MENISCO DISCOIDE EBOOK
Este artigo revê variações anatômicas que alteram o tamanho, a forma e a estabilidade meniscais e que incluem os vários tipos de menisco discoide, outras. Discoid lateral meniscus is an intra-articular knee disorder typically presented in the young population and during adolescence. Different types of meniscal. Topic: “Menisco discoideo en rodilla sintomática. Revisión de . ISBN / ISBN (eBook). Postero-Lateral knee.
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Anatomic variations of the shape of the menisci: a neonatal cadaver study. Arthroscopic treatment of symptomatic discoid meniscus in children: classification, technique, and results. Jordan MR. Lateral meniscal variants: evaluation and treatment. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. Atlas of arthroscopy.
Tokyo: Igaku-Shoin; A hypermobile Wrisberg variant lateral discoid meniscus seen on MRI. Clin Orthop Relat Res. MR imaging of meniscal tears with discoid lateral meniscus. Eur J Radiol. Discoid menisci of the knee: MR imaging appearance. Diagnosis of discoid lateral meniscus of the knee on MR imaging. Magn Reson Imaging. Discoid menisci in children. MR features. J Comput Assist Tomogr.
Central hole tear of the discoid meniscus of the knee in magnetic resonance imaging: mimicking the buckethandle tear. MRI appearance of Wrisberg variant of discoid lateral meniscus. MR imaging of meniscal malformations of the knee mimicking displaced bucket-handle tear.
Classifications Watanabe et al. Discoid menisci with normal peripheral attachments were labeled as either type I complete or type II incomplete according to the degree of coverage of the lateral tibial plateau.
Although this is the most frequently used classification system, its value for the purposes of treatment decision-making is somewhat questionable.
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The traditional classification was expanded by Monllau et al. Bin et al. They found a relationship between the amount of surgical resection to stable margins and to the tear pattern, but not to the type of discoid according to Watanabe et al. Only partial meniscectomy needed to be carried out in radial and degenerative tears, whereas subtotal or total meniscectomy was required significantly more frequently in longitudinal and complex tears.
They concluded that their method was useful for treatment planning. Jordan et al. They defined the meniscal type complete or incomplete , its peripheral rim stability, and the presence or lack of symptoms and tear. The symptoms, however, are actually highly variable, depending on the type of the discoid meniscus, its location medial or lateral , the presence of tear, and the status of rim stability [ 6 , 13 , 23 — 27 ].
Stable discoid meniscus is often an incidental finding in asymptomatic patients. It is often helpful first to practice a word without consonants.
Acetazola- mida without consonants would be ah-eh-ah-oh-ah-EE-ah.
When you have mastered the vowel changes for a given word, it is usually a simple matter to fill in the consonants. Not to be redistributed or modified in any way without xxiv P When referring to a part of the body in Spanish, it is common to use the definite article instead of the possessive adjective, provided it is clear whose body is involved.
The Spanish definite articles, recall, are el and la. Le duele la cabeza? Le duele su cabeza?
Health workers are frequently doing things to patients and this often involves the use of le or, in familiar speech, te. Quiero tomarle el pulso I want to take your pulse. Voy a escucharle el corazn Im going to listen to your heart. Tenemos que operarte la pierna We need to operate on your leg.
This phrasing often sounds less brusque than Quiero tomar su pulso, Voy a escuchar su corazn, etc. P English-speaking people are often confused by the choices available for the direct object in Spanish.
Te is always correct when speaking informally, for instance to a child. Voy a examinarte, hijo.. Im going to examine you, young man. When speaking formally, most Spanish speakers use lo for males and la for females. Voy a examinarlo, seor.. Im going to examine you, sir. Voy a examinarla, seora.. Im going to examine you, maam. There are a few exceptions to this rule; for instance, the verb pegar, when it means to hit takes le for a direct object.
Le peg?.. Did it hit you? Not to be redistributed or modified in any way without xxv Some Spanish speakers will use le for all formal second person direct objects, male or female. Voy a examinarle, seor..
Voy a examinarle, seora.. This style is common in Mexico.
