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Scholars Press. No hay un saludo mas lindo que el saludo del cristiano. Johnson, — The centrality of culture and ideas to the perpetuation of socialism means that the state provides more support and training for them than in capitalist coun- tries.
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It invites them to become politically active and to write works that help foster socialist consciousness. By the same token, the importance of the arts means that authorities have a greater interest in regulating their con- tent and that they tend to be less tolerant of views that contradict or threaten the legitimacy of their endeavors. This study conceives of the arts as a point of negotiation between individuals, with their unique backgrounds, inter- ests, and opinions, and ofcial organizations.
Venceremos We Will Be Victorious. One of many political slogans painted on the walls of Cubas cities. This example comes from the Paseo del Prado in Havana. Photo by the author, Those charged with such a task were con- fronted with many difcult questions: How should the arts be organized and supervised?
How much money should be devoted to such endeavors? How many artists does the country need? Do specic kinds of performance deserve more promotion than others, and if so, which kinds?
Who will de- termine which music to record and air in the media? Does some art have negative effects on society and require regulation?
Moore - Music and Revolution (Socialist Cuba)
To be sure, those ad- ministering cultural policy were not always aware of the existing Marxist literature on such issues. Some, such as lm institute director Alfredo Gue- vara, were highly educated intellectuals who knew a great deal about it. Others were political appointees who knew next to nothing about the arts and whose value lay primarily in their loyalty to Fidel Castro and his 26th of July movement.
Their preparation consisted, in many cases, of six-month crash courses on Marxism, leaving them with little grasp even of its fun- damental premises. The difculty in resolving debates over socialist aesthetics is that Marx and Engels never chose to examine the subject of art at length, leaving only scattered comments and opinions Schwartz as their legacy.
In part, this is undoubtedly due to the relative insignicance of cultural forms to economic processes in the nineteenth century, as opposed to their close links with the marketplace today. In general, Marx seems to have envisioned the ideal community as containing few professional performers but allow- ing many more individuals than before to develop their creative potential.
His ultimate goal was decidedly populist: the reintegration of creative ac- tivity into daily life. To Marx, capitalists not only exploited their laborers economically, butbecause of oppressive working conditions and lack of ac- cess to educationkept them from the cultural pastimes that made life fullling.
Paul Lafargue is one of many who referred to the role of culture in an idealized future. Mechanical production, which under capitalist direction can only buffet the worker back and forth from periods of over-work to periods of enforced idleness, will when developed and regulated by a communist administration, require from the producer. The artist then will paint, will sing, will dance, the writer will write, the musician will compose operas, the philosopher will build systems.
Lafargue Vague references in Marxs writings to an artistic utopia of this sort are the only original sources leaders have had to use as the basis for policy.
The strong encouragement of amateur performance in Cuba and elsewhere for many years reects this goal, as discussed in chapter 2. Otherwise, Marx provided few specics, and ofcials have experimented widely with the best means of achieving artistic excellence. Varied interpretations of Marx and of the appropriate role of the state in such activities have led to a variety of approaches through the years.
Some of the more hotly contested topics that rst surfaced in Europe are mentioned below. Again, the fact that many gained acceptance among the Cuban leadership for a time does not imply that all or even most artists embraced them. They represented guidelines that were frequently disputed or ignored. Class Issues Marxist theorists agree that revolutionary art should benet the masses, but they are divided on whether to draw the inspiration for such art in the expressive forms of the working classes, the professional and elite classes, or both.
The central issue is whether, under the rule of the proletariat, it is more appropriate to valorize and disseminate primarily folk and traditional expression, popular music, classical music, or some combination of all three. Tension surrounds this point because it represents the intersection of dis- tinct and somewhat contradictory goals: the promotion of marginalized pro- letarian culture and a desire to raise the standards of the socially down- trodden.
Art can cater to the aesthetic preferences of the masses at a given moment or it can attempt to widen their horizons, but it cannot always do both successfully. Several revolutions have been associated with the wholesale rejection of elite culture and the promotion of exclusively working-class forms. Chinas leadership, under the supervision of Mao Tse-tungs wife, Chiang Ching, was notorious for its purging of bourgeois elements and artists during the Cultural Revolution, which lasted from through Siegel ; similar phenomena plagued Russia in earlier decades, resulting in the banning of books by Pushkin and Dostoyevsky.
Taking the opposite view, some leaders suggested that the poor in their respective countries had never developed cultural forms of signicance and proposed massive campaigns of education to rectify the situation e.
