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electrical wiring The Complete Home Guide to Herbs, Natural Healing, and Nutrition The Ultimate Book of Spells: A Complete Guide to Using Magic to. The Complete Guide to WIRING - Free ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or common do-it-yourself home wiring skills and projects, including. Now in its 4th edition, Black & Decker's Complete Guide to Wiring has sold more than 1 million copies, establishing itself as the best-selling home wiring book in.

The Complete Guide To Home Wiring Pdf

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The Complete Guide to Home Wiring: A Comprehensive Manual, from Basic Repairs to Advanced Projects (Black & Decker Home Improvement Library; U.S. final connections. Advanced Home Wiring takes the mystery out of installing new circuits. This is a useful manual for your reference shelf and job site, combining. STEP BY STEP. GUIDE BOOK ON. NO. 1. GROUND. WIRES. BLACK WIRE ATTACHED . How the Home Electrical System Works complete safety. Still, it's a.

Detach these wires and set the does not beep or light up.

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Hold your two long screws that hold it to the box. Depending of the receptacle. download With the cover plate off. Remove the cover plate a new receptacle or light see pages to Mark the from the receptacle by unscrewing the screw that holds the planned location of the new receptacle or switch on the wall plate to the electrical box.

If the sensor wires and a bare wire. download a surface-mounted starter box. Pull all the wires you just disconnected an opening for the raceway track using pliers. Screw the mounting plate to the existing the knockout you remove matches the profile of your track. If possible. Use a stud finder to locate and mark all of the wall framing members between the old receptacle and the new one.

Mark screw locations on the wall. Position the mounting plate for the receptacle box up against the reference line and secure it with screws driven through the mounting plate holes.

Secure the track or conduit in a vise or clamping work support and cut with a hacksaw. Tap a plastic wall anchor into the hole with a hammer so the underside of the top flange is flush against the surface of the wall. When a screw is driven into the wall anchor sleeve.

At the new receptacle location. If the plate is not located over a wall stud. For best results. Snap the raceway into the clip below the knockout. Repeat this same procedure at the new receptacle box. Slip a bushing included with installation kit over the ends of the tracks where they enter the box. Attach mounting clips for the raceway track at the starter box and the new receptacle box. The clips should these marks. Install the mounting plates directly below the pieces the box.

Snake the end of each wire of the horizontal parts of the elbows. Be sure to measure all the way to the raceway.? Use corner pieces to guide raceway around corners.

Corners are available for inside or outside corners and consist of a mounting plate and a cap piece.

Measure the distance between the ends than the length of each wiring run. Then snake the wire all the way through the long base of the clip. What If.. Begin at the new place over the mounting plates. Line up one end of the raceway with the end of an elbow and begin pressing the raceway into the clips until it is snapped into all of the clips.

There should be about 6" of wire coming out at each box. Tighten the the plate with a rubber mallet to get enough force to snap it on.?

Make sure all of the wire fits completely within the cover pieces. Snap the long piece of raceway into the mounting clips.

You may need to rap bottom gold screw on the side of the receptacle. You can use straight connector pieces to join two lengths of raceway..

Much like an elbow piece. Wrap the end of the black wire around the another at the new receptacle location. What If. Attach the cover plate. Tighten the screw. Connect the green wire to the green-colored screw on bottom of the receptacle align with the holes in the box. Use a the bottom of the receptacle. Wrap the end of the black wire around the top gold screw on the side of the receptacle. Install the cover plate. You can now restore the power and test your new receptacle.

Original 24 receptacle 25 Black wire lead to new receptacle White wire lead to new receptacle Black wire lead to new receptacle Connect the old receptacle to the new one. Use a box using a wire connector. Tighten the wire around the bottom gold screw on the side of the the screw. Wrap the other end of the pigtail screwdriver to drive the two long mounting screws that hold around the green screw on the receptacle. Join one end receptacle into the box so the holes in the top and bottom of the pigtail with the ends of the bare and green wires in the of the receptacle align with the holes in the box.

