THE PHYSICS BOOK CLIFFORD PICKOVER
The Physics Book [Clifford A. Pickover] on yazik.info *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. New, and pristine. See scans and description. New York: Barnes. Clifford A. Pickover received his PhD from Yale in Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, and has written more than 40 books and over articles on such . Editorial Reviews. About the Author. Clifford A. Pickover received his PhD from Yale in Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, and has written more than
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The Physics Book by Clifford A. Pickover, , available at Book Depository with free delivery worldwide. To ask other readers questions about The Physics Book, please sign up. . Clifford A. Pickover's simply, yet aptly, titled tome, The Physics Book, should be on. See all books authored by Clifford A. Pickover, including Surfing through Hyperspace: The Physics Book: From the Big Bang to Quantum Resurrection,
Roger Zelazny creatively speculates in his novel Bridges of Ashes that an alien race created the Gabon mine in order to cause mutations that eventually led to the human race. Nature created the worlds first nuclear reactor in Africa. Patent 2,, on the nuclear reactor. Tank is filled with water to act as a shield for radiation. Atlatl 30, B. At various locations around the world, ancient cultures discovered the physics of killing through the use of an ingenious device called the atlatl.
In some sense, the atlatl functions as an extra arm segment. A 27,year-old atlatl made of reindeer antler was discovered in France. Native Americans used the device 12, years ago. Australian Aborigines called the device a woomera.
East Africans and Native Alaskans also used atlatl-like devices. The Mayans and Aztecs who actually called it an atlatl were fans of the instruments, and the Aztecs surprised the Spanish conquistadors by using atlatls to completely pierce plate armor. Prehistoric hunters could use the atlatl for killing animals as large as the mammoth. Today, the World Atlatl Association supports both national and international competitions that attract engineers, hunters, and anyone interested in understanding the secrets of prehistoric technology.
One version of the atlatl resembles a two-foot long stick, although it underwent technological evolution over thousands of years. A dart four to six feet long, or about 1. The atlatl user launches the dart with a sweeping arm and wrist motion, similar to a tennis serve. As the atlatl evolved, users discovered that flexible atlatl boards could effectively store and release energy like a diver on a diving board , and small stone weights were added to the device.
The purpose of these weights has been debated through the years. Many feel that the weights add stability and distance to the throw by adjusting the timing and flexibility. Its also possible that the weights reduce the sound so that the launch is less obvious. Figure from the Fejrvry-Mayer Aztec Codex of central Mexico, depicting a god holding three arrows and an atlatl.
This codex dates to a time prior to Hernn Corts destruction of the Aztec capital Tenochtitlan in Boomerang 20, B. I recall a silly song from childhood by the English singer Charlie Drake , about a sad Australian Aborigine who laments that My boomerang wont come back. In practice, this may have been no problem, because the boomerangs used for hunting kangaroos or in war were heavy curved throwing sticks meant to break the bones of the quarry and not to return.
A hunting boomerang, dated to around 20, B. Today, when most of us think of boomerangs, we think of boomerangs shaped like the letter V. These shapes probably evolved from the non-returning boomerangs, perhaps when hunters noticed that particular branch shapes were more stable in flight or exhibited interesting flight patterns.
The return boomerang is actually used for hunting to scare game birds into flight, though we dont know when such boomerangs were first invented. Each wing of this kind of boomerang is shaped like an airfoil, similar to the shape of an airplane wing, which is rounded on one side and flatter on the other. Air travels faster over one side of the wing than the other, which assists in providing lift.
Unlike an airplane wing, the boomerang has leading edges on opposite sides of the V, given that the boomerang spins as it flies. This means that the airfoils face in different directions for the lead wing and the trailing wing.
The boomerang is initially thrown at a slightly off-vertical direction with the open part of the V facing forward. As the boomerang spins in the direction of the throw, the top wing of the boomerang advances faster than the bottomwhich also contributes to the lift.
Gyroscopic precession, which is a change in the orientation of the rotation axis of a rotating body, allows the boomerang to return to the thrower when thrown correctly. The combination of these factors creates the complex, circular flight path of the boomerang. Boomerangs have been used as weapons and for sport. Their shapes vary and depend on their geographic origins and function. Sundial Hide not your talents. They for use were made. Whats a sundial in the shade?
Ben Franklin For centuries, people have wondered about the nature of time. Much of ancient Greek philosophy was concerned with understanding the concept of eternity, and the subject of time is central to all the worlds religions and cultures. Angelus Silesius, a seventeenth-century mystic poet, actually suggested that the flow of time could be suspended by mental powers: Time is of your own making; its clock ticks in your head.
The moment you stop thought, time too stops dead.