One notes in the works of many a desire to use art as a means of breaking down class di- vision through the elaboration or modication of working-class culture. This goal is commendable but can lead to dramatic aesthetic changes. Examples include the dissemination of improved folk songs of greater harmonic or technical complexity such as in Bulgarian womens choirs Buchanan , the writing of complex symphonic compositions for traditional instruments such as the balalaika, and the creation of experimental modern dance pre- sentations based on traditional Santera ceremonies Hagedorn In an alternate case, Levin found that the socialist government in Uzbekistan attempted to divest the local music of many unique ornaments, scale intervals, and other characteristics.
Its goal was apparently to create a populist culture devoid of elements associated with the earlier emirates elite and more similar to music in other regions of the Soviet Union. Planners believed that the creation of a common folk culture would foster a sense of unity and brotherhood among the international proletariat.
Nationalist Issues The question of how strongly to support local, regional, or national forms as opposed to those from abroad has also been central to aesthetic debates in many countries. This is true despite the fact that Marxs overall philos- ophy spoke against nationalism, especially when it conicted with class identication. Socialist governments in the developing world often assume power in the wake of colonialist aggression. Because their local forms have been belittled or repressed for years or centuries in favor of an imposed culture from abroad, the natural reaction of any new leadership is to dis- pense with internationalism and promote localism.
Prevailing views contend, with some justication, that prior governments did little to support tradi- tional music and that a barrage of products from abroad threatened to com- promise, even destroy, much Cuban heritage.
The danger of nationalist poli- cies, as in the case of those related to class-based art, is that taken to extremes they can result in oppressive prohibitions. It is difcult to determine what constitutes local and foreign culture within any society, but this is especially difcult in countries such as Cuba that developed as ports of call along international trade routes and whose expression has always incorporated diverse inuences.
Indeed, much of the strength of Cubas culture derives from the fact that it has never been mono- ethnic, that its traditions do not derive from a single group but from many. Faced with these issues, the government for many years dened foreign primarily as North American or British and kept music from both coun- tries out of the media. This had some positive effects.
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Isolationism helped local genres develop in unique ways. It may have also shielded the popula- tion from certain ideological inuences related to consumerism or materi- alism, as intended.
Yet blanket prohibitions against foreign culture also fos- tered a negative image of the revolution, since most viewed them as unnecessarily severe. By the late s, the leadership itself eventually came to the same conclusion; progressive voices have argued since that any mu- sical style jazz, rock, funk, reggae, rap can be Cubanized and that sup- port of traditional music to the exclusion of other genres may be as detri- mental to the country as the loss of its own folklore Hernndez At present, very few ofcial restrictions remain on the consumption of for- eign culture.
Marxist philosophy has often been used to advocate the creation of art with certain types of formal qualities as opposed to others. Debates over aesthetics speak to the central purpose of art, what it is trying to accomplish, and by extension how it might best achieve such goals.
Some suggest that it should expose injustice or call the people to action. From this view, art and politics have the same goals: the betterment of society, the establishment of moral guidelines, and the regulation of civic activity. Mao Tse-tung appealed to artists observing suffering or oppression to use such anecdotes as their in- spiration. They should concentrate on such things, he suggested, typify the contradictions and struggles within them, and produce works which awaken the masses, re them with enthusiasm and impel them to unite and struggle to transform their environment Mao Himno a la Demajagua Hymn to Dema- jagua , an example of the sort of sheet music with strong political content printed by the revolutionary government for many years.
He helped organize the revolutionary wars against Spain in and initiated the struggle at Dema- jagua, freeing his slaves and urging them to take up arms.Performers of instrumental music or classical dance rarely encounter any pressure to alter the content of their presentations, for instance; by contrast, a visual artist judged to produce controversial images may have difculty organizing an exposition.
These changes will happen according to time to time with or without any information. Each adrenal gland has two distinct parts, each with a glandula suprarrenal function, the outer adrenal cortex and the inner medullaboth of which produce hormones.
Cuban cities even today are covered in slogans printed on walls, billboards, postage stamps, key chains, and T-shirts exhorting the people to keep revolutionary ideals in mind and to continue to struggle for a better common future Fig.
Corticosteroids have been used in treating people with traumatic brain injury. You can only compare similar vajramuthu Clear List. Del 41 al A complete spontaneous glandula suprarrenal at about 6 weeks from conceptioni. A truly revolutionary party is neither able nor willing to take upon itself the task of leading and even less of commanding art, either before or after the conquest of power. This can be done from the multifunctional Refresh CD button.
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