Take the Wrap the end of the old white wire around the silver black wire that goes into the raceway and wrap the end of screw opposite the copper one you just used.

But they are not one-size fits all. The box may be as simple as a small handy box for making a splice. Be sure to refer to a box fill chart see page 60 to learn which size and shape box is required for your job. Electrical panels function like other electrical boxes insofar as they house connections.

Subpanels are smaller electrical panels that perform the same function but are supplied by the main service panel so they can distribute power into multiple circuits in a remote spot. It is typically rectangular. The smallest common boxes. Installing a box that is too small is an extremely common wiring mistake that is easy to understand: The NEC also says that all electrical boxes must remain accessible. Electrical Boxes T he National Electrical Code requires that wire connections and cable splices be contained inside an approved metal or plastic box.

Cables are inserted into the box through knockout count as two conductors. Never cover an Device boxes electrical box with drywall. Internal cable connectors and straps count as either half or one conductor.

Any box must be covered with a tightly fitting local electrical inspections office. A properly largest wire in the box. Code compliant models in place. The metal braces extend Single-size rectangular boxes shown used for cable splices and ganged to fit any joist spacing and are nailed or above may have detachable sides that receptacles or switches. They can be used only or receptacle against moisture.

Wall include a watertight hood. The box Corrosion-resistant coatings protect all the inside of a wall and hold the box may include preattached nails for metal parts. They are ceiling joists.

One type above has construction. Foam gasket Outdoor boxes have sealed seams Retrofit boxes upgrade older boxes Plastic boxes are common in new and foam gaskets to guard a switch to larger sizes.

To install one screwed to framing members. Use internal cable clamps. PVC cover plates Sealed seams and are available threaded openings to fit switches. A B Plastic retrofit boxes are used when a new switch or receptacle must fit inside a finished wall.

Plastic light fixture boxes with brace bars let you position a fixture between framing members. C Plastic retrofit light fixture box lets you install a new fixture in an existing wall or ceiling. GFCI receptacles. Metal light fixture GFCI plates boxes with heavy- duty brace bars are recommended when installing Duplex plates heavy light fixtures or hanging a ceiling fan.

Double-gang and triple-gang boxes for wiring that will be covered by finished walls. Metal boxes. PVC plastic boxes are used with Cast aluminum PVC conduit in boxes are required outdoor wiring for outdoor electrical and exposed fixtures connected indoor wiring.

After installing cables in the including single-gang A. A grounding system. A variety of adapter plates are available. C and threaded metal clamps B.

Grounding screw Pigtail A B C Metal boxes must be grounded to the circuit Cables entering a metal box must be clamped. Adapter plates come in gripped firmly.

Connect the circuit grounding wires variety of clamps are available. These boxes. Nonmetallic boxes generally are not approved for exposed areas. You can also download heavier-duty fiberglass or thermoset plastic models that provide a nonmetallic option for installing heavier fixtures such as ceiling fans and chandeliers.

Not only are they inexpensive. The bulk of the nonmetallic boxes sold today are inexpensive blue PVC. Their lack of rigidity also allows them to boxes are so popular. Most are sold prefitted with installation hardware—from metal wings to 10d common nails attached at the perfect angle for a nail-in box.

The standard PVC nail-in box capacity beyond code minimums or make outlets is prefitted with a pair of 10d common nails for attaching to difficult to attach. In addition to cost and availability. A B C Nonmetallic boxes for home use include: Side-mount boxes B resemble metal cable clamps.

In single-gang boxes right. This can reduce the box is installed. These Nail-in boxes A are prefitted with 10d are not knockouts as you would find in metal boxes. On larger boxes left.

Use these for heavier gauge cable and cable with more feature a nailing plate that is attached than three wires. Ribs Distortion can occur in nonmetallic boxes when nails Integral ribs cast into many nonmetallic boxes are used or other fasteners are overdriven or installed at improper to register the box against the wall studs so the front edges angles.