One of the oldest of time-keeping devices is the sundial. Perhaps ancient humans noticed that the shadows they cast were long in the early morning, grew progressively shorter, and then grew longer again as the evening approached.
The earliest known sundial dates to about B. A primitive sundial can be made from a vertical stick in the ground. In the northern hemisphere, the shadow rotates around the stick in a clockwise direction, and the shadows position can be used to mark the passage of time. The accuracy of such a crude instrument is improved if the stick is slanted so that it points to the Celestial North Pole, or roughly toward the position of the Pole Star.
With this modification, the pointer s shadow will not change with the seasons.
One common form of sundial has a horizontal dial, sometimes used as an ornament in a garden. Because the shadow does not rotate uniformly around the face of this sundial, the marks for each hour are not spaced equally. Sundials may not be accurate for various reasons, including the variable speed of the Earth orbiting the Sun, the use of daylight savings time, and the fact that clock times today are generally kept uniform within time zones.
Before the days of wristwatches, people sometimes carried a folding sundial in their pockets, attached to a small magnetic compass to estimate true north. People have always wondered about the nature of time. One of the most ancient of timekeeping devices is the sundial.
Truss B. Trusses are structures usually composed of several triangular units that are made from straight pieces of metal or wood connected by joints, or nodes. If all members of the truss lie in a plane, the truss is called a planar truss. For centuries, truss structures allowed builders to construct sturdy structures in an economical way, in terms of cost and use of materials. The rigid framework of a truss allowed it to span great distances.
The triangular shape is particularly useful because the triangle is the only shape that cannot experience a change in shape without a change in the length of a side. This means that a triangular frame of strong beams fastened at static joints cannot be deformed. For example, a square could, in principle, assume the shape of a rhombus, if the joints accidentally slid.
Another advantage of the truss is that its stability can often be predicted by assuming that the beams are stressed primarily in terms of tension and compression and that these forces act at the nodes. If a force tends to elongate a beam, it is a tensile force. If the force tends to shorten the beam, it is a compressive force. Since the nodes of a truss are static, the sum of all forces at each node equals zero.
Wooden trusses were used in ancient lake dwellings during the Early Bronze Age, circa B. Romans used wooden trusses for bridge constructions. In the s, trusses were extensively used in covered bridges in the United States, and numerous patents were filed for various truss configurations.
The first iron-truss bridge in the United States was the Frankfort Bridge on the Erie Canal, built in , and the first steel-truss bridge spanned the Missouri River in After the Civil War, metal-truss railroad bridges were popular, as they offered greater stability than suspension bridges when subject to the moving load of heavy trains.
For centuries, triangular truss structures allowed builders to construct sturdy, cost-effective structures. Arch B. In architecture, an arch is a curved structure that spans a space while supporting weight. The arch has also become a metaphor for extreme durability created by the interaction of simple parts.
The Roman philosopher Seneca wrote, Human society is like an arch, kept from falling by the mutual pressure of its parts. According to an ancient Hindu proverb, An arch never sleeps.
The oldest existing arched city gate is the Ashkelon gate in Israel, built c. Mesopotamian brick arches are even older, but the arch gained particular prominence in ancient Rome, where it was applied to a wide range of structures. In buildings, the arch allows the heavy load from above to be channeled into horizontal and vertical forces on supporting columns. The construction of arches usually relies upon wedge-shaped blocks, called voussoirs, that precisely fit together.
The surfaces of neighboring blocks conduct loads in a mostly uniform manner. The central voussoir, at the top of the arch, is called the keystone. To build an arch, a supporting wooden framework is often used until the keystone is finally inserted, locking the arch in place. Once inserted, the arch becomes self-supporting. One advantage of the arch over earlier kinds of supporting structures is its creation from easily transported voussoirs and its spanning of large openings.
Another advantage is that gravitational forces are distributed throughout the arch and converted to forces that are roughly perpendicular to voussoirs bottom faces. However, this means that the base of the arch is subject to some lateral forces, which must be counterbalanced by materials e.
Much of the force of the arch is converted to compressional forces on the voussoirsforces that stones, concrete, and other materials can easily withstand. Romans mostly constructed semicircular arches, although other shapes are possible. In Roman aqueducts, the lateral forces of neighboring arches served to counteract each other. The arch allows the heavy load from above to be channeled into horizontal and vertical forces. Arches usually rely upon wedgeshaped blocks, called voussoirs, that fit closely together as in these ancient Turkish arches.
Olmec Compass Michael D. Coe b. Carlson b. The Olmec compass in Mesomerica may represent the earliest known compass. The Olmecs were an ancient pre-Columbian civilization situated in south-central Mexico from around B. American astronomer John B. Carlson used Radiocarbon Dating methods of the relevant layers of an excavation to determine that a flattened, polished, oblong piece of hematite iron oxide had its origin about B.
