OIL PALM PDF
Potted palm seedlings growing in the nursery. Among the industrial plants cultivated worldwide, oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) has a prominent. types of vegetable oil – crude palm oil from the fruit mesocarp and palm kernel oil from the seed. SOIL. Oil palm grows in almost all types of soils. For optimal conditions well- drained,deep fertile loamy to loam-clay soil, are the most suitable for cultivation. Oil palm is a tropical tree crop which is mainly grown for the industrial oil palm varieties: Dura, Pisifera and Tenera, with the latter being mainly selected for.
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Given the planned expansion of industrial oil palm plantations in Africa and their 31 yazik.info 1. What is palm oil? ▫ Palm oil is produced from the fruit pulp of the oil palm tree ( Elaeis guineensis). . content/uploads//03/yazik.info Technical Committee on the Elaboration of Thai Agricultural Standards on. Good Agricultural Practices for Oil Palm. 1. Mr. Chai Korawis. Chairperson. Oil Palm.
Corley P. First published: Print ISBN: Corley and P. About this book The oil palm is the world's most valuable oil crop.
Free Access. Summary PDF Request permissions. Tools Get online access For authors. Email or Customer ID. Forgot password? Douglas C. Andrew T. Francisco Moreira, Editor. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
Received Dec 28; Accepted Mar This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are properly credited.
This article has been corrected. See PLoS One. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. File S2: Introduction Lowland tropical forest ecosystems contain some of the highest levels of species endemism and biological diversity globally  , . Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Study region and result from the CART analysis.
Table 1 Forest system and forest type classes found in the Kinabatangan with flooding periods and extents in hectares ha as calculated from the Object-Based Image Analysis classification. Beach forest: Occurs on sandy substrate alongcoastal areas.
Dominant species includes Casuarina equisetifolia. Tidal 5, 2 4, 2 2 Mangrove forest: Found in saline coastal sediments.
Vol 27 No 1 (): Indonesian Journal of Oil Palm Research
Dominant species include Rhizophora apiculata. Tidal 12, 5 12, 6 2 Nipah palm forest: Native type of palm Nypa fruticans found within the mangrove system eitherin mono-stands or mixed with Rhizophora apiculata Tidal 26, 11 25, 11 1, 4 Transitional forest: Occurs between mangrove andfreshwater swamp forest. Brackish water. Dominantspecies of Heritiera littoralis, Ilex cymosa, Excoecaria agallocha.
Semi-tidal 13, 6 10, 5 3, 11 Seasonally flooded forest: Freshwater swamp forest: Formed in backswampsand largely on poorly drained soil. Common speciesinclude Dillenia excelsa, Croton oblongus, Mallotus muticus. Heavy degradationthought to have occurred with many pioneer species. Common species include Macaranga gigantea, Pterospermum elongatum, Cananga odarata. Oligotropic peat substrate, poorlydrained forests exposed to flooding.
Common treespecies include Lophopetalum multinerviu, Baccaurea , Campnosperma coriaceum , Syzygium and Anisoptera costata. Open reed, swampvegetation. Lowland dry forest: Logged lowlandmixed dipterocarp forest, dominated with Dipterocarp sp.
Gomantong substrate association ofhill and ridge escarpments. Low human disturbance. Dominant species include Dryobalanops lanceolata , Shorea pauciflora , Parashorea malaanonan and Dipterocarpus caudiferus.
Severely degraded: Varied 10, 4 6, 3 4, 14 Sum of hectares , , 30, Mapping Existing Oil Palm Oil palm age and productivity classes were digitised using the 2. Figure 2.
Examples of oil palm age and productivity classes. Oil palm classes Description Cleared areas Areas cleared of forest cover with bare earth or grass like vegetation cover. No roads laid nor ground prepared for oil palm planting Figure 2A. Planted out Areas had roads cut and laid, ground prepared for planting, and in some areas palms planted out palms would be approximately 2 years or younger Figure 2B.
Young mature Young mature palms were visible but palm fronds did not overlap. Low-lying leguminous vegetation was visible.
