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GAONKAR MICROPROCESSOR 8085 PDF

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Gaonkar Microprocessor 8085 Pdf

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MICROPROCESSOR • Reference Book: – Ramesh S. Goankar, “ Microprocessor Architecture,. Programming and Applications with ”, 5th Edition. Intel Simulator. 1, learning and understanding the working of the microprocessor.. with Google Payments and agreeing to the yazik.info MICROPROCESSOR • Reference Book: – Ramesh S. Goankar, “ Microprocessor Architecture, Programming and Applications with ”, 5th Edition.

There are also eight one-byte call instructions RST for subroutines located at the fixed addresses 00h, 08h, 10h, These are intended to be supplied by external hardware in order to invoke a corresponding interrupt-service routine, but are also often employed as fast system calls.

One sophisticated instruction is XTHL, which is used for exchanging the register pair HL with the value stored at the address indicated by the stack pointer. For two-operand 8-bit operations, the other operand can be either an immediate value, another 8-bit register, or a memory cell addressed by the bit register pair HL. The only 8-bit ALU operations that can have a destination other than the accumulator are the unary incrementation or decrementation instructions, which can operate on any 8-bit register or on memory addressed by HL, as for two-operand 8-bit operations.

Direct copying is supported between any two 8-bit registers and between any 8-bit register and a HL-addressed memory cell, using the MOV instruction. An immediate value can also be moved into any of the foregoing destinations, using the MVI instruction.

Due to the regular encoding of the MOV instruction using nearly a quarter of the entire opcode space there are redundant codes to copy a register into itself MOV B,B, for instance , which are of little use, except for delays. Adding HL to itself performs a bit arithmetical left shift with one instruction. Adding the stack pointer to HL is useful for indexing variables in recursive stack frames. Subtraction and bitwise logical operations on 16 bits is done in 8-bit steps.

Operations that have to be implemented by program code subroutine libraries include comparisons of signed integers as well as multiplication and division.

Undocumented instructions[ edit ] A number of undocumented instructions and flags were discovered by two software engineers, Wolfgang Dehnhardt and Villy M.

Sorensen in the process of developing an assembler. These instructions use bit operands and include indirect loading and storing of a word, a subtraction, a shift, a rotate, and offset operations. Development system[ edit ] Intel produced a series of development systems for the and , known as the MDS Microprocessor System. The original development system had an processor. Later and support was added including ICE in-circuit emulators.

It is a large and heavy desktop box, about a 20" cube in the Intel corporate blue color which includes a CPU, monitor, and a single 8-inch floppy disk drive. Later an external box was made available with two more floppy drives. This unit uses the Multibus card cage which was intended just for the development system. A surprising number of spare card cages and processors were being sold, leading to the development of the Multibus as a separate product.

The result is stored in the accumulator. No need to worry about a carry from the lower 8-bits to the upper. It is taken care of automatically. Bit 7 goes to bit 0 AND the Carry flag. Bit 7 goes to the carry and carry goes to bit 0.

Bit 0 goes to bit 7 AND the Carry flag. Bit 0 goes to the carry and carry goes to bit 7. RLC vs. Conditional Branch — Go to new location if a specified condition is met. It will occupy a different number of memory bytes.

Load an 8-bit number into the accumulator. That would make it, That would make it the letter A. MHz, the instruction would require 3. Delay Loops Contd. Is this No — In the figure, the body of Final Count? You will loose the return address. The Design and Operation of Memory Memory in a microprocessor system is where information data and instructions is kept.

It can be classified into two main types: The simple view of RAM is that it is made up of registers that are made up of flip-flops or memory elements. ROM on the other hand uses diodes instead of the flip-flops to permanently hold the information.

Microprocessor architecture, programming, and applications with the by Ramesh S. Gaonkar.pdf

Select the right memory chip using part of the address bus. Identify the memory location using the rest of the address bus. Access the data using the data bus. This buffer is a logic circuit that has three states: Logic 0, logic1, and high impedance.

When this circuit is in high impedance mode it looks as if it is disconnected from the output completely. The first input behaves like the normal input for the circuit.

This latch has an input where the data comes in. It has an enable input and an output on which data comes out.

Data is always present on the input and the output is always set to the contents of the latch. To avoid this, tri-state buffers are added at the input and output of the latch. The bar over WR means that this is an active low signal. So, if WR is 0 the input data reaches the latch input. If WR is 1 the input of the latch looks like a wire connected to nothing. The RD signal controls the output in a similar manner. Then the microprocessor returns to its previous operations and continues.