Use your wiring plan as a guide. Common recessed fixtures include electric blower-heaters left. Electrical boxes in adjacent rooms should be positioned close together when they share a common wall and are controlled by the same circuit.

Installing Boxes I nstall electrical boxes for receptacles. These fixtures are not installed until it is time to make the final hookups. Always use the deepest electrical boxes that are practical for your installation.

Install the frames for these fixtures at the same time you are installing the other electrical boxes along the circuit. Using deep boxes ensures that you will meet code regulations regarding box volume and makes it easier to make the wire connections. Install the frames for these fixtures at the same time you are installing the other electrical boxes.

Some electrical fixtures. This simplifies the cable installations and also reduces the amount of cable needed. Surface-mounted fixtures like electric baseboard heaters pages to and under-cabinet fluorescent lights pages to Standard Position each box against a stud so the front face will be receptacle boxes should be centered 12" above floor level.

Anchor the box by driving the mounting nails into the stud. Use adapter plates that and screwdriver. Position the box on the cross block so the front face will be Position each box against the side of a stud so the front face flush with the finished wall. The box for a thermostat is mounted at 48" to 60".

Slide the box along the brace bar to the the box for a ceiling light fixture in the desired position. For ceiling fans and heavy fixtures. Position each box using a box with a brace bar. Place will be flush with the finished ceiling surface. Use internal cable clamps when center of the room. Nail the ends of the brace bar to joists so the face of the box for a mirror or medicine cabinet. The centers of the boxes for the range and food disposer receptacles are 12" off the floor.

All boxes for wall switches also are installed at this height. The center of the box for the microwave receptacle is 72" off the floor. Code requires that the front face of boxes be flush with the finished wall surface. With ceramic tile and wall board B. In the kitchen shown here.

Carefully glow. The easiest way will support heavy chandeliers and ceiling fans. Any unopened from the exposed splice. If the ceiling is insulated. The tester should not Open one knockout for each cable at the main service panel. Disconnect the knockouts should remain sealed. If it does. A remodeling to install one is by nailing the brace to open ceiling joists brace like the one seen here is designed to install through a from above.

Avoid contact main service panel. See if there is any slack in cable clamp. Turn on the a screwdriver. Pigtail the copper grounding and attach the cover plate. Tighten the clamp with a box. Locknut Grounding 7 8 screw 9 Lugs Cover plate Tighten the locknuts by pushing Use wire connectors to reconnect Carefully tuck the wires into the box. Make sure the box remains accessible and is not concealed by finished walls or ceilings. For walls.

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It can be made either of metal or plastic. Identify the location Disconnect the cable clamps and slide the old box out. Install a of nails holding the box to the framing member and cut the new pop-in box see next page. Wallboard saw pop-in box D. The task becomes complicated. For ceilings. You also may find that an older switch or receptacle box is too shallow to accommodate a new dimmer or GFCI safely. In most B cases.

A pop-in box typically has wings.

Shut off power and they fall into the wall cavity when the old box is removed. Connect the switch or receptacle that the box will house. Feed cable into the new Tighten the screws that cause the flip-out wings to pivot right until the box is held box and secure it in the opening after firmly in place.

With this pop-in box. If no of a wallboard saw or by drilling a small the box no cable clamp is required with template is provided. E very home has a main service panel that distributes electrical current to the individual circuits. The main service panel usually is found in the basement, garage, or utility area, and can be identified by its metal casing. Before making any repair to your electrical system, you must shut off power to the correct circuit at the main service panel.

The service panel should be indexed page 22 so circuits can be identified easily. Service panels vary in appearance, depending on the age of the system. Very old wiring may operate on amp service that has only two circuits. New homes can have amp service with 30 or more circuits. Find the size of the service by reading the amperage rating printed on the main fuse block or main circuit breaker.

