VISIONS MICHIO KAKU PDF
Visions: How Science Will Revolutionize the Twenty- Visions. Michio Kaku is the Henry Semat Professor of Theoretical Physics at the City College of New. In Visions, physicist and author Michio Kaku examines the great scientific revolutions that have dramatically reshaped the twentieth century--the quantum. Science Will Revolutionise the 21st Century, Michio Kaku Using Inayatullah's Causal Layered Analysis, Marcus Anthony deconstructs Michio Kaku's Visions.
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Also by Michio Kaku. Beyond Einstein. Hyperspace. Visions. Einstein's Cosmos dooming his vision of showing that all the elements of the universe. Visions: How Science. Will Revolutionize the 21st Century. •. Michio Kaku. Anchor Books (Doubleday), New. York, pp. $ he. ISBN warps, and the tenth dimension / Michio Kaku; illustrations by. Robert O'Keefe. vision, reduces housework with electrical appliances, heats our food with.
In general, patients with this Soon afterward, in , German physician Carl Wernicke described patients who su ered from the opposite problem. They could articulate clearly, but they could not understand written or spoken speech.
Often these patients could speak uently with correct grammar and syntax, but with nonsensical words and meaningless jargon. Wernicke con rmed after performing autopsies that these patients had su ered damage to a slightly di erent area of the left temporal lobe. The works of Broca and Wernicke were landmark studies in neuroscience, establishing a clear link between behavioral problems, such as speech and language impairment, and damage to specific regions of the brain.
Another breakthrough took place amid the chaos of war. Throughout history, there were many religious taboos prohibiting the dissection of the human body, which severely restricted progress in medicine. In warfare, however, with tens of thousands of bleeding soldiers dying on the battle eld, it became an urgent mission for doctors to develop any medical treatment that worked.
During the Prusso-Danish War in , German doctor Gustav Fritsch treated many soldiers with gaping wounds to the brain and happened to notice that when he touched one hemisphere of the brain, the opposite side of the body often twitched.
Later Fritsch systematically showed that, when he electrically stimulated the brain, the left hemisphere controlled the right side of the body, and vice versa. This was a stunning discovery, demonstrating that the brain was basically electrical in nature and that a particular region of the brain controlled a part on the other side of the body. Curiously, the use of electrical probes on the brain was rst recorded a couple of thousand years earlier by the Romans.
In the year A.
Wilder Penfield began working with epilepsy patients, who often su ered from debilitating convulsions and seizures that were potentially life-threatening. For them, the last option was to have brain surgery, which involved removing parts of the skull and exposing the brain. Since the brain has no pain sensors, a person can be conscious during this entire procedure, so Dr. Penfield used only a local anesthetic during the operation. Pen eld noticed that when he stimulated certain parts of the cortex with an electrode, di erent parts of the body would respond.
He suddenly realized that he could draw a rough one-to-one correspondence between speci c regions of the cortex and the human body. His drawings were so accurate that they are still used today in almost unaltered form. They had an immediate impact on both the scienti c community and the general public. In one diagram, you could see which region of the brain roughly controlled which function, and how important each function was.
For example, because our hands and mouth are so vital for survival, a considerable amount of brain power is Furthermore, Pen eld found that by stimulating parts of the temporal lobe, his patients suddenly relived long-forgotten memories in a crystal-clear fashion. When he published his results in , they created another transformation in our understanding of the brain. Figure 1. This is the map of the motor cortex that was created by Dr. Wilder Penfield, showing which region of the brain controls which part of the body.
In Figure 2, we see the neocortex, which is the outer layer of the brain, divided into four lobes. It is highly developed in humans. All the lobes of the brain are devoted to processing signals from our senses, except for one: The prefrontal cortex, the foremost part of the frontal lobe, is where most rational thought is processed. The information you are reading right now is being processed in your prefrontal cortex. Damage to this area can impair your ability to plan or contemplate the future, as in the case of Phineas Gage.
