C LANGUAGE PROGRAMS EXAMPLES FILETYPE PDF
– 5. Sample Questions. – programming, i.e., anything from writing small programs for personal amusement to writing complex applications. Function Main. Every program written in C language must contain main () function. C is a general-purpose, procedural, imperative computer programming language developed in by enough understanding on C programming language from where you can take yourself to higher level of . Hello World Example. iii. Table of Contents. C Language Overview. C Hello World Example . .. 5. Compile & Execute C Program.
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This second edition of The C Programming Language describes C as defined by the We have refined the original examples, and have added new Appendix A , the reference manual, is not the standard, but our attempt to. What sets this book apart from most introductory C-programming texts is its strong emphasis Another Version of the Conversion Table Example. C C. C. C. C. C. C. C C. C. C C. C. C. C. C. C. C C. Advanced C. Peter D. Hipson. A Division of Prentice Hall Computer Publishing Screen reproductions in this book were created by means of the program Collage Plus, . A Programming Style . An Example of Pointers, Indirection.
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C has pas that voyage the arrondissement to organize pas in a voyage, easy, logical way. Sometimes we would also pass values through other registers.. These functions can be called by interrupts. DOS programs preside more useful functions such as file maintenance create file. Operating System is nothing but program that operates computer. We can call these programs by what is known as interrupts. After generating interrupts. To get the current video mode.
Turbo C provides various ways to send arguments and to generate interrupts. We can link this obj file with the main program. Set AH register to 0. Big software companies use "Pure Assembly Style". They create library file with assembly language and link them wherever necessary. Inline assembly is my choice. A to Z of C 85 geninterrupt 0x C style usage and flexibility.
If an error occurs. For example in C.
C Programming Tutorial in PDF
And those functions return the value of AX after completion of the interrupt. One solution for this is to use strtol as: You can even use other styles. Write diagnostic software that finds the status of your peripherals and motherboard. But this interrupt function doesn't increase the size of the EXE file". Is this statement true? That's why I prefer the flexible inline style. This myth is introduced in Indian Programming World by few book authors.
But if you are a beginner and if you don't know much of assembly.. I suggest you to use int86 style as it provides good error handling mechanism. Fortunately inline style provides more flexibility and an easy way for entering binary values: Write a program that find out the life of battery found on your motherboard.
This statement has no sense at all. MOV a. To display a single character. If A Graphics Mode you use other adapters Note that it is ROM. VGA is backward compatible. It supports 16 colors at a time. In the basic VGA mode e. The video card may have upto 8MB in board.
On the video card we can see a group of video RAM chips. In normal color text mode 3h 80x25x16 mode. DOS mode. Hardware engineers sometimes call this video adapter as video card.
You can use far pointers to write into video RAM. Whereas in video RAM. Video Adapter Not all the memory is used for display purpose because. Windows safe mode. But you should know in which display mode. But programmers prefer the declaration. The attribute byte is organized as: The global variable directvideo determine whether the console output by cprintf.
The functions of interest in this context are window. For better programming. Following is the example program: In such a case. Find out the reason. But this mode uses Bh as a segment address. Why graphics mode is slower than text mode? Write a program that finds number of video pages supported by your Video RAM for each mode.
From hardware perspective. For example CMOS is accessed via port 70h and 71h. So invoking interrupts some times mean indirect port access. I already pointed out that interrupts are the kind of subroutines and these subroutines also use ports to access hardware devices whenever it is necessary.
Direct port access is much faster in many situations than interrupt code. In this book. The CPU has ports for each of its bus: So using the port addresses we can access hardware devices.
Find out the ports used by different peripherals. Find out the port used by your mouse. Use the details to write a mouse driver program. Controller found on the motherboard can also send data back to the keyboard. In detail. In a typical AT system. The upper and lower case is determined by the state of shift keys.
The function of the keyboardcontroller on the motherboard is to translate scan codes and perform other functions. When you press a key on the keyboard the micro controller in keyboard reads the key switch location in the key matrix. When the keyboardcontroller on the motherboard receives data.
This area also holds pointers to keyboard buffer and key status. So I think it is enough to explain the secrets of keyboard in AT systems.. Whenever a key is been inputted through keyboard. Some people say that the size of the keyboard buffer is 32 bytes. Keyboard buffer is a character i. The pointer kbuftail points to the recently inputted key and the pointer kbufhead points to the key that is being currently processed.
The size of the keyboard buffer may vary from system to system. So when the keyboard buffer is empty. When we try to input more keystrokes. Here you should note one important thing: Whereas the kbufhead and kbuftail points to the character on the keyboard buffer and so these pointers do move. It has four 2-byte wide pointers: In that case you may call INT The status lights.
INT 16h. For that we have two ways. The first byte value must be EDh. To change the status of keyboard. Port 60h keyboard controller data port can be used as keyboard input buffer or keyboard output buffer. If bit0 of status port is 1. That is because. The second byte contains the state to set LEDs.
