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Fig 3. Artwork for staff uniform button badges work during the first year of the campaign. Static display at MZ Participants: Outside zoo points of influence Courier Collect Participants: Website reply paid labels Participants: Bendigo bank branches Participants: Herald Sun newspaper Participants: Results Research Question 1: Fig 4. The total number of phones donated to each point-of-influence for the six-year period — Table 1 For each point of influence POI , potential participants, costs, phones returned, and estimated recoverable elements and landfill space.
Fig 5. Example methods for comparing Points of Influence. Discussion In terms of efficiencies, Keeper talks are a cost-effective way of encouraging mobile phone donations, since they are given every day as part of the standard operating procedure.
Conclusions The results of this case study show that it is possible to move beyond awareness-raising campaigns about mobile phone recycling, or surveys reporting intention to donate unwanted phones, to collection of donated mobile phones through a conservation-based organisation.
Supporting information S1 Appendix Data set for number of mobile phones donated monthly to Zoos Victoria from — and monthly zoo visitor numbers. PDF Click here for additional data file. S2 Appendix Data set for total number of phones donated yearly from — S3 Appendix The connect—understand—act model. S4 Appendix Images showing additional details of three points of influence. S5 Appendix Estimated amount of recoverable elements including conflict elements and landfill space saved. Funding Statement The authors received no specific funding for this work.
Data Availability All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files. References 1. Conservation in a wicked complex world; challenges and solutions.
Mobile phone waste management and recycling: Views and trends. Waste Manage. The situation of waste mobile phone management in developed countries and development status in China. Calibrating conservation: Recycling mobile phone batteries for lighting.
Renew Energ. J Cleaner Prod. Supply chain disclosure and ethical sourcing. Int J Prod Econ. Estimation of waste from computers and mobile phones in Iran.
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Closing the loop for rare metals used in consumer products: Hartard S, Liebert W, editors. Competition and Conflicts on Resource Use. New York: Springer; International Amnesty. This is what we die for: London, UK: Amnesty International; Supply chain sustainability: Pac Account Rev. The Last Stand of the Gorilla: Artisanal and small-scale mining and apes In: State of the Apes: Extractive Industries and Ape Conservation. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press; Historical and Current Distribution and Abundance.
Catastrophic decline of world's largest primate: PloS one. Am J Phys Anthropol. Beevers MD. Orbis ; Mineral supply chain and conflict links in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo: Paris, France: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development; Available online: Elemental compositions of over 80 cell phones.
J Electron Mater. Lee J-c, Srivastava RR. Syed S, editor. The Recovery of Gold from Secondary Sources. Imperial College Press; Syed S. Introduction In: Service lifetime, storage time, and disposal pathways of electronic equipment: J Indust Ecology.
Drivers and barriers to return and recycling of mobile phones. Case studies of communication and collection campaigns. J Clean Prod. Liza L, Mwaura F. J Environ Pollut Hum Health. Thavalingam V, Karunasena G. Mobile phone waste management in developing countries: A case of Sri Lanka. Resour Conserv Recy. Product flow analysis using trade statistics and consumer survey data: Alam ZF.
The assessment of the e-waste management generated from cellular phones, laptops, and personal computers in the Philippines. Manila J Science. Baxter J, Gram-Hanssen I.
Environmental message framing: Waste Manag. Exploring the inner loops of the circular economy: Replacement, repair, and reuse of mobile phones in Austria.
Electronic waste and informal recycling in Kathmandu, Nepal: J Mater Cycles Waste Manag. The hibernating mobile phone: Dead storage as a barrier to efficient electronic waste recovery. Seeing human when feeling insecure and wanting closeness: A systematic review.
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Zoos Victoria. Parkville, Victoria, Australia: Zoos Victoria; Clayton S, Myers G. Conservation Psychology: Understanding and Promoting Human Care for Nature.
Wiley-Blackwell; World Zoo and Aquarium Conservation Strategy: Building a Future for Wildlife. Berne, Switzerland: World Association of Zoos and Aquariums; Psychological science, conservation, and environmental sustainability. Front Ecol Environ. Smith L. Increasing the effectiveness of offsite behavior change programmes. WAZA Mag. Challenges in metal recycling. Science ; Schultz PW. Strategies for promoting proenvironmental behavior: Eur Psychol. Choosing effective behavior change tools.
Soc Mark Q. Int Zoo Yearb. Social Marketing to Protect the Environment: What Works. Los Angeles, California: SAGE; McKenzie-Mohr D. Fostering Sustainable Behavior: New Society Publishers; Sheeran P, Webb TL. The intention-behavior gap. Soc Personal Psychol Compass. On the suitability of input—Output analysis for calculating product-specific biodiversity footprints. Ecol Indic. Conflict minerals and supply chain due diligence: An exploratory study of multi-tier supply chains. J Bus Ethics.
Recycling- the importance of understanding the complexity of the issue. Int J Sust Eng. Metal recovery from the mobile phone waste by chemical and biological treatments. Australian Bureau of Statistics.
Canberra, Australia: Australian Bureau of Statistics; Support Center Support Center. External link. Removing add - ins will most likely result in faster launching of your browser. Remove unnecessary applications. Most computers come preloaded with applications and trial software that you never use.
These programs often include DLL dynamic - link library files, ActiveX controls, and system drivers that grab some of the computer's memory each time you reboot. To streamline the boot - up process and bolster your computer's available memory, remove software applications that you are sure are unnecessary, as follows. From Control Panel , select Programs and Features.
