CAM AND FOLLOWER PDF
Cam and Follower Systems. Animations from K. J. Waldron and G. L. Kinzel, Kinematics, Dynamics and Design of Machinery, John Wiley, Cams are used for essentially the same purpose as linkages, that is, generation of irregular motion. Cams have an advantage over linkages because cams can. Terms used in Radial cams. 5. Motion of the Follower. 6. Displacement, Velocity and. Acceleration Diagrams when the Follower Moves with Uniform Velocity. 7.
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aimed at developing cam-follower systems of all kinds, sizes, and speeds. . simplification in the design and fabrication of assembled cam and follower systems. Cam makes a higher kinematic pair with follower. Cam mechanisms are widely used because with them, different types of motion can be possible. Cams can. Cam-follower systems are frequently used in all kinds of machines. The valves in Compared to linkages, cams are easier to design to give a specific output.
A roller swing follower is assembled on the cam plate designed for motion required of a beater slay-bar with reed of a narrow loom.
Continuous contact of the follower with the plate cam is ensured by a return spring attached to IJSER the follower and a reference frame as shown in Figure 1. The narrow loom beat-up mechanism is modeled as shown in Figure 2. The inertia effect of the camshaft is assumed negligible. The follower, beater, and the cam disc are considered as rigid bodies for the analysis. The contact between the cam disc and follower roller is modeled by a spring of Hertzian stiffness k h and the bearing connecting the roller to the follower is modeled by a spring k f.
Schematic diagram of the Mechanism.
The expression for the dynamic response of the system are obtained from the dynamics equations expressed in equations The system performance could be affected by the inertia parameters such as the mass, the damper and the stiffness matrices. The sensitivity of the responses to these inertia parameters are of interest.
The sensitivity analysis involve simulation analysis in which key parameters are systematically changed to investigate the influence of such changes on the performance outcome of the system. The inertia parameters are the mass, the damping coefficient and the spring stiffness. The stiffness and damping parameters were assumed constant to allow for partial sensitivity analysis approach which is adopted here. The values of the stiffness and damping parameters are as given in Table 1.
Kinematic Analysis of the Roller Follower Motion in Translating Cam-Follower Mechanisms
In this approach, the value of one variable is changed while holding the values of other variables constant, and the influence of such change is observed on the change in response of the system.
The main idea is to pre-evaluate the sensitivity of the performance of the cam mechanism due to variations of single parameter of the system inertias. This will give an insight to the selection of the material required for the fabrication of the cam plate, follower link and IJSER beater link for optimum performance. Table 1.
The system residual vibration responses of the cam plate, follower link and beater link is shown in Figures 3. The displacement of the cam features are periodic.
The beater link is observed to have higher amplitude of 0. This could be as a result of the impact action of the beater on the weft during the looms weaving operation. The cam plate and the follower link which are in direct contact with each other in the system arrangement tends to have similar vibration responses with the cam plate and follower having amplitude of 0.
The series arrangement of the cam and follower link could be responsible for the higher cam plate amplitude compared with the follower link. This suggest that the system need be controlled and therefore require a control system designed for the purpose.
Vibration Response 1 0. Follower Link Vib.
INTRODUCTION of CAMS and Types of CAM and Followers
Beater Link Vib. Time fluctuation of displacement of the cam plate, follower link and beater link IJSER Figures shows the simulation response of the angular displacement, velocity and acceleration of the cam follower system respectively.
The behavior of the cam plate and follower link shows that both components are in resonance because the response increases indefinitely. The amplitude of the response can be seen to increase linearly with time suggesting serious vibration influence on the cam follower system which implied that the system needed to be controlled.
Nonlinear dynamic behavior of the system angular acceleration Figures shows the variation in the sensitivity parameters with respect to the variations in the inertia parameters.
Forty-two sets of simulations were performed, using variations in the masses of the cam plate, follower link and beater link respectively.
For each case the amplitude of the vibration was recorded and compared with the previous.
Figure 7 shows that the variation in the mass of the cam plate has negligible influence on the performance of the beater link. The sensitivity of the system reduces at mass range of 0.
Kinematic Analysis of the Roller Follower Motion in Translating Cam-Follower Mechanisms
Figures 7 and 8 shows that variation in the mass of the cam plate and follower link has insignificant influence on the sensitivity of the system. The system sensitivity became constant between mass variations of 0. Figure 9 shows the sensitivity of the nonlinear dynamic system.
The variation in the mass of the beater link influences the performance of the system considerable especially at mass range below 0.
However to avoid chaotic operation of the system, the mass of the system features as considered should not be below 0. Sensitivity performance of nonlinear dynamic system with varying mass of cam plate 0. Sensitivity performance of nonlinear dynamic system with varying mass of beater link Careful selection of materials for the fabrication of the system may be required for the design of the follower link and designers should lay emphasize on this. It is desired to minimize the total IJSER mass of the system for optima operation as often obtained in the design of cam follower system, therefore active control towards eliminating the chaotic behavior of the follower link may be applied based on feedback approach in which the difference between the output signal from the follower link is compared with the input signal of the system and the difference fed into a compensator for the regulation of the follower output for desired operation.
Conclusion In this paper the performance sensitivity of a cam swing roller follower system for the design of beat-up motion in narrow loom weaving machine was investigated. Partial sensitivity analysis were carried out to obtain the sensitivity values of the cam plate, follower link and beater link of the system. The system performance was observed to be influenced by the variation in the inertia parameters such as the masses of the cam plate, follower link and beater link setting a limit for the selection of inertia parameters for the design of the cam follower system for smooth operation.
Andrisano, A. Ansaloni, F. Leali, M. Pellicciari, and A.
Venice, Italy, Castillo, and M. Application to composite breakwaters. Chablat, D.
Ecole Centrale de Nantes, Deihimi, A. Demeulenaere, B. De Schutter.
Cam & Follower.pdf - DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL
Dickrell-III, D. Dooner, and W. Farhat, N. Flores, Paulo.
Gatti, Gianluca, and Domenico Mundo. Samin and P.
Classification of Cams
Furthermore,the influence of the functioning cam-follower parameters can also be included. Finally,an example of application is offered to analyze and discuss the main procedures considered in this work. Key words This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Preview Unable to display preview.
Download preview PDF. References Angeles, J. Google Scholar 2. Chen, F. Google Scholar 3. Flores, P. The roller follows the groove, and the follower moves in a plane parallel to the axis of rotation of the cylinder.
The translating cam is a contoured or grooved plate sliding on a guiding surface s. The follower may oscillate Fig. The contour or the shape of the groove is determined by the specified motion of the follower. The lines of movement of in-line cam followers pass through the centers of the camshafts Fig.
For this type, the lines of movement are offset from the centers of the camshafts Fig.However to avoid chaotic operation of the system, the mass of the system features as considered should not be below 0. Journal of Engineering Manufacture, Demeulenaere, B.
Hsieh proposed method which employed homogenous coordinate transformation and conjugate surface theory to develop a kinematic model for cam profile design. Kaplan, Halit. Neto, Ambrosio and Leal presents a general formulation for the computation of a first-order analytical sensitivities using automatic differentiation of flexible multibody systems. The cam-follower systems are usually designed for specified motion characteristic required for a desired machine operation usually of high speed.