Regardless of age, all service panels have fuses or circuit breakers pages 78 to 81 that control each circuit and protect them from overloads. In general, older service panels use fuses, while newer service panels use circuit breakers. In addition to the main service panel, your electrical system may have a subpanel that controls some of the circuits in the home. A subpanel has its own circuit breakers or fuses and is installed to control circuits that have been added to an existing wiring system.

The subpanel resembles the main service panel but is usually smaller. It may be located near the main panel, or it may be found near the areas served by the new circuits. Garages and basements that have been updated often have their own subpanels. If your home has a subpanel, make sure that its circuits are indexed correctly. When handling fuses or circuit breakers, make sure the area around the service panel is dry.

Never remove the protective cover on the service panel. After turning off a circuit to make electrical repairs, remember to always test the circuit for power before touching any wires. The main service panel is the heart of your wiring system. As our demand for household energy has increased, the panels have also grown in capacity.

Today, a amp panel is considered the minimum for new construction. A circuit breaker panel providing Protective cover Main circuit breaker amps or more of power is common in wiring systems installed during the s and later. A circuit breaker panel is housed in a gray metal cabinet that contains two rows of individual circuit breakers. The size of the service can be identified by reading the amperage rating of the main circuit breaker, which is located at the top or bottom of the main service panel.

A amp service panel is now the minimum standard for all new housing. It is considered adequate for a medium-sized house with no more than three major electric appliances. However, larger houses with more electrical appliances require a service panel that provides amps or more.

To shut off power to individual circuits in a circuit breaker panel, flip the lever on the appropriate circuit breaker to the OFF position. To shut off the power to the entire house, turn the main circuit breaker to the OFF position.

A amp fuse panel often is found in Main fuse block wiring systems installed between Plug fuse and It usually is housed in a gray metal cabinet that contains four individual plug fuses, plus one or two pull-out fuse blocks that hold cartridge fuses. This type of panel is regarded as adequate for a small, 1,square-foot house that has no more than one volt appliance. Many homeowners update amp service to amps or more so that additional lighting and appliance circuits can be added to the system.

Home loan programs also may require that amp service be updated before a home can qualify for financing. To shut off power to a circuit, carefully unscrew the plug fuse, touching only its insulated rim.

To shut off power to the entire house, hold the handle of the main fuse block and pull sharply to remove it. Major appliance circuits are controlled with another cartridge fuse block. Shut off the appliance circuit by pulling out this fuse block. Panel index Protective cover Appliance fuse block. It divides the current into never touch the service wire lugs. If unsure of your branch circuits that are carried throughout the house. If you have an older electrical service that protects the wires from dangerous current with fuses instead of circuit breakers, always have an overloads.

When installing new circuits, the last step electrician make these final hookups. Working inside a circuit breaker panel is enough open slots to hold new circuit breakers, install not dangerous if you follow basic safety procedures. This job is well within Always shut off the main circuit breaker and test for the skill level of an experienced do-it-yourselfer,. Slimline circuit breakers require Grounding bus bar has terminals half as much space as standard for linking grounding wires to the single-pole breakers.

Slimlines main grounding conductor. It is can be used to make room for bonded to the neutral bus bar. Main circuit breaker panel distributes the power entering the home volt into branch circuits. Service wire lugs: Neutral service wire carries current back to the power source after it has passed through the home. Two hot service wires provide volts of power to the main circuit breaker. These wires are always HOT. Main circuit breaker protects the hot service wires from overloads and transfers power to two hot bus bars.

Subpanel feeder breaker is a Neutral bus bar has double-pole setscrew terminals for breaker, linking all neutral circuit usually 30 to wires to the neutral 50 amps. It is service wire. Two hot bus bars run Grounding conductor through the center of the leads to metal panel, supplying power to grounding rods the circuit breakers.

Each driven into the earth. Circuit current to support both the existing wiring and any new breaker panels differ in appearance, depending circuits. If your service does not provide enough power, on the manufacturer. Never begin work in a circuit have an electrician upgrade it to a higher amp rating.