Answer questions as prompted to complete the uninstall process. This step will eliminate the loading of unnecessary DLL files, ActiveX controls, and system drivers to produce faster computer reboots. Don't kill any files you aren't absolutely sure you don't need. It's better to be safe than sorry. Clear your browser history.
Clearing your browser's history will help the browser launch and perform faster, as follows. As an alternative, you might instead click the Browsing history 's Settings button, and then on the History tab, adjust the Days to keep pages in history to 1 day, as pictured below. This setting will ensure that browsing history is kept to a minimum, which will improve the browser's performance.
To clear browsing history from Google's Chrome browser, select History from the menu, and then on the History screen, click the Clear browsing data button as pictured below , check the items you are sure you want to delete such as Browsing history and Download history , and then click the Clear browsing data button. Reduce the number of startup applets. To help your computer boot up faster, you can adjust the way program applets start when you reboot, as follows.
Alternatively, you could also search for and run msconfig , and then from the Startup tab, select Open Task Manager. In the Task Manager dialog box, select the Startup tab, right - click any unnecessary applets, and select Disable , as pictured at the top of the next column. To access the Startup tab in Windows 7 and Vista, search for and run msconfig, and select the Startup tab.
You should delete only those applets that you are sure are unnecessary. Defragment your hard drive. Windows includes a built - in hard drive defragmenting tool called Defragmentation , which organizes files scattered across multiple sectors of your hard drive into one continuous sector so those files can open and run more efficiently. To use this tool, launch an Explorer window, navigate to and right - click on your hard drive, select Properties , and then on the Tools tab, click the Optimize button.
Select a desired hard drive, and then click the Optimize button as pictured below. Run disk cleanup. Windows includes a built - in disk decluttering tool called Disk Cleanup for OS , which searches for unnecessary large files, temporary files, unnecessary installation files, and other file clutter.
To access this tool, launch an Explorer window, right - click on your hard drive, select Properties , and then click the Disk Cleanup button, as pictured below.
Further, clicking the tool's Clean up system files button as shown below may also help to declutter your Windows Registry and operating system files. Assign your computer a static IP address on your network.
This is an advanced measure. Although rare, the use of a static IP address can sometimes result in dynamic IP address conflicts, and the specific resolutions of those conflicts will depend upon many setup and configuration factors.
Therefore, you should be prepared to reverse this setting if you experience device conflict issues.
At startup, your computer spends time negotiating with the network for a virtual IP address, so by assigning a static IP address, you eliminate the need for this task, thereby reducing your startup time. To assign a static IP address, start by collecting the necessary IP information as follows. Right - click on your local adapter or Wi - Fi adapter option if you use Wi - Fi for your network connection and select Properties.
In the resulting Properties dialog box, click the button labeled Use the following IP address , and enter the IP address information collected via the instructions above and as pictured below. Enter 8. Thereafter, your computer should connect to the network automatically without having to negotiate a new dynamic IP address each time you reboot.
Rebuild your computer's search index. If you open an Explorer Window listing thousands of files and the window takes more than a few seconds to display those files, you may have issues with your computer's file index.
In this case, you may be able to speed up your computer's search process by deleting and rebuilding your computer's file index as follows. This process can take many hours, depending on the number of files and the size and speed of your hard drives; therefore, it might be wise to run this routine overnight, or over a weekend.
Hide unnecessary fonts. By default, Windows loads hundreds of fonts on startup, which as a large group can adversely affect the performance of your applications. You can suppress unnecessary fonts by searching for the Fonts folder and then right - clicking each unnecessary font and selecting Hide , as pictured at the top of the next column. For best results, you should probably hide all but 20 to 30 of the fonts you are most likely to use. Run a cleanup utility. CCleaner automatically locates and removes unused files and settings that take up hard drive space and adversely affect your computer's performance.
This free tool also removes advertising tracking cookies and clutter from your computer's registry. As an example, CCleaner identified tens of thousands of unnecessary files on my computer in 99 seconds, and then removed them all in about four minutes.
Note that this product does not remove any data files; instead it targets unnecessary files such as installation, browsing history, and recycle bin files. Refer to the screenshot below to see some of the types of unnecessary files this product found on my computer.
See more. Hear more. Feel more.
Clean out the dust. Dust on your computer's vents and on the circuit boards can impede airflow, which can cause your computer to overheat. When this starts to happen, many computers compensate automatically by ratcheting down their performance that is to say the internal clock speed that regulates how fast your CPUs operate.
You'll likely enjoy faster performance if you clean your computer of dust inside and out regularly. Restart your computer regularly.
A few years ago, I found that Windows 7 did a great job of preventing memory leak a term used to describe the event in which closing an application does not release all of the computer's memory used by that application , and as a result, I was able to avoid restarting my Windows 7 computer for one or two months at a time.
However, with Windows 8 and 8. I pine for the day when memory leak is eradicated; until then, it appears we should reboot our systems regularly. More drastic measures. Other more drastic measures for making your computer run faster include:. This Recovery tool is usually considered a last - ditch option reserved for computers that are severely disabled. This tool provides a special type of installation that reinstalls the Windows operating system but preserves all of your data and most of your settings and apps.Retrieved 23 April The static displays also required little effort in terms of staff support, and although not interactive in any way, they were efficient in influencing mobile phone donations.
Hoarding is problematic since precious including conflict metals in unrecycled old mobile phones are not extracted and potentially returned to the supply loop, thereby reducing the need for mining in wilderness areas. J Clean Prod. Hartard S, Liebert W, editors.
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