Carlson has speculated that the Olmecs used such objects as direction indicators for astrology and geomancy, and for orienting burial sites.
The Olmec compass is part of a polished lodestone magnetized piece of the mineral bar with a groove at one end that was possibly used for sighting. Note that the ancient Chinese invented the compass some time before the second century, and the compass was used for navigation by the eleventh century.
Considering the unique morphology purposefully shaped polished bar with a groove and composition magnetic mineral with magnetic moment vector in the floating plane of M, and acknowledging that the Olmec were a sophisticated people who possessed advanced knowledge and skill in working iron ore minerals, I would suggest for consideration that the Early Formative artifact M was probably manufactured and used as what I have called a zeroth-order compass, if not a first-order compass.
Whether such a pointer would have been used to point to something astronomical zeroth-order compass or to geomagnetic north-south first-order compass is entirely open to speculation.
Carlson floated it on mercury or on water with a cork mat. In the most general definition, a lodestone refers to a naturally magnetized mineral, such as those used in fragments that ancient people used to create magnetic compasses.
Crossbow B. Through the centuries, the crossbow was a weapon that employed the laws of physics to wreak military havoc and pierce armor. The crossbow changed the odds of victory in war during the Middle Ages. One of the first reliable records of crossbow use in war dates to the battle of Ma-Ling B. Early crossbows generally were bows mounted to wooden tillers, or stocks. The short, heavy, arrow-like projectile called a bolt traveled along a groove through the tiller.
As the crossbow evolved, various mechanisms were used to pull back the string and then hold the string in place until it was ready to be fired. Early crossbows had stirrups for holding an archer s foot as he pulled back the string with both hands or with a hook. Physics improved these killing machines in several ways. A traditional bow and arrow required that the archer be very strong to draw the bow and hold it while aiming.
However, with a crossbow, a weaker person could use his leg muscles to assist drawing the string. Later, various levers, gears, pulleys, and cranks were used to amplify the user s strength when pulling back the string.
In the fourteenth century, European crossbows were made of steel and employed crannequinsa toothed wheel attached to a crank. An archer would turn the crank to pull the bowstring. The penetrating power of a crossbow and ordinary bow comes from energy stored when bending the bow. Like a spring that is pulled and held, energy is stored in the elastic potential energy of the bow. When released, the potential energy is converted to the kinetic energy of movement. The amount of firing power the bow delivers depends on the bows draw weight amount of force needed to draw the bow and draw length the distance between the bowstrings resting position and its drawn position.
Around , Leonardo da Vinci drew several designs for a colossal crossbow. This weapon was cranked using gears. One of its firing mechanisms employed a holding pin that was released by striking it with a mallet.
Baghdad Battery Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta In , Italian physicist Alessandro Volta invented what has been traditionally considered to be the first electric battery when he stacked several pairs of alternating copper and zinc discs separated by cloth soaked in salt water.
When the top and bottom of the pile were connected by a wire, an electric current began to flow. However, the discovery of certain archeological artifacts may suggest batteries predate this discovery by more than a millennium. Iraq has a rich national heritage, writes the BBC News. The Garden of Eden and the Tower of Babel are said to have been sited in this ancient land.
May 29, John Orman rated it it was amazing. A very impressive tome covering milestones in the history of physics. For each milestone, there is one page of text and a page of photos or drawings.
From Other milestones: Turns out there is both physical curving and optical illusions involved. String Theory. Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. Schrodinger Wave Equation. Quantum Tunneling.
Cosmic Inflation. Cosmological Big Rip--will the universe be destroyed at the young age of 22 billion years by dark energy? Universal Fade-Out--or will the universe live to a ripe old age of trillion years?
Quantum Immortality--will we keep showing up somewhere in space and time over and over, randomly? Quantum Resurrection--thermally produced disembodied intelligence: Science Fiction or possibility? Over all, this book is quite a trip through history, past, present, and into the beyond! I thought this book was a reasonably good introduction to physics.
It dealt with the fathers of physics i. Newton, Einstein, etc.
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This book doesn't state that it is a definitive account of all things physics. It is a means of dipping your toe into the wonders of a branch of science and charting your own course for extra information on topics which interest you.
One I thought this book was a reasonably good introduction to physics. One slight grievance I have with the book, is its use of the formula which each scientist may have come up with. While fascinating in their own right, I found it hard to understand them.
But that's my failing. Dec 15, Dean Mayer rated it it was amazing. Just picked it up from Barnes and nobles this afternoon, and found it difficult to close Albeit- even I succumb to basic human functions from time to time. Thus far it's proven to be quite insightful and easily approachable. My knowledge of physics is limited at best currently but I feel this publication is already doing a fine job by enlightening me on the fundamental discoveries of physics to date.