This is the region where information from our senses is evaluated and a future course of action is carried out. Figure 2. The four lobes of the neocortex of the brain are responsible for different, though related, functions.
The right hemisphere controls sensory attention and body image; the left hemisphere controls skilled movements and some aspects of language. Damage to this area can cause many problems, such as difficulty in locating parts of your own body. The occipital lobe is located at the very back of the brain and processes visual information from the eyes.
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Damage to this area can cause blindness and visual impairment. The temporal lobe controls language on the left side only , as well as the visual recognition of faces and certain emotional feelings. Damage to this lobe can leave us speechless or without the ability to recognize familiar faces. When you look at other organs of the body, such as our muscles, bones, and lungs, there seems to be an obvious rhyme and reason to them that we can immediately see.
But the structure of the brain might seem slapped together in a rather chaotic fashion. He divided the brain into three parts. Since then, studies have shown that there are re nements to this model, but we will use it as a rough organizing principle to explain the overall structure of the brain. First, he noticed that the back and center part of our brains, containing the brain stem, cerebellum, and basal ganglia, are almost identical to the brains of reptiles. They also control behaviors such as ghting, hunting, mating, and territoriality, which are necessary for survival and reproduction.
The reptilian brain can be traced back about million years. See Figure 3. But as we evolved from reptiles to mammals, the brain also became more complex, evolving outward and creating entirely new structures. The limbic system is prominent among animals living in social groups, such as the apes. It also contains structures that are involved in emotions. Since the dynamics of social groups can be quite complex, the limbic system is essential in sorting out potential enemies, allies, and rivals.
Figure 3. The evolutionary history of the brain, with the reptilian brain, the limbic system the mammalian brain , and the neocortex the human brain. This is the gateway to memory, where short-term memories are processed into long-term memories. Damage here will destroy the ability to make new long-term memories. You are left a prisoner of the present. This is the seat of emotions, especially fear, where emotions are rst registered and generated.
This is like a relay station, gathering sensory signals from the brain stem and then sending them out to the various cortices. This regulates body temperature, our circadian rhythm, hunger, thirst, and aspects of reproduction and pleasure. It lies below the thalamus—hence its name.
Finally, we have the third and most recent region of the mammalian brain, the It is most highly developed in humans: In rats the neocortex is smooth, but it is highly convoluted in humans, which allows a large amount of surface area to be crammed into the human skull.
In some sense, the human brain is like a museum containing remnants of all the previous stages in our evolution over millions of years, exploding outward and forward in size and function.
This is also roughly the path taken when an infant is born.
The infant brain expands outward and toward the front, perhaps mimicking the stages of our evolution. Although the neocortex seems unassuming, looks are deceiving. Under a microscope you can appreciate the intricate architecture of the brain. The gray matter of the brain consists of billions of tiny brain cells called neurons.
Like a gigantic telephone network, they receive messages from other neurons via dendrites, which are like tendrils sprouting from one end of the neuron. At the other end of the neuron, there is a long ber called the axon. Eventually the axon connects to as many as ten thousand other neurons via their dendrites. At the juncture between the two, there is a tiny gap called the synapse.
These synapses act like gates, regulating the ow of information within the brain. Special chemicals called neurotransmitters can enter the synapse and alter the ow of signals.
Because neurotransmitters like dopamine, serotonin, and noradrenaline help control the stream of information moving across the myriad pathways of the brain, they exert a powerful e ect on our moods, emotions, thoughts, and state of mind. See Figure 4. This description of the brain roughly represented the state of knowledge through the s.
In the s, however, with the introduction of new technologies from the eld of physics, the mechanics of thought began to be revealed in exquisite detail, unleashing the current explosion of scienti c discovery. One of the workhorses of this revolution has been the MRI machine. Figure 4. Diagram of a neuron. Electrical signals travel along the axon of the neuron until they hit the synapse.