Palms in this category range from 3—6 years Figure 2C. Class had closed canopies i. Canopy closes at 7 years in areas with palms per ha. Homogeneous texture Figure 2D. Class included: Figure 3. Map of forest systems and oil palm age and productivity classes. Table 3 Land title types, size in hectares with percentages and number of unique demarcated titles within the Kinabatangan, classified from cadastral maps for the unprotected forests.
Unprotected forest Title type Total no. Table 4 Land title type and extent in ha and percentages for: Mangrove forest 1, 11 2 8 4, 60 Seasonally flooded forest 3, 38 4, 44 1, 28 1, 22 Lowland dry forest 2, 31 3, 40 1, 44 1, 15 Mixed vegetation types 1, 20 1, 15 19 4 Total number of ha 9, 9, 3, 7, Oil palm suitability modelling: Table 5 Land title type and extent in ha and percentages for existing oil palm age and productivity classes.
Oil Palm Economic Models The net present value of oil palm for each class ranged from: Discussion It is likely that oil palm cultivations will continue to expand at large scales throughout the world  , as it is estimated that global demand for palm oil will double by .
Heterogeneity of Oil Palm Landscapes We considered the oil palm landscape to understand fine-scale variability of production within the wider floodplain extent to begin formulating ideas around conservation opportunity  , . Understanding Forest System Suitability for Oil Palm Mapping natural forest systems at the agricultural frontier is fundamental to understanding opportunities for achieving biodiversity conservation goals .
PDF Click here for additional data file. File S2 Excel economic models for four oil palm classes including: XLSX Click here for additional data file. Acknowledgments Thank you to D. References 1. Ecosystem Services. Nature Geoscience 2: Accessed Gilbert N Palm-oil boom raises conservation concerns. Industry urged towards sustainable farming practices as rising demand drives deforestation.
Nature News 12 July Tropical Conservation Science 2: Lessons Learnt from Bungo District, Indonesia. Small-scale Forestry 9: Environmental Conservation Wetlands and Shallow Continental Water Bodies, ed. Patten et al. The Hague, The Netherlands: SPB Academic Publishers.
A consensus linkage map of oil palm and a major QTL for stem height
Wageningen, UR. Report of WWF Malaysia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Animal Conservation 7: Report for Sbah Structure Plan Kota Kinabalu: Relationship to state policies, land code and land capability. Global Environmental Change Molecular Ecology Primate Conservation Land Ordinance.
Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing Remote Sensing 3: Foody GM, Mathur A The use of small training sets containing mixed pixels for accurate hard image classification: Remote Sensing of Environment International Journal of Remote Sensing Journal of Oil Palm Research: Town and Regional Planning Department, Sabah. This fifth edition features new topics - including the conversion of palm oil to biodiesel, and discussions about the impacts of palm oil production on the environment and effects of climate change — alongside comprehensively revised chapters, with updated references throughout.
The Oil Palm, Fifth Edition will be useful to researchers, plantation and mill managers who wish to understand the science underlying recommended practices.
2. Materials and methods
It is an indispensable reference for agriculture students and all those working in the oil palm industry worldwide. He was the head of research for Unilever Plantations for a further 16 years, and is now a consultant on tropical plantation crops. Please check your email for instructions on resetting your password.
If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account.
If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username. Skip to Main Content. The Oil Palm , Fifth edition Author s: Corley P.Comparative transcriptome to oil palm with a current yield potential of and metabolite analysis of oil palm and date million tonnes oil and much more than that if palm mesocarp that differ dramatically in carbon the expected increases in crop yields are realised.
Markers flanking the QTL could be used in the selection of dwarf trees at the seedling stage, thus accelerating the breeding for shorter trees. Oil palms are cultivated in the regions where they grow well and where there are oil mills. Nature Genetics Supplement, sequencing: Metabolome studies can also Beyond the Genome: Then there is the issue of which gene promot- Cotton 21 14 ers to use.
Specifically, the aim was to evaluate responses of dry matter partitioning among above-ground organs, leaf photosynthesis and non-structural carbohydrate NSC storage in the stem in order to identify the pruned plant's mechanisms affected in a situation of source—sink imbalance that may result from a temporary reduction in demand for assimilates.
Molecular Plant Breeding. The flowers form at the base of each leaf.