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OBJECT ORIENTED PROGRAMMING PDF

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OOP: Introduction. 1. Introduction to Object-Oriented Programming. • Objects and classes. • Abstract Data Types (ADT). • Encapsulation and information hiding. 𝗣𝗗𝗙 | The meaning of the term 'object oriented' is examined in the context of the general-purpose programming language C++. This choice is. OBJECT ORIENTED PROGRAMMING PRINCIPLES. Francis MK. JOMO KENYATTA UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE AND TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE OF.


Object Oriented Programming Pdf

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Contents Appendices M–Q are PDF documents posted online at the book's Companion .. Object Technology • Object-oriented programming and design. Object Oriented Language. Application of OOP. Introduction of C++. Application of C++. Simple C++ Program. Program Features. Object-Oriented Programming. 3. Constructors. • A constructor is a method that is called automatically when an object is created. • If the programmer supplies no.

Adds a key, value pair to the object. Deletes a key, value pair from the object. Given a key retrieves the value associated with that key from the object. Later we decide that we want a new object that allows us to traverse the key, value pairs in sorted order.

The new object should support the above operations plus two additional operations, rewind that puts us back to the beginning, and next that returns the next key, value pair. Since the new object supports all of the operations of the original search object, we can make the new object inherit the original object's interface. This is an example of interface inheritance.

A radio alarm clock has all of the functions of a radio plus additional functions to handle the alarm clock.

If we adopt the radio's interface for the radio alarm clock, then someone who knows how to operate a radio will also know how to operate the radio portion of the radio alarm clock. Hence, rather than designing the radio alarm clock from scratch, we can extend or inherit the interface defined by the radio.

Of course, we can also use the existing implementation for a radio and extend it to handle the alarm clock functions. Color -Color: Classes use the concept of abstraction and are defined as a list of abstract attributes such as size, wait, and cost, and function operate on these attributes.

Abstraction focuses on the outside view of an object i. The attributes are sometimes called data members because they hold information. The functions that operate on these data are sometimes called methods or member function.

Computer scientists use abstraction to understand and solve problems and communicate their solutions with the computer in some particular computer language. This allows you to reduce a complex operation into a generalization that retains the base characteristics of the operation.

For example, an abstract interface can be a well-known definition that supports data access operations using simple methods such as Get and Update. Another form of abstraction could be metadata used to provide a mapping between two formats that hold structured data.

An Introduction to Object-Oriented Programming with Visual Basic .NET

Abstraction is something we do every day e. We abstract the properties of the object, and keep only what we need E. The implementation issues are deferred to a later time or are provided by somebody else e.

As a result, we only have to focus on one aspect at a time. This issue is usually referred to as separation of concerns.

Since we define these new high-level types from an abstract point of view, they may be called abstract types. An abstract type denotes a set of entities characterized by a list of operations that may be applied to them together with a precise specification of each one of these operations. Usually, the list of operations that define a type and their specification are referred to as the type behaviour, type specification or the type contract. An abstract type is also called interface.

The set of entities which share the operations defined for a type are called instances of that type.

What is OOPS?

An example of abstract type may be the type Student. This is an abstract type whose instances are each one of the specific students Joe, Ann Usually, we will refer to abstract types just as types. This approach is coincident to what we do in everyday life to manage complexity. For instance, cars are very complicated machines.

In fact, it would be very difficult, if not impossible, to drive having in mind, at the same time, the functionality expected from the car the what: Encapsulation Objects expose functionality only through methods, properties, and events, and hide the internal details such as state and variables from other objects.

This is wrapping up of data and functions into a single unit called class.

Data encapsulation is the most striking feature of a class. The data is not accessible to the outside world, and only those functions which are wrapped in the class can access it. This insulation of the data from direct access by the program is called data hiding or information hiding. Therefore encapsulation means putting the data and the function that operates on that data in a single unit information hiding.

It is the mechanism that binds together code and the data it manipulates, and keeps both safe from outside interference and misuse. It encapsulates lots of information about the engine, such acceleration, the pitch of the surface, and the position of the shift lever.

Being a user, we have only one method of affecting this complex encapsulation: Polymorphism, a Greek term, means the ability to take more than one form. For example, consider the operation of addition.

For two numbers, the operation will generate a sum. If the operands are strings, then the operation would produce a third string by concatenation. The process of making an operator to exhibit different behaviors in different instances is known as operator overloading.

This is something similar to a particular word having several different meanings depending upon the context. Using a single function name to perform different type of task is known as function overloading.

Advantages of OOPS:

Polymorphism plays an important role in allowing objects having different internal structures to share the same external interface. This means that a general class of operations may be accessed in the same manner even though specific action associated with each operation may differ.

Polymorphism is extensively used in implementing inheritance. There are several different kinds of polymorphism. For example, a variable named USERID may be capable of being either an integer whole number or a string of characters perhaps because the programmer wants to allow a user to enter a user ID as either an employee number - an integer - or with a name - a string of characters. By giving the program a way to distinguish which form is being handled in each case, either kind can be recognized and handled.

For example, if given a variable that is an integer, the function chosen would be to seek a match against a list of employee numbers; if the variable were a string, it would seek a match against a list of names.