Circuit breaker subpanel can be Neutral bus bar installed when the main circuit has setscrew Grounding bus bar has breaker panel does not have enough termi nals for setscrew terminals space to hold circuit breakers for new linking neutral for connecting circuit circuits you want to install. Neutral feeder wire connects the neutral bus bar in the subpanel to the neutral volt isolated bus bar in ground circuit the main service panel. Feeder cable brings power from the main Two hot bus bars pass Double-pole breaker wired for volts circuit breaker panel.

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Each neutral wire connection; the white wire controlled by a carries volts of power. Fuses and circuit breakers are located in the main service panel. GFCI Most service panels installed before rely circuit on fuses to control and protect individual circuits.

Cartridge fuses protect volt appliance circuits and the main shutoff of the service panel. Inside each fuse is a current-carrying metal alloy ribbon. If a circuit is overloaded, the metal ribbon amp melts and stops the flow of power. A fuse must match AFCI circuit double-pole breaker volt the amperage rating of the circuit.

Never replace a fuse with one that has a larger amperage rating. Circuit breakers are found in the majority of panels installed In most service panels installed after , circuit since the s. Single-pole breakers control volt circuits. Double-pole breakers rated for 20 to 60 amps control volt breakers protect and control individual circuits. Ground-fault circuit interrupter GFCI and arc-fault Single-pole circuit breakers protect volt circuits, circuit interrupter AFCI breakers provide protection from and double-pole circuit breakers protect volt shocks and fire-causing arcs for the entire circuit.

Amperage ratings for circuit breakers range from 15 to amps. Each circuit breaker has a permanent metal strip that heats up and bends when voltage passes Cartridge fuses through it.

If a circuit breaker trips frequently even though the power demand is small, the mechanism inside the breaker may be worn out. Worn circuit breakers should be replaced by an electrician. When a fuse blows or a circuit breaker trips, it is usually because there are too many light fixtures and plug-in appliances drawing power through the circuit.

Move some of the plug-in appliances to another circuit, then replace the fuse or reset the breaker. If the fuse blows or the breaker trips again immediately, there may be a short circuit in the system. Call a licensed electrician if you suspect a short circuit. Regular plug Time-delay fuse Regular plug Tamperproof fuse fuses.

Plug fuses usually control volt circuits rated for 15, 20, or 30 amps. Tamper-proof plug fuses have threads that fit only matching Fuse puller and continuity tester sockets, making it impossible to install a wrong-sized fuse.

Cartridge fuses control volt circuits and range from 30 to amps. Locate the blown fuse at the main service panel. If Unscrew the fuse, being careful to touch only the insulated the metal ribbon inside is cleanly melted right , the circuit rim of the fuse. Replace it with a fuse that has the same was overloaded. If window is discolored left , there was a amperage rating. Remove cartridge fuses by gripping Remove the individual cartridge Test each fuse using a continuity the handle of the fuse block and fuses from the block using a fuse puller.

If the tester glows, the fuse is pulling sharply. If not, install a new fuse with the same amperage rating. The lever on the pressing the circuit breaker lever all the by pushing the TEST button. If not, position, or in a position between ON to the ON position.

After this is done, the work is ready for the final inspection. Circuits are connected at the main breaker panel, if it has enough open slots, or at a circuit breaker subpanel pages to When working at a subpanel, make sure the feeder breaker at the main panel has been turned off, and test for power photo, right before touching any parts in the subpanel. Make sure the circuit breaker amperage does not exceed the ampacity of the circuit wires you are Setscrew terminals connecting to it.

Also be aware that circuit breaker styles and installation techniques vary according to Neutral bus bar manufacturer. Use breakers designed for your type of panel. With main breaker turned off but all other Pencil Cable clamps breakers turned on, touch one probe of a neon tester to the Combination tool Single- and double-pole neutral bus bar, and touch other probe to each setscrew on Cable ripper circuit breakers one of the double-pole breakers not the main breaker.