If bit1 of status port is 0. This is because. The BIOS scan code is usually. We can stuff keys with BIOS interrupt 16h or with keyboard buffer.
I have restructured it for the sake of clarity. If no keystroke is available. Usually all BIOS support this interrupt. This is widely used for cracking passwords with brute force technique. The code below was actually by Alexander Russell.
So the success of the above code depends upon the reading program written in BIOS. In order to test this program. Stuff ch. For me the above code works fine. This has many applications.
One of them is Piano programming where we would press more than one key. Write a program that temporarily lock or freeze the system.
Write getch and kbhit functions without using any interrupt. Write a program to find out the size of the keyboard buffer. Use stuff key techniques and interfacing techniques to input keys from other devices. Write software to increase or decrease the size of the keyboard buffer. And so PIT can be setup to work as a one shot pulse generator. Almost all systems have PC speaker. People from Electronics background may be aware that Timer is the one which produces clock signals.
People who like to have digitized sound go for MIDI card or sound blaster card. The output port of speaker is 61h. But for normal operations. Sound ChangeSpeaker ON. Turn speaker on or off. There are twelve distinct tones in an octave. Using the above formula. Other notes may be calculated from this by using a simple formula: The following program demonstrates this. In general.
The frequencies of higher octaves are just a multiple of frequencies for lower octaves. I could have used a single dimensional array notes. But I have used a two dimensional array notes to avoid calculations and to increase the speed. As the frequencies of higher octaves are just a multiple of frequencies of lower octaves. The main idea here is you have to use port 60h to get a key. This program will provide you the opportunity to try 8 octaves.
Since we are using port 60h. Do not use any gadgets or Trial and Error Techniques. If I start explaining all the sound cards. And we must know the standards used by each and every manufacturer. Each manufacturing company produces sound cards with its own standard. So I left the reader to program for his own sound card as an exercise. I have already explained multiple keys input concept. In that manual.
Sound cards are necessary for music software. Few example codes are available in CD. Write software that plays WAV. If you can write such a software. MIDI files through sound card. The basic idea is that you have to load frequency value to the register of the sound card. Hope that might be useful to you. I explain interrupts for mouse programming and a few concepts regarding mouse programming.
To work with mouse. It has so many functions. In the graphics programming. Returns 0 for success. Initializes Mouse. Certain functions will be available only to certain drivers.
Basics of Embedded C Program and Programming Structure for Beginners
INT 33h. Hide Mouse Pointer. Shows Mouse Pointer. Move Mouse Pointer to x. MOV AX. MOV CX.. You can use the library — Mouselib. The following codes by Alexander J. Installing our own mouse handler to get mouse input is referred as Event Mode. Russell illustrate the concept. First of all. And almost all game programmers and graphics programmers use it. Game programmers prefer Event Mode and they use circular queue to store the events as inputs. The beauty of this function is that it allows us to install our own handler.
Write a mouse driver program. But in Event mode. So professional programmers use Event mode. Get into graphics mode for better results Suggested Projects 1. You have to use ports Request mode can be used for ordinary programming. Whereas event mode is the one in which we install our own mouse handler to get mouse information. In request mode. Request Mode is the one in which we call mouse interrupts to get mouse information or inputs. Exercise 1. Write all mouse functions using interrupt programming.
The following program reveals this. Pointers are more powerful! TSR programs are the one which seems to terminate, but remains resident in memory. So the resident program can be invoked at any time. Unfortunately, DOS functions are non-reentrant. That is, we should not call a DOS function when it executes the same. So DOS is not meant for running two or more programs simultaneously! We must finish one process before another is undertaken. And whatever that is pushed must be fully popped. For example, assume that we have a process currently running called previous-process, and we initiate another process in the meantime called current-process.
In this case, the current-process will work fine, but when the previous-process just gets finished, it would find its stack data has been trashed by currentprocess. It is a serious injury! Everything will mess-up! We For that, we have to use undocumented DOS function 34h. In other words, BIOS is not compatible and there is no guarantee for its reentrancy. Then how does our TSR program understand, it is being requested by user?
In other words, when to popup our TSR program? For that, we have to capture few interrupts. We have already seen that interrupt routines will be called whenever an interrupt is been generated.
Indian TSR programmers often use int 8h as Timer interrupt. But other international TSR programmers use int 1ch as Timer interrupt.
The idea is that we have to block Control-C interrupt, Control-break interrupt and Critical error interrupt. Otherwise, there is a chance that the control will pass onto another program when our TSR program is in action.
And it will spoil everything! I hope by looking at the figure, you can understand the concept better. The problem here is that of sharing of interrupts by TSR programs. IBM has suggested a protocol for sharing system interrupts. Even though, this protocol is meant for sharing hardware interrupts, it can be used for software interrupts too. It is especially useful for unloading TSR programs from memory, irrespective of its loading sequence.
That is, if we follow this protocol standard, we can unload any TSR at any time! So I omit the discussion of this protocol. If you are very particular to know more about this protocol, checkout the Intshare. Avoid DOS functions. If possible, avoid BIOS functions too!
