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THE PHYSICS OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS PDF

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HIS MANUAL COVERS the physics of waves, sound, music, and musical instruments at a level designed for high school physics. However, it is also a resource. Neville H. Fletcher. Thomas D. Rossing. The Physics of. Musical Instruments. Second Edition. With Illustrations. Springer. Request PDF on ResearchGate | The Physics of Musical Instruments | Part I: Vibrating Systems. Free and Forced Vibrations of Simple Systems. Continuous.


The Physics Of Musical Instruments Pdf

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The history of musical instruments is nearly as old as the history of civilization itself, and the Neville H. Fletcher, Thomas D. Rossing. Pages PDF. Feb. 22, POM Talk, UIUC Physics. 1. The Physics of Music & Musical Instruments. Prof. Steven M. Errede, Department of Physics, UIUC, Urbana, IL. Musical instruments are often thought of as linear harmonic systems, and a first- . approximation to the physics of musical instruments still tells us a great deal.

In fact, drums were pervasive throughout every African culture. Until this time in the evolutions of musical instruments, melody was common only in singing.

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Similar to the process of reduplication in language, instrument players first developed repetition and then arrangement. An early form of melody was produced by pounding two stamping tubes of slightly different sizes—one tube would produce a "clear" sound and the other would answer with a "darker" sound.

Such instrument pairs also included bullroarers , slit drums, shell trumpets, and skin drums. Cultures who used these instrument pairs associated genders with them; the "father" was the bigger or more energetic instrument, while the "mother" was the smaller or duller instrument. Musical instruments existed in this form for thousands of years before patterns of three or more tones would evolve in the form of the earliest xylophone.

Beginning around BC, Sumerian and Babylonian cultures began delineating two distinct classes of musical instruments due to division of labor and the evolving class system. Popular instruments, simple and playable by anyone, evolved differently from professional instruments whose development focused on effectiveness and skill.

Scholars must rely on artifacts and cuneiform texts written in Sumerian or Akkadian to reconstruct the early history of musical instruments in Mesopotamia.

Even the process of assigning names to these instruments is challenging since there is no clear distinction among various instruments and the words used to describe them.

Innumerable varieties of harps are depicted, as well as lyres and lutes, the forerunner of modern stringed instruments such as the violin. Sachs notes that Egypt did not possess any instruments that the Sumerian culture did not also possess.

The civilization also made use of sistra, vertical flutes, double clarinets, arched and angular harps, and various drums. When the Pharaohs of Egypt conquered Southwest Asia in around BC, the cultural ties to Mesopotamia were renewed and Egypt's musical instruments also reflected heavy influence from Asiatic cultures.

While the history of musical instruments in Mesopotamia and Egypt relies on artistic representations, the culture in Israel produced few such representations. Scholars must therefore rely on information gleaned from the Bible and the Talmud. For example, stringed instruments of uncertain design called nevals and asors existed, but neither archaeology nor etymology can clearly define them. The instruments of the time were simple and virtually all of them were imported from other cultures.

Rather, the history of musical instruments in the area begins with the Indus Valley Civilization that emerged around BC. Various rattles and whistles found among excavated artifacts are the only physical evidence of musical instruments. This discovery is among many indications that the Indus Valley and Sumerian cultures maintained cultural contact.

Subsequent developments in musical instruments in India occurred with the Rigveda , or hymns. These songs used various drums, shell trumpets, harps, and flutes. In all, India had no unique musical instruments until the Middle Ages. The Chinese believed that music was an essential part of character and community, and developed a unique system of classifying their musical instruments according to their material makeup. Poetry of the Shang dynasty mentions bells, chimes, drums, and globular flutes carved from bone, the latter of which has been excavated and preserved by archaeologists.

Wind instruments such as flute, pan-pipes , pitch-pipes , and mouth organs also appeared in this time period. For example, they had no stringed instruments; all of their instruments were idiophones, drums, and wind instruments such as flutes and trumpets. Of these, only the flute was capable of producing a melody. South American cultures of the time used pan-pipes as well as varieties of flutes, idiophones, drums, and shell or wood trumpets.

During the period of time loosely referred to as the Middle Ages , China developed a tradition of integrating musical influence from other regions. The first record of this type of influence is in AD, when China established an orchestra in its imperial court after a conquest in Turkestan. In fact, Chinese tradition attributes many musical instruments from this period to those regions and countries. While stringed instruments of China were designed to produce precise tones capable of matching the tones of chimes, stringed instruments of India were considerably more flexible.

This flexibility suited the slides and tremolos of Hindu music. Rhythm was of paramount importance in Indian music of the time, as evidenced by the frequent depiction of drums in reliefs dating to the Middle Ages.