If tester does not light for either setscrew, it is safe to work in the panel.

Shut off the main circuit breaker Open a knockout in the side of Hold cable across the front of the in the main circuit breaker panel if the circuit breaker panel using a panel near the knockout, and mark you are working in a subpanel, shut off screwdriver and hammer. Strip the cable from marked line Remove the panel cover plate, taking to end using a cable ripper.

There should care not to touch the parts inside the be 18 to 24" of excess cable. Insert the panel. Test for power photo, top. Insert the inside edge of the panel. Connect white wire to make room for the new circuit breaker. Breaker installation may vary. For volt circuits knockout. Insert the wire to an open setscrew terminal on the panel to an open setscrew terminal on into the setscrew terminal on a new grounding bus bar.

Fold grounding bus bar. Reattach the edge of the panel.

There is no neutral the panel index. Connect Remove the appropriate breaker onto the guide hook. Clip away excess single-pole circuit breaker. Fold excess wire around wire using a combination tool. Insert the wire into the neutral bus bar. Also shut off the power at the service panel if you will be working downline from the switch—never count on a switch that is open to function as a breaker.

Switches A mong wiring devices. Use caution when you handle switches. The most basic switches for home wiring are single-pole switches. It is also why most of them routinely test each switch for continuity before installing it see pages 98 to The wires are usually attached to screw terminals on the sides of the fitting.

Even brand-new switches can fail to function correctly. This is why most professional electricians will pay the extra couple of dollars to download a quality switch out of the gate. Dimmer switches. Always shut off the power to the switch before removing the switch cover plate. Typical wall switch has a movable metal arm that opens and closes the electrical circuit. Individual switch styles may vary from manufacturer to manufacturer. If a switch no longer are universal.

Switch problems can occur if the screw terminals are not tight or if the metal arm inside the switch wears out. When installing a specialty location along an electrical circuit. It is possible to replace most ordinary wall The methods for repairing or replacing a switch switches with a specialty switch. When the switch is ON. Because switches receive constant use. When working on switch. When the switch is OFF.

Wall Switches A n average wall switch is turned on and off more than 1. No longer manufactured lights when a person enters a room. This switch type electrical current by means of a sealed movement and automatically turns on was the first to use a sealed plastic vial of mercury. Toggle switches were improved Mercury switches became common Electronic motion-sensor switches during the s and are now the most in the early s.

The Reproductions of this switch type are ceramic housing sealed with a layer of switch is enclosed in a ceramic housing. The handle is twisted switches of this type are still in operation.

Rotary snap switches are found in Push-button switches were widely Toggle switches were introduced many installations completed between used from until about Many in the s. They conduct have an infrared eye that senses commonly used type. This early design has a and UL approved opening For aluminum wiring.

For standard wall switch installations. To repair or replace a switch. Types of Wall Switches W all switches are available in three general types. Some Identify switch types by counting the screw specialty switches pages 94 to 97 have wire leads terminals. LIST means that the voltage ratings gauge rating switch meets the safety standards of the Underwriters Laboratories. They are connected to terminals. A wall switch is connected to circuit wires with screw terminals or with push-in fittings on the back of the switch.

A switch may have a stamped strip gauge that indicates how much insulation must be stripped from the circuit wires to make the connections. Standard wall switches Wire strip are rated 15A or V. Voltage ratings of Screw terminals gauge Single-pole switches are used to control a set of When replacing a switch.

The location of the screws on the switch and are always installed in pairs. Several rating stamps are found on the strap and on the back of the switch. Three-way switches are used that has the same number of screw terminals as the to control a set of lights from two different locations old one.

The switch body is attached to a Push-in fittings metal mounting strap that allows it to Grounding screw be mounted in an electrical box.

Single-pole switches have two screw instead of screw terminals. Four-way switches body varies depending on the manufacturer. Most switches include a grounding screw terminal. For wire systems with solid-core copper wiring. Switches also are stamped with maximum voltage and amperage ratings.