Neurotransmitters can regulate the flow of electrical signals past the synapse. Radio waves, a type of electromagnetic radiation, can pass right through tissue without doing damage. MRI machines take advantage of this fact, allowing electromagnetic waves to freely penetrate the skull. In the process, this technology has given us glorious photographs of something once thought to be impossible to capture: Watching the dance of lights ickering in a MRI machine, one can trace out the thoughts moving within the brain.
The giant magnet is one of the principal reasons why an MRI machine can weigh a ton, ll up an entire room, and cost several million dollars. CT By contrast, MRI machines are safe when used properly. One problem, however, is the carelessness of workers. The magnetic eld is powerful enough to send tools hurling through the air at high velocity when turned on at the wrong time. People have been injured and even killed in this way.
MRI machines work as follows: Patients lie at and are inserted into a cylinder containing two large coils, which create the magnetic eld. When the magnetic eld is turned on, the nuclei of the atoms inside your body act very much like a compass needle: Then a small pulse of radio energy is generated, which causes some of the nuclei in our body to ip upside down.
When the nuclei later revert back to their normal position, they emit a secondary pulse of radio energy, which is then analyzed by the MRI machine.
Like a bat, which uses echoes to determine the position of objects in its path, the echoes created by the MRI machine allow scientists to re-create a remarkable image of the inside of the brain. Computers then reconstruct the position of the atoms, giving us beautiful diagrams in three dimensions. When MRIs were originally introduced, they were able to show the static structure of the brain and its various regions. MRI scans cannot directly detect the ow of electricity in the neurons, but since oxygen is necessary to provide the energy for the neurons, oxygenated blood can indirectly trace the ow of electrical energy in the neurons and show how various regions of the brain interact with one another.
Already these MRI scans have de nitively disproven the idea that thinking is concentrated in a single center. Instead, one can see electrical energy circulating across di erent parts of the brain as it thinks. The great advantage of MRI machines is their exquisite ability to locate minute parts of the brain, down to a fraction of a millimeter in size.
Since di erent chemical elements respond to di erent frequencies of radio, you can change the frequency of the radio pulse and therefore identify di erent elements of the body. As noted, fMRI machines zero in on the oxygen atom contained within blood in order to measure blood ow, but MRI machines can also be tuned to identify other atoms. Since water follows Scientists can now instantly determine how certain parts of the brain are hooked up with other parts.
Visions: How Science Will Revolutionize the 21st Century
There are a couple of drawbacks to MRI technology, however. Although they are unparalleled in spatial resolution, locating voxels down to the size of a pinpoint in three dimensions, MRIs are not that good in temporal resolution. It takes almost a full second to follow the path of blood in the brain, which may not sound like a lot, but remember that electrical signals travel almost instantly throughout the brain, and hence MRI scans can miss some of the intricate details of thought patterns.
Another snag is the cost, which runs in the millions of dollars, so doctors often have to share the machines. But like most technology, developments should bring down the cost over time. One idea is to use MRI scans as lie detectors, which, according to some studies, can identify lies with 95 percent accuracy or higher.
The level of accuracy is still controversial, but the basic idea is that when a person tells a lie, he simultaneously has to know the truth, concoct the lie, and rapidly analyze the consistency of this lie with previously known facts.
Today some companies are claiming that MRI technology shows that the prefrontal and parietal lobes light up when someone tells a lie. This area is located right behind the orbits of our eyes, and hence the name. The theory goes that the orbitofrontal cortex understands the di erence between the truth and a lie and kicks into overdrive as a result. Other areas of the brain also light up when someone tells a lie, such as the superiormedial and inferolateral prefrontal cortices, which are involved in cognition.
Already there are several commercial rms o ering MRI machines as lie detectors, and cases involving these machines are entering the court system. While DNA results can sometimes have an accuracy of one part in 10 billion or better, MRI scans cannot, because it takes many areas of the brain to concoct a lie, and these same areas of the brain are responsible for processing other kinds of thoughts as well.
The EEG was introduced all the way back in , but only recently has it been possible to employ computers to make sense out of all the data pouring in from each electrode. To use the EEG machine, the patient usually puts on a futuristic-looking helmet with scores of electrodes on the surface. More advanced versions place a hairnet over the head containing a series of tiny electrodes.