The emphasis on rhythm is an aspect native to Indian music. The gong-like instrument was a bronze disk that was struck with a hammer instead of a mallet. Tubular drums, stick zithers veena , short fiddles, double and triple flutes, coiled trumpets, and curved India horns emerged in this time period.

It must be played using the technique of the circular breathing. The Alboka has a double-reed that vibrates when blown on the small tube.

The tubes regulates the melody and the big horn amplifies the sound. An Indonesian metallophone Southeast Asian musical innovations include those during a period of Indian influence that ended around AD. While the gong likely originated in the geographical area between Tibet and Burma , it was part of every category of human activity in maritime Southeast Asia including Java. Persian miniatures provide information on the development of kettle drums in Mesopotamia that spread as far as Java.

The lyre is the only musical instrument that may have been invented in Europe until this period. The central and northern regions used mainly lutes, stringed instruments with necks , while the southern region used lyres, which featured a two-armed body and a crossbar.

The 9th-century Persian geographer Ibn Khordadbeh mentioned in his lexicographical discussion of music instruments that, in the Byzantine Empire , typical instruments included the urghun organ , shilyani probably a type of harp or lyre , salandj probably a bagpipe and the lyra. Keyboards and lutes developed as polyphonic instruments, and composers arranged increasingly complex pieces using more advanced tablature.

Composers also began designing pieces of music for specific instruments.

Composers now specified orchestration where individual performers once applied their own discretion. People also began writing books about creating, playing, and cataloging musical instruments; the first such book was Sebastian Virdung 's treatise Musica getuscht und ausgezogen 'Music Germanized and Abstracted'.

Other books followed, including Arnolt Schlick 's Spiegel der Orgelmacher und Organisten 'Mirror of Organ Makers and Organ Players' the following year, a treatise on organ building and organ playing. This book, the Syntagma musicum by Michael Praetorius , is now considered an authoritative reference of sixteenth-century musical instruments. An emphasis on aesthetic beauty also developed; listeners were as pleased with the physical appearance of an instrument as they were with its sound.

Therefore, builders paid special attention to materials and workmanship, and instruments became collectibles in homes and museums. For example, while organs with multiple keyboards and pedals already existed, the first organs with solo stops emerged in the early fifteenth century. These stops were meant to produce a mixture of timbres, a development needed for the complexity of music of the time. Scholars must rely on artifacts and cuneiform texts written in Sumerian or Akkadian to reconstruct the early history of musical instruments in Mesopotamia.

Even the process of assigning names to these instruments is challenging since there is no clear distinction among various instruments and the words used to describe them. Innumerable varieties of harps are depicted, as well as lyres and lutes, the forerunner of modern stringed instruments such as the violin.

Sachs notes that Egypt did not possess any instruments that the Sumerian culture did not also possess.

The Physics of Music and Musical Instruments - Keller Physics

The civilization also made use of sistra, vertical flutes, double clarinets, arched and angular harps, and various drums. When the Pharaohs of Egypt conquered Southwest Asia in around BC, the cultural ties to Mesopotamia were renewed and Egypt's musical instruments also reflected heavy influence from Asiatic cultures. While the history of musical instruments in Mesopotamia and Egypt relies on artistic representations, the culture in Israel produced few such representations.

Scholars must therefore rely on information gleaned from the Bible and the Talmud.

For example, stringed instruments of uncertain design called nevals and asors existed, but neither archaeology nor etymology can clearly define them. The instruments of the time were simple and virtually all of them were imported from other cultures. Rather, the history of musical instruments in the area begins with the Indus Valley Civilization that emerged around BC. Various rattles and whistles found among excavated artifacts are the only physical evidence of musical instruments.

This discovery is among many indications that the Indus Valley and Sumerian cultures maintained cultural contact. Subsequent developments in musical instruments in India occurred with the Rigveda , or hymns. These songs used various drums, shell trumpets, harps, and flutes. In all, India had no unique musical instruments until the Middle Ages. The Chinese believed that music was an essential part of character and community, and developed a unique system of classifying their musical instruments according to their material makeup.

Poetry of the Shang dynasty mentions bells, chimes, drums, and globular flutes carved from bone, the latter of which has been excavated and preserved by archaeologists. Wind instruments such as flute, pan-pipes , pitch-pipes , and mouth organs also appeared in this time period.

For example, they had no stringed instruments; all of their instruments were idiophones, drums, and wind instruments such as flutes and trumpets. Of these, only the flute was capable of producing a melody. South American cultures of the time used pan-pipes as well as varieties of flutes, idiophones, drums, and shell or wood trumpets.