Then using the appropriate Enable input we enable an individual memory register. What we have just designed is a memory with 4 locations and each location has 4 elements bits. This memory would be called 4 X 4 [Number of location X number of bits per location]. Since we can never have more than one of these enables active at the same time, we can have them encoded to reduce the number of lines coming into the chip. These encoded lines are the address lines for memory.

The address is applied to the address decoder which generates a single Enable signal to turn on only one of the memory registers. The data is then applied on the data lines and it is stored into the enabled register.

The length total number of locations is a function of the number of address lines. Then it will need 1 memory chip with 64 k locations, or 2 chips with 32 K in each, or 4 with 16 K each or 16 of the 4 K chips, etc. The chip will only work if an active signal is applied on that input. These address lines are decoded to generate the 2n necessary CS inputs for the memory chips to be used. We will need to use 2 inputs and a decoder to identify which chip will be used at what time.

The resulting design would now look like the one on the following slide. An example for the address range and its relationship to the memory chips would be the Post Office Boxes in the post office.

Boxes to are in group 0, boxes to are in group 1 and so on. We can look at the box number as if it is made up of two pieces: The upper digit of the box number identifies the group and the lower two digits identify the box within the group. So, it can address a total of 64K memory locations. If we use memory chips with 1K locations each, then we will need 64 such chips.

The 1K memory chip needs 10 address lines to uniquely identify the 1K locations. Keep in mind that the 10 address lines on the chip gives a range of 00 to 11 or H to 3FFH for each of the chips. The memory chip in this example would require the following circuit on its chip select input: Changing the combination of the address bits connected to the chip select changes the address range for the memory chip.

Low-Order Address Lines The address lines from a microprocessor can be classified into two types: This classification is highly dependent on the memory system design. Lets look at memory width. We said that the width is the number of bits in each memory word. We have been assuming so far that our memory chips have the right width.

How would you design a byte wide memory system using these chips? One chip will supply 4 of the data bits per address and the other chip supply the other 4 data bits for the same address. The interrupt process should be enabled using the EI instruction. The checks for an interrupt during the execution of every instruction. The Non-Vectored Interrupt Process 6.

When the microprocessor executes the RST instruction received from the device, it saves the address of the next instruction on the stack and jumps to the appropriate entry in the IVT. The IVT entry must redirect the microprocessor to the actual service routine. The service routine must include the instruction EI to re-enable the interrupt process. At the end of the service routine, the RET instruction returns the execution to where the program was interrupted.

Therefore, the INTR must remain active for Otherwise, the microprocessor will be interrupted again. Therefore, the answer is: Interrupt Vector RST 5. Masking RST 5. Maskable Interrupts RST7.

If there is an interrupt, and if the interrupt is enabled using the interrupt mask, the microprocessor will complete the executing instruction, and reset the interrupt flip flop.

The microprocessor then executes a call instruction that sends the execution to the appropriate location in the interrupt vector table. When the microprocessor executes the call instruction, it saves the address of the next instruction on the stack.

The microprocessor jumps to the specific service routine. Set the interrupt masks so that RST5. Read Interrupt Mask — Load the accumulator with an 8-bit pattern showing the status of each interrupt pin and mask. Set the mask to enable RST6. Accumulator M7. MSE M7. Interfacing the A to the Dev.

After that, the following sequence occurs: One or more interrupts come in. The A resolves the interrupt priorities based on its internal settings 3. The microprocessor responds with an INTA signal and turns off the interrupt enable flip flop. Operating of the A 6.

Microprocessor Books

When the microprocessor receives the op-code for CALL instead of RST, it recognizes that the device will be sending 16 more bits for the address. The microprocessor sends a second INTA signal. The microprocessor sends a third INTA signal. The result should be 0. The packaging technology of time limited the number of pin that could be used. In particular, the address lines 0 - 15 are multiplexed with data lines , address lines are multiplexed with status lines.

This is an active low signal that is asserted when there is data on the upper half of the data bus. The has two modes of operation that changes the function of some pins.

This is a simple single processor mode. This is the mode required for a coprocessor like the HOLD When this pin is high, another master is requesting control of the local bus, e. This signal is used to capture the address in latches to establish the address bus. Must be high for 4 clocks.

Re: Microprocessor - Ramesh Gaonkar pdf download

Used with Must be high for 4 clocks. The microprocessor has a very narrow view on life. The 8-bit registers are: Such as programs and data. Electronics Engineering City: In my last article on Summer Internship I will tell about different production and designing companies and how to choose and apply for summer training in such companies.

Microprocessor Architecture, Programming, and Applications With the Female Branch: With the by Ramesh Gaonkar, Publisher: The microprocessor is one of the main paper in Computer Engineering and related branch.