These electrodes detect the tiny electrical signals that are circulating in the brain. At the top, we see an image taken by a functional MRI machine, showing regions of high mental activity. In the bottom image, we see the flowerlike pattern created by a diffusion MRI machine, which can follow the neural pathways and connections of the brain. This means you can vary the radio pulse to select di erent atoms for analysis, making it quite versatile.
The EEG machine, however, is strictly passive; that is, it analyzes the tiny electromagnetic signals the brain naturally emits.
The EEG excels at recording the broad electromagnetic signals that surge across the entire brain, which Di erent states of consciousness vibrate at di erent frequencies. For example, deep sleep corresponds to delta waves, which vibrate at. Active mental states, such as problem solving, correspond to beta waves, vibrating from 12 to 30 cycles per second. These vibrations allow various parts of the brain to share information and communicate with one another, even if they are located on opposite sides of the brain.
And while MRI scans measuring blood ow can be taken only several times a second, EEG scans measure electrical activity instantly. The greatest advantage of the EEG scan, though, is its convenience and cost. Even high school students have done experiments in their living rooms with EEG sensors placed over their heads.
However, the main drawback to the EEG, which has held up its development for decades, is its very poor spatial resolution. The EEG picks up electrical signals that have already been di used after passing through the skull, making it di cult to detect abnormal activity when it originates deep in the brain.
Looking at the output of the muddled EEG signals, it is almost impossible to say for sure which part of the brain created it. Furthermore, slight motions, like moving a nger, can distort the signal, sometimes rendering it useless. PET SCANS Yet another useful tool from the world of physics is the positron emission topography PET scan, which calculates the ow of energy in the brain by locating the presence of glucose, the sugar molecule that fuels cells.
Like the cloud chamber I made as a high school student, PET scans make use of the subatomic particles emitted from sodium within the glucose. To start the PET scan, a special solution containing slightly radioactive sugar is injected into the patient. The sodium atoms inside the sugar molecules have been replaced by radioactive sodium atoms.
Every time a sodium atom decays, it emits a positive electron, or positron, which is easily detected by sensors. By following the path of the radioactive sodium atoms in sugar, one can then trace out the energy flow within the living brain. However, instead of measuring blood ow, which is only an indirect indicator of energy consumption in the body, PET scans measure energy consumption, so it is more closely related to neural activity. There is another drawback to PET scans, however. In general, a person is not allowed to have a PET scan more than once a year because of the risk from radiation.
Within the last decade, many new high-tech devices have entered the tool kit of neuroscientists, including the transcranial electromagnetic scanner TES , magnetoencephalography MEG , near-infrared spectroscopy NIRS , and optogenetics, among others.
In particular, magnetism has been used to systematically shut down speci c parts of the brain without cutting it open. The basic physics behind these new tools is that a rapidly changing electric eld can create a magnetic eld, and vice versa. MEGs passively measure the magnetic elds produced by the changing electric elds of the brain.
Its spatial resolution, however, is only a cubic centimeter. Unlike the passive measurement of the MEG, the TES generates a large pulse of electricity, which in turn creates a burst of magnetic energy.
The TES is placed next to the brain, so the magnetic pulse penetrates the skull and creates yet another electric pulse inside the brain. This secondary electrical pulse, in turn, is su cient to turn o or dampen the activity of selected areas of the brain. Historically, scientists had to rely on strokes or tumors to silence certain parts of the brain and hence determine what they do.
But with the TES, one can harmlessly turn o or dampen parts of the brain at will. For example, by shooting magnetic pulses into the left temporal lobe, one can see that this adversely affects our ability to talk. One potential drawback of the TES is that these magnetic elds do not penetrate very far into the interior of the brain because magnetic elds decrease much faster than the usual inverse square law for electricity.
TES is quite useful in turning o parts of the brain near the skull, but the magnetic eld cannot reach important centers located deep in the brain, such as the limbic system.