A white power supply wire that is opened or closed with the toggle. In this installation. In a correctly wired single-pole switch. The a wire connector. Grounding wires are pigtailed to the switch. Grounding Note: Position an appliance. When installing a single-pole switch. The cable has a white and a black insulated insulated wire.

In this installation sometimes called a switch loop. Each cable has a white and a black end of a circuit. The white wire may be switch. The black wire. If only one cable enters the box. The white wires are neutral and are joined together with labeled with black tape or paint to identify it as a hot wire.

Single-pole switches are the simplest of all home wiring switches. If two cables enter the box. The black wire The black wire from the two-wire cable is connected to the must be connected to the common screw terminal. The traveler terminals are interchangeable. The white neutral wires are joined together with a white wire is taped to indicate that it is hot. The white and red the three-wire cable are connected to the traveler screw wires are connected to the two traveler screw terminals.

One cable has two wires. This screw is the common terminals screw terminal. The terminals. It must be reconnected to Common screw the common screw terminal on the new switch. The cable has a black wire. Three-way switches are always installed in pairs and are used to control a set of lights from two locations.

The position of the common screw terminal on the switch body may vary. One of the screw terminals on a three-way switch Traveler screw is darker than the others. The switch that receives greater use is more likely to fail. Grounding screw Because three-way switches are installed in terminals pairs. The red and black wires from darker than the other two screw terminals. The bare copper wire connector. Before disconnecting a three-way switch.

Tester from the box. Turn on the power at the damaged wires and strip them. If it tests Or it may be labeled with the word Carefully tuck the wires into the box. Holding the mounting strap carefully. If necessary. If the switch has a grounding cover plate. Test switch for continuity. Return to the service panel.

On most three-way switches. Be careful not to touch the bare wires or screw should not glow. Switch problems in a four-way installation can be caused by loose connections or worn parts in a four-way switch or in Line 2 screw terminals one of the three-way switches facing page. Position remaining pair of screw terminals.

With most switches. In a typical installation. The red Switch variation: Some four-way switches have a wiring and white wires from one cable are attached to the top pair of guide stamped on the back to help simplify installation. This switch combination makes it possible to control a set of lights from three or more locations.

For the screw terminals. Four-way switches are common in homes where large rooms contain multiple living areas. Four-way switches are always installed between a pair of three-way Line 1 screw terminals switches. Turn on power at main service panel.

Tester should not glow. download a replacement if the switch box. Be careful not to touch any bare wires or screw terminals terminals. If incoming cable to the top set of other set of screw terminals. Test the switch for continuity screw.

Pigtail necessary. Carefully tuck the wires inside pages 98 to Test for power by touching one probe of the neon circuit then remove the switch cover plate and mounting screws. The black feed wire bringing power into the box is connected to the side of the switch that has a connecting tab. The tab can switch to light fixtures or appliances are connected to the side of the switch that be removed with needlenose pliers or does not have a connecting tab.

In these switch. The other wires carry power out to the individual light fixtures Feed or appliances. It is used to control two light fixtures or appliances from the same switch box.

The white neutral wires are connected photo below. Four black wires are attached to the switch. Feed wires Remove the connecting tab on from the power source are attached to the side of the switch that has a connecting a double switch when wired in a tab.

White neutral wires are connected together with a a screwdriver. Three black wires are attached to the is powered by a separate circuit. In rare installations. One wire. Tab In most installations. Wires carrying power from the separate-circuit installation. In these To fixture single-circuit installations.

It is connected to the brass screw terminal on the side that does not have a connecting tab. It is connected to the side of the switch that has a connecting tab.

Grounds A pilot-light switch requires a neutral wire connection. The other hot wire carries power out to the light fixture or appliance.

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In the most common installations. One black wire is the feed wire that brings power into the box. The white neutral wires are pigtailed to the silver screw terminal. Pilot-light switch wiring: Three wires are connected to the switch. In a room that does not Ground have enough wall receptacles. It is connected to the brass gold screw terminal on the side of the switch that does not have a connecting tab. Grounds the receptacle is hot even when the switch is off photo.