So we must wait and watch DOS busy flag. So you should watch interrupt 28h. And so prevent multiple copies. Our TSR program must use its own stack, and not that of the running process.
Other TSR programs might be chained to interrupts. So we must also chain any interrupt vector that our program needs. TSR programs should be compiled in Small memory model.
However you may need to compile in compact , large or huge memory model if you use file operations with getdta and setdta functions.
C language programs examples filetype pdf
TSR programs should be compiled with stack checking turned off. However, I list the codes of Tsr. In this section, I just present the main program only. You can see how the TSR template Tsr. It should be compiled in the small or tiny memory model. ScrPop 1 ; ScrSetCur oldx, oldy, 0 ; return; default: PutStr ShadowBox PILOT ". The Screen Thief will capture the screen.
ScrSetCur 0. Depending upon the mode you set. Write a Screen Thief utility. Graphics Programming can be classified into: Graphics with BGI 2. VESA Programming Mode 13h Programming 3. SVGA could even support about 16 million colors! BGI is used only by Indian Programmers! Other International Programmers use mode 13h. Even though BGI is slow. Programming with BGI is considered to be quite old. So we are in need of BGI files that are to be initialized with initgraph function.
Fortunately we have other commercial In my experience. And it will be a very serious problem! If you write a program for x resolution. It will be highly beneficial for the beginners.
EGA etc. At that time almost all the systems got VGA. It is a costly mistake! So the right declaration for a bug free program is: But it is a shareware. It is found on CD. But before that. It is available in CD. Cirrus 54xx. Support for a graphical text mode cursor ala Norton Support for the hardware cursor on systems that support it. So in those video modes. More details and documentation are found on CD!
Paradise Easy to use API so you can use the mouse cursor in your own programs. Your mouse driver may not be aware of certain video modes. Large cursor support currently up to 32x Inorder to make the setcolor function to work. Ability to set the cursor foreground and background colors. Bitmap cursor support multicolored mouse cursors. The following program is a Demo Paintbrush program.
Windows and Frame. I give you few guidelines. Paintbrush coders usually find difficulty in implementing mouse drawings. When you want to paint on the drawing box using putpixel or anything else. I could see. In this chapter let us see how to create few VB like controls. This program uses: If the current mouse position is equal to previous mouse position.
So the logic is hide-paint-show. It's for Command Button effect. Initializes Screen. Checks errors. MyOuttextxy VBFrame Initializes VB. VBForm CmdButton i. VBDrawBox Draws Command Button for specified status. Creates a Window with the given title.
Creates Drawing Box. Creates VB like Frame. MyRectangle x1. Returns Command Button value. Display messages. CmdButton cmdno. ShowStatus cmdno. CmdButton prevcmdno. So for the exact implementation. If you need more precision. A real VB control uses object-oriented concepts. If you could code all VB controls. When I developed this utility. Except for default font.
So the existing values can be —64 to 63 for X and Y coordinates. I thought that there is no utility to create CHR files.
You can see that the X values can even be in negative. When I developed Scribble. The last bit 7th bit of the X-Y values holds the command. Scribble is a CHR or font file creator. I suggest you to have a glance at the CHR file format on file format collection. Draw line from current location or End of character definition. It will be a good example of coding style. The command can be any one of the following 3 commands: Y coordinates stored in corresponding bytes. I thought that CHR file format is undocumented.
But for the sake of brevity. I have avoided negative values in Scribble. CHR file. But later I came to know that it is documented. And so I cracked the CHR file format. The coordinate values are stored in 7-bits of a byte and they all are signed. BYTE undefined2. BYTE copyRight. BYTE fntName. BYTE dBase. BYTE undefined1. One powerful reason is memory allocation. Unlike most programming languages, C allows the programmer to write directly to memory.
Key constructs in C such as structs, pointers and arrays are designed to structure and manipulate memory in an efficient, machine-independent fashion. In particular, C gives control over the memory layout of data structures. Moreover dynamic memory allocation is under the control of the programmer which also means that memory deallocation has to be done by the programmer.
Languages like Java and Perl shield the programmer from having to manage most details of memory allocation and pointers except for memory leaks and some other forms of excess memory usage.
This can be useful since dealing with memory allocation when building a high-level program is a highly error-prone process. However, when dealing with low-level code such as the part of the OS that controls a device, C provides a uniform, clean interface.
These capabilities just do not exist in most other languages. While Perl, PHP, Python and Ruby may be powerful and support many features not provided by default in C, they are not normally implemented in their own language. Rather, most such languages initially relied on being written in C or another high-performance programming language , and would require their implementation be ported to a new platform before they can be used.However, they did not provide portability.
The command can be any one of the following 3 commands: The file type is identified by what is known as signature.
Note For the above program. Thus each file got its own architecture or File Format.
C Programming/Print version
A real VB control uses object-oriented concepts. My sincere thanks to my sister Lincy, brother Bensley and my friend Brighton for their encouragement.
Latitudes near the poles and Antarctica are not shown. Save flags xor ax.
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