But future generations of TES devices may overcome this technical problem by increasing the intensity and precision of the magnetic field. Figure 6. We see the transcranial electromagnetic scanner and the magnetoencephalograph, which uses magnetism rather than radio waves to penetrate the skull and determine the nature of thoughts within the brain.
Magnetism can temporarily silence parts of the brain, allowing scientists to safely determine how these regions perform without relying on stroke victims. The probes originally used by Dr. Pen eld were relatively crude. Today these electrodes can be hairlike and reach speci c areas of the brain deep within its interior. Not only has DBS allowed scientists to locate the function of various parts of the brain, it can also be used to treat mental disorders. Deep brain stimulation has given almost miraculous relief after decades of torment and agony for these long-suffering patients.
Every year, new uses for deep brain stimulation are being found. In fact, nearly all the major disorders of the brain are being reexamined in light of this and other new This promises to be an exciting new area for diagnosing and even treating illnesses.
Like a magic wand, it allows you to activate certain pathways controlling behavior by shining a light beam on the brain. Incredibly, a light-sensitive gene that causes a cell to re can be inserted, with surgical precision, directly into a neuron. Then, by turning on a light beam, the neuron is activated. More importantly, this allows scientists to excite these pathways, so that you can turn on and off certain behaviors by flicking a switch.
Although this technology is only a decade old, optogenetics has already proven successful in controlling certain animal behaviors. By turning on a light switch, it is possible to make fruit ies suddenly y o , worms stop wiggling, and mice run around madly in circles.
Monkey trials are now beginning, and even human trials are in discussion. In , scientists at Stanford University announced that they had successfully made the entire brain of a mouse transparent, as well as parts of a human brain. However, once billions of cells come together to form organs like the brain, the addition of lipids fats, oils, waxes, and chemicals not soluble in water helps make the organ opaque.
The key to the new technique is to remove the lipids while keeping the neurons intact. By placing the brain in a soapy solution with an electric eld, the solution can be ushed out of the brain, carrying along the lipids, leaving the brain transparent. The addition of dyes can then make the neural pathways visible. This will help to identify and map the many neural pathways of the brain.
Making tissue transparent is not new, but getting precisely the right conditions necessary to make the entire brain transparent took a lot of ingenuity. Kwanghun Chung, one of the lead scientists in the study. The new technique, called Clarity, can also be applied to other He has already created transparent livers, lungs, and hearts. This new technique has startling applications across all of medicine. In particular, it will accelerate locating the neural pathways of the brain, which is the focus of intense research and funding.
Before their introduction, only about thirty or so regions of the brain were known with any certainty. Now the MRI machine alone can identify two to three hundred regions of the brain, opening up entirely new frontiers for brain science. With so many new scanning technologies being introduced from physics just within the last fteen years, one might wonder: Are there more? The answer is yes, but they will be variations and re nements of the previous ones, not radically new technologies. This is because there are only four fundamental forces—gravitational, electromagnetic, weak nuclear, and strong nuclear—that rule the universe.
Physicists have tried to nd evidence for a fth force, but so far all such attempts have failed. The electromagnetic force, which lights up our cities and represents the energy of electricity and magnetism, is the source of almost all the new scanning technologies with the exception of the PET scan, which is governed by the weak nuclear force.
Because physicists have had over years of experience working with the electromagnetic force, there is no mystery in creating new electric and magnetic elds, so any new brain-scanning technology will most likely be a novel modi cation of existing technologies, rather than being something entirely new.
As with most technology, the size and cost of these machines will drop, vastly increasing the widespread use of these sophisticated instruments. Already physicists are doing the basic calculations necessary to make an MRI machine t into a cell phone.
At the same time, the fundamental challenge facing these brain scans is resolution, both spatial and temporal. The spatial resolution of MRI scans will increase as the magnetic eld becomes more uniform and as the electronics become more sensitive. At present, MRI scans can see only dots or voxels within a fraction of a millimeter.