During the period of time loosely referred to as the Middle Ages , China developed a tradition of integrating musical influence from other regions. The first record of this type of influence is in AD, when China established an orchestra in its imperial court after a conquest in Turkestan. In fact, Chinese tradition attributes many musical instruments from this period to those regions and countries. While stringed instruments of China were designed to produce precise tones capable of matching the tones of chimes, stringed instruments of India were considerably more flexible.

This flexibility suited the slides and tremolos of Hindu music. Rhythm was of paramount importance in Indian music of the time, as evidenced by the frequent depiction of drums in reliefs dating to the Middle Ages.

The emphasis on rhythm is an aspect native to Indian music. The gong-like instrument was a bronze disk that was struck with a hammer instead of a mallet. Tubular drums, stick zithers veena , short fiddles, double and triple flutes, coiled trumpets, and curved India horns emerged in this time period. It must be played using the technique of the circular breathing.

The Alboka has a double-reed that vibrates when blown on the small tube. The tubes regulates the melody and the big horn amplifies the sound. An Indonesian metallophone Southeast Asian musical innovations include those during a period of Indian influence that ended around AD. While the gong likely originated in the geographical area between Tibet and Burma , it was part of every category of human activity in maritime Southeast Asia including Java.

Persian miniatures provide information on the development of kettle drums in Mesopotamia that spread as far as Java. The lyre is the only musical instrument that may have been invented in Europe until this period. The central and northern regions used mainly lutes, stringed instruments with necks , while the southern region used lyres, which featured a two-armed body and a crossbar. The 9th-century Persian geographer Ibn Khordadbeh mentioned in his lexicographical discussion of music instruments that, in the Byzantine Empire , typical instruments included the urghun organ , shilyani probably a type of harp or lyre , salandj probably a bagpipe and the lyra.

Keyboards and lutes developed as polyphonic instruments, and composers arranged increasingly complex pieces using more advanced tablature. Composers also began designing pieces of music for specific instruments. Composers now specified orchestration where individual performers once applied their own discretion.

People also began writing books about creating, playing, and cataloging musical instruments; the first such book was Sebastian Virdung 's treatise Musica getuscht und ausgezogen 'Music Germanized and Abstracted'. Other books followed, including Arnolt Schlick 's Spiegel der Orgelmacher und Organisten 'Mirror of Organ Makers and Organ Players' the following year, a treatise on organ building and organ playing. This book, the Syntagma musicum by Michael Praetorius , is now considered an authoritative reference of sixteenth-century musical instruments.

An emphasis on aesthetic beauty also developed; listeners were as pleased with the physical appearance of an instrument as they were with its sound. Therefore, builders paid special attention to materials and workmanship, and instruments became collectibles in homes and museums.

Musical instrument

For example, while organs with multiple keyboards and pedals already existed, the first organs with solo stops emerged in the early fifteenth century. These stops were meant to produce a mixture of timbres, a development needed for the complexity of music of the time.

They felt that a monophonic style better suited the emotional music and wrote musical parts for instruments that would complement the singing human voice. One such instrument was the shawm.

The details of this transformation are unclear, but the modern horn or, more colloquially, French horn, had emerged by This variation on the trumpet was unpopular due to the difficulty involved in playing it. Sachs viewed this trend as a "degeneration" of the general organ sound. The design changes that broadened the quality of timbres allowed instruments to produce a wider variety of expression.

Large orchestras rose in popularity and, in parallel, the composers determined to produce entire orchestral scores that made use of the expressive abilities of modern instruments. Since instruments were involved in collaborations of a much larger scale, their designs had to evolve to accommodate the demands of the orchestra.

Flutes and bowed instruments underwent many modifications and design changes—most of them unsuccessful—in efforts to increase volume.South American cultures of the time used pan-pipes as well as varieties of flutes, idiophones, drums, and shell or wood trumpets. A tone is a very regular set of waves, all the same size and same distance apart.

The flutes were made in the Upper Paleolithic age, and are more commonly accepted as being the oldest known musical instruments. One such instrument was the shawm.

Standing Waves in Other Objects So far we have looked at two of the four main groups of musical instruments: chordophones and aerophones. Membranes and Plates. This has a direct effect on the frequency and pitch of harmonics, and so it affects the basics of music tremendously. A musical instrument is designed and built for the playing of music of a particular type and, conversely, music is written to be performed on particular instruments.

Hornbostel—Sachs, for example, divide aerophones on the basis of sound production, but membranophones on the basis of the shape of the instrument. Most methods are specific to a geographic area or cultural group and were developed to serve the unique classification requirements of the group.