Knowledge seems to lose its viscosity a bit when it's history is understood, and this book d Just picked it up from Barnes and nobles this afternoon, and found it difficult to close Knowledge seems to lose its viscosity a bit when it's history is understood, and this book does that for me in regards to physics. What a wonderful subject understatement of the millennium. Dec 29, Jolene rated it really liked it Shelves: A great addition to any public library, and wonderful for beginners in physics.
The book is set up in a timelime by discovery, and has a sort of encyclopedia like format with one page description and brief background history of each scientific phenomenon or discovery. Also each entry is cross-referenced with other discoveries or scientists to give a complete picture. In addition, each page has beautiful picture or diagram depicting the the preceeding entry.
Jun 19, Stacey rated it it was amazing. If you have any interest in physics, then this book is for you. It covers hundreds of theories, inventions, and achievements in the field from the beginning of the universe to the end. My only complaint is that it became unreasonably time consuming and costly- each time I read about an interesting concept, I ended up downloading a book on it, researching it online, or finding another way to spend hours learning about the subject.
Highly recommended! May 25, Jack Sternal rated it really liked it. A very interesting read. It provides different physics concepts in shot-sized samples. Some concepts are integrally linked, others on the fringes of physics. All of those concepts, however, are fascinating in understanding the big picture of how our universe works, from a quantum level all the way up to a cosmological scale.
This book is filled with fascinating information! Have one for your coffee table. Have one for your library. I also like the way it is put together. Information on one side with a picture on the other. Bold for other information to be found within the book. An index to look up info quickly. Oct 19, Fred Hughes rated it liked it.
The Physics Book - From the Big Bang to Quantum Re
A good introduction to the world of physics. Setv out i chronological order we start in the past and move to the distant future while examining the brilliant minds that have given us the world we are privaliged to live in. A good read well researched and for the most part easily understandable.
Jan 26, Ariadna73 rated it it was amazing Shelves: Read my Spanish review here: Very nice reference book. It is entertaining and beautiful. Perfect for any bookshelf. Nov 19, Trevor rated it really liked it Shelves: Very intersting book, full of fascinating things.
I'd've given it 5 stars if each item discussed had been more in depth, but then the book would have to have been published in volumes. Well worth the read. Very good book for the person with a casual interest in the history physics. Each milestone is limited to one page with an associated picture.
Some of the milestones I would not have selected. Limited to the or so I would have selected, it would probably get 5 stars. Dec 05, Derek Davis rated it liked it. A sumptuous picture book that reduces all of physics to clever pictures and little information. I should have realized that giving a single page to every aspect of science, big and small, isn't going to work, and it doesn't.
Dec 22, Ravencrantz rated it it was amazing Shelves: This might just be one of the most beautiful books I have ever received. And I'm not just talking about the shiny cover and the glossy pages with pretty pictures. I love physics. It's by far one of my favorite subjects, and this is just the perfect book for any physics lover. There are no discussion topics on this book yet. Readers also enjoyed. About Clifford A.
ESP and Nostradamus , psychology e. Pickover stalks[ edit ] Pickover stalks are certain kinds of details that are empirically found in the Mandelbrot set in the study of fractal geometry. In the s, Pickover proposed that experimental mathematicians and computer artists examine the behavior of orbit trajectories for the Mandelbrot in order to study how closely the orbits of interior points come to the x and y axes in the complex plane. In some renditions of this behavior, the closer that the point approaches, the higher up the color scale, with red denoting the closest approach.
The logarithm of the distance is taken to accentuate the details.
The Physics Book
This work grew from his earlier work with Julia sets and "Pickover biomorphs," the latter of which often resembled microbes. The books contains contributions on "Fluid flow, fractals, plant growth, genetic sequencing, the configuration of distant galaxies, virtual reality to artistic inspiration", and focuses on use of computers as tools for simulation, art and discovery.
According to Pickover, "if humans attempt to read such data in the form of numbers and letters, they will take in the information at a snail's pace. If the information is rendered graphically, however, human analysts can assimilate it and gain insight much faster. The emphasis of this work is on the novel graphical and musical representation of information containing sequences, such as DNA and amino acid sequences, to help us find hidden pattern and meaning".
Note that the digits of the factors 21 and 60 can be found, in some scrambled order, in For each milestone, there is one page of text and a page of photos or drawings.
Trusses are structures usually composed of several triangular units that are made from straight pieces of metal or wood connected by joints, or nodes. A very interesting read. Awesome book! Time proceeds down the page. Medicines most significant recent technology, used for visualizing the interior of the human body in three-dimensional detail, is magnetic resonance imaging MRI.
Anyway, here are a couple of the coolest items that I tabbed from Pickover's list.