But each dot may contain hundreds of thousands of neurons. New scanning technology should reduce this even further. The holy grail of this approach would be to create an MRI-like machine that could identify individual neurons and their connections. The temporal resolution of MRI machines is also limited because they analyze the flow of oxygenated blood in the brain.
The machine itself has very good temporal resolution, but tracing the ow of blood slows it down. In the future, other MRI machines will be able to locate di erent substances that are more directly connected to the ring of neurons, thereby allowing real-time analysis of mental processes. No matter how spectacular the successes of the past fteen years, then, they were just a taste of the future. This picture was not very helpful, since it did not explain what was happening in the brain of the homunculus.
Perhaps there was a homunculus hiding inside the homunculus. With the arrival of simple mechanical devices, another model of the brain was proposed: This analogy was useful for scientists and inventors like Leonardo da Vinci, who actually designed a mechanical man. During the late s, when steam power was carving out new empires, another analogy emerged, that of a steam engine, with ows of energy competing with one another.
In this model, if too much pressure built up because of a con ict among these three, there could be a regression or general breakdown of the entire system. This model was ingenious, but as even Freud himself admitted, it required detailed studies of the brain at the neuronal level, which would take another century. Early in the last century, with the rise of the telephone, another analogy surfaced— that of a giant switchboard.
The brain was a mesh of telephone lines connected into a vast network. Consciousness was a long row of telephone operators sitting in front of a large panel of switches, constantly plugging and unplugging wires.
Unfortunately, this model said nothing about how these messages were wired together to form the brain. With the rise of the transistor, yet another model became fashionable: The old-fashioned switching stations were replaced by microchips containing hundreds of millions of transistors.
This model is an enduring one, even today, but it has limitations. The transistor model cannot explain how the brain performs computations that would require a computer the size of New York City. Plus the brain has no programming, no Windows operating system or Pentium chip. Also, a PC with a Pentium chip is extremely fast, but it has a bottleneck. All calculations must pass through this single processor.
The brain is the opposite. The ring of each neuron is relatively slow, but it more than makes up for this by having billion neurons processing data simultaneously. Therefore a slow parallel processor can trump a very fast single processor.
The most recent analogy is that of the Internet, which lashes together billions of computers. The problem with this picture is that it says absolutely nothing about how this miracle occurs.
It brushes all the complexity of the brain under the rug of chaos theory. No doubt each of these analogies has kernels of truth, but none of them truly captures the complexity of the brain. However, one analogy for the brain that I have found useful albeit still imperfect is that of a large corporation.
In this analogy, there is a huge bureaucracy and lines of authority, with vast ows of information channeled between di erent o ces.
But the important information eventually winds up at the command center with the CEO. There the final decisions are made. If this analogy of the brain to a large corporation is valid, then it should be able to explain certain peculiar features of the brain: In fact, only a tiny amount of information nally reaches the desk of the CEO, who can be compared to the prefrontal cortex.
The CEO just has to know information important enough to get his attention; otherwise, he would be paralyzed by an avalanche of extraneous information. This arrangement is probably a by-product of evolution, since our ancestors would have been overwhelmed with super uous, subconscious information ooding their brains when facing an emergency.
We are all mercifully unaware of the trillions of calculations being processed in our brains. Upon encountering a tiger in the forest, one does not have to be bothered with the status of our stomach, toes, hair, etc. All one has to know is how to run. Since rational thought takes many seconds, this means that it is often impossible to make a reasoned response to an emergency; hence lower-level brain regions must rapidly assess the situation and make a decision, an emotion, without permission from the top.
So emotions fear, anger, horror, etc. We have little conscious control over emotions. For example, no matter how much we practice giving a speech to a large audience, we still feel nervous.
There is no single homunculus, CPU, or Pentium chip making decisions; instead, the various subcenters within the command center are in constant competition with one another, vying for the attention of the CEO. So there is no smooth, steady continuity of thought, but the cacophony of di erent feedback loops competing with one another. Mentally we feel that our mind is a single entity, continuously and smoothly But the picture emerging from brain scans is quite different from the perception we have of our own mind.