In either case, both functions would be known in the program by the same name. Given a key retrieves the value associated with that key from the object.

Later we decide that we want a new object that allows us to traverse the key, value pairs in sorted order. The new object should support the above operations plus two additional operations, rewind that puts us back to the beginning, and next that returns the next key, value pair. Since the new object supports all of the operations of the original search object, we can make the new object inherit the original object's interface.

This is an example of interface inheritance. A radio alarm clock has all of the functions of a radio plus additional functions to handle the alarm clock.

If we adopt the radio's interface for the radio alarm clock, then someone who knows how to operate a radio will also know how to operate the radio portion of the radio alarm clock. Hence, rather than designing the radio alarm clock from scratch, we can extend or inherit the interface defined by the radio.

Of course, we can also use the existing implementation for a radio and extend it to handle the alarm clock functions.

Color -Color: Classes use the concept of abstraction and are defined as a list of abstract attributes such as size, wait, and cost, and function operate on these attributes. Abstraction focuses on the outside view of an object i.

The attributes are sometimes called data members because they hold information. The functions that operate on these data are sometimes called methods or member function.

Computer scientists use abstraction to understand and solve problems and communicate their solutions with the computer in some particular computer language. This allows you to reduce a complex operation into a generalization that retains the base characteristics of the operation.

For example, an abstract interface can be a well-known definition that supports data access operations using simple methods such as Get and Update.

Another form of abstraction could be metadata used to provide a mapping between two formats that hold structured data. Abstraction is something we do every day e.

We abstract the properties of the object, and keep only what we need E. The implementation issues are deferred to a later time or are provided by somebody else e. As a result, we only have to focus on one aspect at a time.

This issue is usually referred to as separation of concerns. Since we define these new high-level types from an abstract point of view, they may be called abstract types. An abstract type denotes a set of entities characterized by a list of operations that may be applied to them together with a precise specification of each one of these operations.

Usually, the list of operations that define a type and their specification are referred to as the type behaviour, type specification or the type contract. An abstract type is also called interface. The set of entities which share the operations defined for a type are called instances of that type.

An example of abstract type may be the type Student. This is an abstract type whose instances are each one of the specific students Joe, Ann Usually, we will refer to abstract types just as types. This approach is coincident to what we do in everyday life to manage complexity. For instance, cars are very complicated machines.

An Introduction to Object-Oriented Programming with Visual Basic .NET

In fact, it would be very difficult, if not impossible, to drive having in mind, at the same time, the functionality expected from the car the what: Encapsulation Objects expose functionality only through methods, properties, and events, and hide the internal details such as state and variables from other objects. This is wrapping up of data and functions into a single unit called class.

Data encapsulation is the most striking feature of a class. The data is not accessible to the outside world, and only those functions which are wrapped in the class can access it. This insulation of the data from direct access by the program is called data hiding or information hiding. Therefore encapsulation means putting the data and the function that operates on that data in a single unit information hiding.

It is the mechanism that binds together code and the data it manipulates, and keeps both safe from outside interference and misuse. It encapsulates lots of information about the engine, such acceleration, the pitch of the surface, and the position of the shift lever.

Being a user, we have only one method of affecting this complex encapsulation: Polymorphism, a Greek term, means the ability to take more than one form. For example, consider the operation of addition. For two numbers, the operation will generate a sum. If the operands are strings, then the operation would produce a third string by concatenation. The process of making an operator to exhibit different behaviors in different instances is known as operator overloading.

This is something similar to a particular word having several different meanings depending upon the context.

OOPS Concepts in Java with Examples

Using a single function name to perform different type of task is known as function overloading. Polymorphism plays an important role in allowing objects having different internal structures to share the same external interface. This means that a general class of operations may be accessed in the same manner even though specific action associated with each operation may differ.

Polymorphism is extensively used in implementing inheritance. There are several different kinds of polymorphism. For example, a variable named USERID may be capable of being either an integer whole number or a string of characters perhaps because the programmer wants to allow a user to enter a user ID as either an employee number - an integer - or with a name - a string of characters.

By giving the program a way to distinguish which form is being handled in each case, either kind can be recognized and handled. For example, if given a variable that is an integer, the function chosen would be to seek a match against a list of employee numbers; if the variable were a string, it would seek a match against a list of names.

In either case, both functions would be known in the program by the same name. This type of polymorphism is sometimes known as overloading. A given operator can also be given yet another meaning when combined with another operator. The meaning of a particular operator is defined as part of a class definition.The meaning of a particular operator is defined as part of a class definition.

This issue is usually referred to as separation of concerns. By Cherrie May Famillaran. For example, a variable named USERID may be capable of being either an integer whole number or a string of characters perhaps because the programmer wants to allow a user to enter a user ID as either an employee number - an integer - or with a name - a string of characters.

This makes it easier to update or replace objects, as long as their interfaces are compatible, without affecting other objects and code.

There are four fundamental OOP principles namely: Inheritance, Abstraction, encapsulation and polymorphism. For example, a variable named USERID may be capable of being either an integer whole number or a string of characters perhaps because the programmer wants to allow a user to enter a user ID as either an employee number - an integer - or with a name - a string of characters.

Usually, the list of operations that define a type and their specification are referred to as the type behaviour, type specification or the type contract.