P Some verbs require that the subject and object be inverted when translating between English and Spanish. The Spanish student is likely to encounter this for the first time when learning to translate the verb to like. I like coffee would be Me gusta el caf. The subject and object are inverted. This particular construction is a stumbling block to fluency and even advanced students often have to think for a couple seconds in order to conjugate the verb correctly and choose the correct object pronouns.
Me falta el aire..
I am short of breath. Les falta el aire.. They are short of breath. Me dieron nuseas.. I got nauseated. Le salieron moretones?.. Did you get bruised? Te falta hierro.. Youre low on iron. Notice that the English subject corresponds to the Spanish indirect object in all these cases. P Many Spanish verbs are used in the reflexive form when applied to medicine.
The use of the reflexive pronoun se turns the action of the verb back on the verbs subject. He urinated. Se orin.. He urinated on himself. Puede vestirla.. You can dress her. Puede vestirse.. You can get dressed literally dress yourself.
The discoid meniscus
La enfermera le va a inyectar.. The nurse will give you an injection. La enfermera le va a ensear como inyectarse.. The nurse will teach you how to inject yourself.
Not to be redistributed or modified in any way without xxvi A reflexive construction is often used when an English-speaking person would use the past participle preceded by to get or to become. Se cansa.. He gets tired.. He becomes tired. Se mejor.. She got better. Se infect.. It became infected.. It got infected. P Most Spanish nouns which end in -o are masculine and most which end in -a are feminine; however, there are some important exceptions in medical Spanish.
For instance, many Spanish words which end in -ma are derived from Greek and retain their original masculine gender. The word mano, which comes from the Latin manus, retains its original feminine gender despite the fact it ends in -o. Tengo las manos fras..
My hands are cold. A source of confusion to Spanish students is the construction el agua. Although agua is feminine and requires feminine modifiers , el is used instead of la to avoid the awkward double ah sound of la agua.
This rule applies to any word which begins with an accented ah sound. Not to be redistributed or modified in any way without xxvii las aftas dolorosas.. P When comparing quantities, use de. Many Hispanic beer and wine drinkers will answer no in all sincerity to the question Toma alcohol? A slightly broader question would be Toma bebidas alcoh- licas?
And then to avoid all misunderstandings, you could follow a negative answer with cerveza?.. Not to be redistributed or modified in any way without xxix a Like the English a in father e.
At the beginning of a breath group or fol- lowing an m or n, the Spanish b sounds like the b in bite e. In all other situations the Spanish b lies somewhere between the English b and the English v e. Allow a little air to escape between slightly parted lips as you make this latter sound. Before a, o, or u it is hard e. In Castilian Spanish, c preceding e or i is pro- nounced like the th in bath, but this form of Spanish is rarely spoken by Latin Americans.
The Spanish ch sounds like the English ch in child.
At the beginning of a breath group or follow- ing l or n, the Spanish d sounds like the English d in dizzy e. In all other situations the Spanish d lies somewhere between the English d and the th in there e. Allow a little air to escape between the tip of your tongue and upper teeth as you make the latter sound. Allow a little air to escape between your tongue and palate as you make this sound. When followed by e or i, the Spanish g is similar to the h in hot shaded slightly toward the English k e.
Not to be redistributed or modified in any way without xxx i Like the i in saline or latrine e.New procedures, concepts, and drugs account for many of the added terms, and the rest cover all fields.
Although agua is feminine and requires feminine modifiers , el is used instead of la to avoid the awkward double ah sound of la agua. Central hole tear of the discoid meniscus of the knee in magnetic resonance imaging: mimicking the buckethandle tear. We need to operate on your leg. Eur J Radiol. Both groups were treated in the physical therapy clinic twice weekly for 3 weeks for a total of 6 visits.
Las subentradas se encuentran incluidas en orden alfabtico, a menos que los plurales sean tratados como si fueran singulares. Other exceptional features of this book include its grammatical rigor and the extent to which the reader is guided toward correct use of a trans- lation.
To ensure maximal stabilization, the device was mounted on a metal platform that was securely bolted to the frame of the examination table. Los ejemplo-traduccin consecutivos se sepa- ran el uno del otro con triple punto.