When I interviewed Steven Pinker, a psychologist at Harvard University, I asked him how consciousness emerges out of this mess. He said that consciousness was like a storm raging in our brain. Consciousness turns out to consist of a maelstrom of events distributed across the brain.
These events compete for attention, and as one process outshouts the others, the brain rationalizes the outcome after the fact and concocts the impression that a single self was in charge all along. Almost all the bureaucracy is devoted to accumulating and assembling information for the CEO, who meets only with the directors of each division.
The CEO tries to mediate all the con icting information pouring into the command center. The buck stops here. The CEO, located in the prefrontal cortex, has to make the nal decision. While most decisions are made by instinct in animals, humans make higher-level decisions after sifting through different bodies of information from our senses.
Think of a pine tree, with the command center on top and a pyramid of branches flowing downward, branching out into many subcenters. There are, of course, di erences between a bureaucracy and the structure of thought. The brain consumes only about twenty watts of power the power of a dim lightbulb , but that is probably the maximum energy it can consume before the body becomes dysfunctional.
If it generates more heat, it will cause tissue damage. Therefore the brain is constantly using shortcuts to conserve energy. We will see throughout this book the clever and ingenious devices that evolution has crafted, without our knowledge, to cut corners.
For example, when we see a typical landscape, it seems like a smooth, movielike panorama. In reality, there is a gaping hole in our eld of vision, corresponding to the location of the optic nerve in the retina. We should see this large But our brains ll in that hole by papering it over, by averaging it out.
This means that part of our vision is actually fake, generated by our subconscious minds to deceive us. Also, we see only the center of our eld of vision, called the fovea, with clarity. The peripheral part is blurry, in order to save energy.
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But the fovea is very small. To capture as much information as possible with the tiny fovea, the eye darts around constantly. This rapid, jiggling motion of our eyes is called saccades.
All this is done subconsciously, giving us the false impression that our field of vision is clear and focused. When I was a child and rst saw a diagram showing the electromagnetic spectrum in its true glory, I was shocked. I had been totally unaware that huge parts of the EM spectrum e. I began to realize that what I saw with my eyes was only a tiny, crude approximation of reality.
There is an old saying: These colors do exist, but our brain can approximate each of them only by mixing di erent amounts of red, green, and blue. You can see this if you look at an old color-TV screen very carefully. You see only a collection of red, green, and blue dots. Color TV is actually an illusion.
Our eyes also fool us into thinking we can see depth. The retinas of our eyes are two- dimensional, but because we have two eyes separated by a few inches, the left and right brain merge these two images, giving us the false sense of a third dimension. For more distant objects, we can judge how far an object is by observing how they move when we move our head. We will no longer be passive bystanders to the dance of the universe, but will become creative choreographers of matter, life, and intelligence.
The first section of Visions presents a shocking look at a cyber-world infiltrated by millions of tiny intelligence systems.
Science, for all its breathtaking change, evolves slowly; we can accurately predict, asserts Kaku, what the direction of science will be, based on the paths that are being forged today. Read An Excerpt. Science Category: Paperback —. download the Ebook: Add to Cart. About Visions In Visions, physicist and author Michio Kaku examines the great scientific revolutions that have dramatically reshaped the twentieth century—the quantum mechanics, biogenetics, and artificial intelligence—and shows how they will change and alter science and the way we live.
Also by Michio Kaku. Product Details. Inspired by Your Browsing History. Related Articles. Looking for More Great Reads?In the process, I began to realize that the wondrous exploits of telepaths were probably impossible—at least without outside assistance.
Reading a book by Michio Kaku is poetic magic. Not only will this give us unparalleled insight into the mind, it will also generate new industries, spur economic activity, and open up new vistas for neuroscience. Later, I used the principle of magnetic resonance to build a 2.
The peripheral part is blurry, in order to save energy. In fact, such patients can do anything a normal person can do via a computer.
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