colored clothes-pegs to indicate job-priority. Accounting for and paying for machine usage moved on from checking the wall clock to automatic logging by the computer. Run queues evolved from a literal queue of people at the door, to a heap of media on a jobs-waiting table, or batches of punch-cards stacked one on top of the other in the reader, until the machine itself was able to select and sequence which magnetic tape drives processed which tapes.
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Where program developers had originally had access to run their own jobs on the machine, they were supplanted by dedicated machine operators who looked after the machine and were less and less concerned with implementing tasks manually. When commercially available computer centers were faced with the implications of data lost through tampering or operational errors, equipment vendors were put under pressure to enhance the runtime libraries to prevent misuse of system resources.
Automated monitoring was needed not just for CPU usage but for counting pages printed, cards punched, cards read, disk storage used and for signaling when operator intervention was required by jobs such as changing magnetic tapes and paper forms. Security features were added to operating systems to record audit trails of which programs were accessing which files and to prevent access to a production payroll file by an engineering program, for example.
All these features were building up towards the repertoire of a fully capable operating system. Eventually the runtime libraries became an amalgamated program that was started before the first customer job and could read in the customer job, control its execution, record its usage, reassign hardware resources after the job ended, and immediately go on to process the next job. These resident background programs, capable of managing multistep processes, were often called monitors or monitor-programs before the term "operating system" established itself.
An underlying program offering basic hardware-management, software-scheduling and resource-monitoring may seem a remote ancestor to the user-oriented OSes of the personal computing era. But there has been a shift in the meaning of OS. Just as early automobiles lacked speedometers, radios, and air-conditioners which later became standard, more and more optional software features became standard features in every OS package, although some applications such as database management systems and spreadsheets remain optional and separately priced.
This has led to the perception of an OS as a complete user-system with an integrated graphical user interface , utilities, some applications such as text editors and file managers , and configuration tools.
The true descendant of the early operating systems is what is now called the " kernel ". In technical and development circles the old restricted sense of an OS persists because of the continued active development of embedded operating systems for all kinds of devices with a data-processing component, from hand-held gadgets up to industrial robots and real-time control-systems, which do not run user applications at the front-end.
An embedded OS in a device today is not so far removed as one might think from its ancestor of the s. The broader categories of systems and application software are discussed in the computer software article. Every operating system, even from the same vendor, could have radically different models of commands, operating procedures, and such facilities as debugging aids.
कंप्यूटर विंडोज क्या होता है What is Microsoft Windows Operating System
Typically, each time the manufacturer brought out a new machine, there would be a new operating system, and most applications would have to be manually adjusted, recompiled, and retested. This was available in three system generation options: PCP for early users and for those without the resources for multiprogramming.
Aamir September 23, Sir abhi tak jo windows aaye hai unko compare karke bata sakte hain kya all windows ko. Amit Saxena September 25, Dost agle kuch dino mai es pr ek post jarur likhunga and will share link with you. Amit Saxena October 10, Thanks Arti.
Anuj October 6, Hello sir thanx for this great artical Please kya aap saare windows ke version ki list de sakte hai. Rinku October 31, Amit Saxena October 31, All user software needs to go through the operating system in order to use any of the hardware, whether it be as simple as a mouse or keyboard or as complex as an Internet component. Kernel Main article: Kernel computing A kernel connects the application software to the hardware of a computer.
With the aid of the firmware and device drivers , the kernel provides the most basic level of control over all of the computer's hardware devices. It manages memory access for programs in the RAM , it determines which programs get access to which hardware resources, it sets up or resets the CPU's operating states for optimal operation at all times, and it organizes the data for long-term non-volatile storage with file systems on such media as disks, tapes, flash memory, etc.
Program execution Main article: Process computing The operating system provides an interface between an application program and the computer hardware, so that an application program can interact with the hardware only by obeying rules and procedures programmed into the operating system.
The operating system is also a set of services which simplify development and execution of application programs.
Executing an application program involves the creation of a process by the operating system kernel which assigns memory space and other resources, establishes a priority for the process in multi-tasking systems, loads program binary code into memory, and initiates execution of the application program which then interacts with the user and with hardware devices.
Interrupts Main article: Interrupt Interrupts are central to operating systems, as they provide an efficient way for the operating system to interact with and react to its environment. Interrupt -based programming is directly supported by most modern CPUs.
Interrupts provide a computer with a way of automatically saving local register contexts, and running specific code in response to events. Even very basic computers support hardware interrupts, and allow the programmer to specify code which may be run when that event takes place. When an interrupt is received, the computer's hardware automatically suspends whatever program is currently running, saves its status, and runs computer code previously associated with the interrupt; this is analogous to placing a bookmark in a book in response to a phone call.
In modern operating systems, interrupts are handled by the operating system's kernel. Interrupts may come from either the computer's hardware or the running program. When a hardware device triggers an interrupt, the operating system's kernel decides how to deal with this event, generally by running some processing code.
The amount of code being run depends on the priority of the interrupt for example: a person usually responds to a smoke detector alarm before answering the phone. The processing of hardware interrupts is a task that is usually delegated to software called a device driver , which may be part of the operating system's kernel, part of another program, or both.
Device drivers may then relay information to a running program by various means.
A program may also trigger an interrupt to the operating system. If a program wishes to access hardware, for example, it may interrupt the operating system's kernel, which causes control to be passed back to the kernel.
The kernel then processes the request. If a program wishes additional resources or wishes to shed resources such as memory, it triggers an interrupt to get the kernel's attention. Modes Main articles: User mode and Supervisor mode Privilege rings for the x86 microprocessor architecture available in protected mode.
Operating systems determine which processes run in each mode. CPUs with this capability offer at least two modes: user mode and supervisor mode. In general terms, supervisor mode operation allows unrestricted access to all machine resources, including all MPU instructions.
User mode operation sets limits on instruction use and typically disallows direct access to machine resources. CPUs might have other modes similar to user mode as well, such as the virtual modes in order to emulate older processor types, such as bit processors on a bit one, or bit processors on a bit one. At power-on or reset, the system begins in supervisor mode.
Once an operating system kernel has been loaded and started, the boundary between user mode and supervisor mode also known as kernel mode can be established.
Supervisor mode is used by the kernel for low level tasks that need unrestricted access to hardware, such as controlling how memory is accessed, and communicating with devices such as disk drives and video display devices. User mode, in contrast, is used for almost everything else. Application programs, such as word processors and database managers, operate within user mode, and can only access machine resources by turning control over to the kernel, a process which causes a switch to supervisor mode.
Typically, the transfer of control to the kernel is achieved by executing a software interrupt instruction, such as the Motorola TRAP instruction. The software interrupt causes the microprocessor to switch from user mode to supervisor mode and begin executing code that allows the kernel to take control.
History of operating systems
In user mode, programs usually have access to a restricted set of microprocessor instructions, and generally cannot execute any instructions that could potentially cause disruption to the system's operation. In supervisor mode, instruction execution restrictions are typically removed, allowing the kernel unrestricted access to all machine resources.If you want to use a traditional textbook to learn about x86 assembly language two of the most commonly used and highly recommended texts are: Modern X86 Assembly Language Programming by Daniel Kusswurm.
Beginners beware: this series assumes you already know your way around an IDE and are a competent C and assembly language programmer. Other IBM mainframe owners followed suit and created their own operating systems. The amount of code being run depends on the priority of the interrupt for example: Archived from the original on 27 September
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