LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS BIOCHEMISTRY PDF
Rev. ed. of: Biochemistry / Pamela C. Champe, Richard A. Harvey, Denise R. Ferrier. Visit Lippincott Williams & Wilkins on the Internet: yazik.info To request permission, please contact Lippincott Williams & Wilkins at Two Commerce Square, Market Street, Philadelphia, PA , via email at. To request permission, please contact Lippincott Williams & Wilkins at Two Rev . ed. of: Biochemistry / Pamela C. Champe, Richard A. Harvey, Denise R.
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KD TRIPATHI MD. Ex-Director-Professor and Head of Pharmacology. Maulana Azad Medical College Essentials of Medical Phar. Marks' Basic Medical Biochemistry: A Clinical Approach, 2nd Edition. Marks' Basic Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins - All Rights Reserved. permission, please contact Lippincott Williams & Wilkins at Market Street, Based on: Marks' basic medical biochemistry / Michael Lieberman, Allan Marks.
Lactose may be hydrolysed by lactase , and deficiency in this enzyme results in lactose intolerance. When a few around three to six monosaccharides are joined, it is called an oligosaccharide oligo- meaning "few". These molecules tend to be used as markers and signals , as well as having some other uses.
They can be joined together in one long linear chain, or they may be branched. Two of the most common polysaccharides are cellulose and glycogen , both consisting of repeating glucose monomers.
Cellulose is an important structural component of plant's cell walls and glycogen is used as a form of energy storage in animals. Sugar can be characterized by having reducing or non-reducing ends.
Ferrier D.R., Jameson B.A. Lippincott Illustrated Reviews Flash Cards: Biochemistry
A reducing end of a carbohydrate is a carbon atom that can be in equilibrium with the open-chain aldehyde aldose or keto form ketose. If the joining of monomers takes place at such a carbon atom, the free hydroxy group of the pyranose or furanose form is exchanged with an OH-side-chain of another sugar, yielding a full acetal.
This prevents opening of the chain to the aldehyde or keto form and renders the modified residue non-reducing. Lactose contains a reducing end at its glucose moiety, whereas the galactose moiety forms a full acetal with the C4-OH group of glucose. Saccharose does not have a reducing end because of full acetal formation between the aldehyde carbon of glucose C1 and the keto carbon of fructose C2.
Main articles: Lipid , Glycerol , and Fatty acid Structures of some common lipids. At the top are cholesterol and oleic acid. At the bottom is the common phospholipid , phosphatidylcholine. Some lipids are linear, open chain aliphatic molecules, while others have ring structures. Some are aromatic with a cyclic [ring] and planar [flat] structure while others are not. Some are flexible, while others are rigid. In triglycerides , the main group of bulk lipids, there is one molecule of glycerol and three fatty acids.
Fatty acids are considered the monomer in that case, and may be saturated no double bonds in the carbon chain or unsaturated one or more double bonds in the carbon chain. In general, the bulk of their structure is nonpolar or hydrophobic "water-fearing" , meaning that it does not interact well with polar solvents like water.
Another part of their structure is polar or hydrophilic "water-loving" and will tend to associate with polar solvents like water. This makes them amphiphilic molecules having both hydrophobic and hydrophilic portions. In the case of cholesterol , the polar group is a mere —OH hydroxyl or alcohol.
In the case of phospholipids, the polar groups are considerably larger and more polar, as described below. Most oils and milk products that we use for cooking and eating like butter , cheese , ghee etc. Vegetable oils are rich in various polyunsaturated fatty acids PUFA. Lipid-containing foods undergo digestion within the body and are broken into fatty acids and glycerol, which are the final degradation products of fats and lipids. Lipids, especially phospholipids , are also used in various pharmaceutical products , either as co-solubilisers e.
Proteins are very large molecules—macro-biopolymers—made from monomers called amino acids. The side chain "R" is different for each amino acid of which there are 20 standard ones.
Champe P.C, Harvey R.A. Biochemistry
It is this "R" group that made each amino acid different, and the properties of the side-chains greatly influence the overall three-dimensional conformation of a protein. Some amino acids have functions by themselves or in a modified form; for instance, glutamate functions as an important neurotransmitter.
Amino acids can be joined via a peptide bond. In this dehydration synthesis, a water molecule is removed and the peptide bond connects the nitrogen of one amino acid's amino group to the carbon of the other's carboxylic acid group.
The resulting molecule is called a dipeptide , and short stretches of amino acids usually, fewer than thirty are called peptides or polypeptides. Longer stretches merit the title proteins. As an example, the important blood serum protein albumin contains amino acid residues.
A schematic of hemoglobin. The red and blue ribbons represent the protein globin ; the green structures are the heme groups.
For instance, movements of the proteins actin and myosin ultimately are responsible for the contraction of skeletal muscle. One property many proteins have is that they specifically bind to a certain molecule or class of molecules—they may be extremely selective in what they bind.
Antibodies are an example of proteins that attach to one specific type of molecule. Antibodies are composed of heavy and light chains.
Two heavy chains would be linked to two light chains through disulfide linkages between their amino acids.
Antibodies are specific through variation based on differences in the N-terminal domain. Probably the most important proteins, however, are the enzymes. Virtually every reaction in a living cell requires an enzyme to lower the activation energy of the reaction.
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To download additional copies of this book, call our customer service department at or fax orders to International customers should call Acknowledgments I am grateful to my colleagues at Drexel University College of Medicine who generously shared their expertise to help make this book as accurate and as useful to medical students as possible.
I am particularly appreciative of the many helpful comments of Dr. In addition, the author thanks Dr. Susan K.The same reaction can take place between carbons 1 and 5 to form a molecule with a 6-membered ring, called glucopyranose.
You may find some of the on-line basic science guides from the former curriculum of use. Sugar can be characterized by having reducing or non-reducing ends. Most oils and milk products that we use for cooking and eating like butter , cheese , ghee etc.
Biochemistryenables students to quickly review and assimilate large amounts of complex information by utilizing powerful visual resources that deliver the focus and clarification needed to master difficult biochemical concepts.