Basement To fixture lights. Black wire carrying power out to light fixture or appliance is connected to screw terminal on side of the switch that has a connecting tab.

One of the hot wires is the feed wire that connecting tab. The white neutral wire is pigtailed to the silver screw terminal. Pilot-light switches often are installed for convenience if a light fixture or appliance cannot be seen from the switch location. A switch box that contains a single two-wire cable has only hot wires and cannot be fitted Feed wire with a pilot-light switch. A switch box that contains only one cable has no neutral wires.

To fixture After a power failure. The black wire lead is connected to the hot feed wire that brings power into the box. The dial can be set to turn off a light Neutrals Hots fixture after a delay ranging from 1 to 60 minutes. They are commonly used Neutrals to control outdoor light fixtures. A time-delay switch needs no neutral wire connection. The black wire leads on the switch are connected to the hot circuit wires.

Timer page provide added convenience and home security. Leads It must be connected to any neutral circuit wires. Electronic switches are continuity. With electronic switches. Dimmer switches pages 96 to 97 are used frequently to control light intensity in dining circuit wires with wire connectors.

If the switch box contains Leads white neutral wires.

Time-delay switches often are used for exhaust fans. The bare copper grounding wires are pigtailed to the grounded metal box. Specialty Switches Y our house may have several types of specialty switches. Some motor-driven timer switches require a neutral wire connection and cannot be installed in switch boxes that have only one and recreation areas.

Timer switches and time-delay cable with two hot wires. Feed Timer switches have three preattached wire leads. The remaining wire lead is the neutral lead. Electronic switches facing may be able to test it with a continuity tester. When a hand passes within a few Manual dimmer inches of the beam.

Automatic switches are especially convenient for children and Manual Grounds switch persons with disabilities. Automatic switches can be installed wherever a standard single-pole switch is used. They can be installed in switch boxes containing either one or two cables. The wire leads lever on the switch are connected to hot circuit wires with Grounds wire connectors. Better switches include an adjustable sensitivity control and a variable time-delay Grounds shutoff control.

Most motion-sensor switches have an override Hots feature that allows the switch to be operated Leads manually.

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Motion-sensor switches require no neutral wire Infrared eye connections. Programmable switches require no neutral wire connections. They frequently Hots are used to provide security when a homeowner is absent from the house. They can be installed in switch boxes Manual switch containing either one or two cables. The wire leads on the switch are Infrared eye connected to hot circuit wires with wire connectors. The wire leads on Sensitivity control the switch are connected to hot circuit wires.

Some automatic switches have a manual dimming feature. For best protection. For this reason. A time-delay feature control turns off lights after movement stops. Law enforcement experts say that programmed lighting is a proven crime deterrent. Any standard single-pole switch can be replaced Toggle-type dimmer with a dimmer. Rotating the dial changes work together. Screwdriver Circuit tester Needlenose pliers Wire connectors Masking tape Automatic dimmer has an electronic sensor that adjusts the light fixture to compensate for the changing levels of natural light.

Some types have a green grounding lead that should be connected to the grounded metal box or to the bare copper grounding wires. If replacing both the switches with dimmers. Dimmer switches have larger bodies are available in both single-pole and three-way than standard switches. Dimmer switches are available in several styles photo. For these reasons. All types have wire leads instead of screw terminals. Toggle dimmers adequate size.

They also generate a small designs. In lighting configurations that use three-way switches pages 88 to An automatic dimmer also can be operated manually. Dimmers are often installed in dining rooms. Straighten the circuit dimmer switch to the circuit wires using wire lead. Return Return to the service panel. Be careful not to touch other probe to each screw terminal.

Working Safely with Wiring 13 Glossary of Electrical Terms Ampere or amp : Refers to the rate at which Neutral wire: A wire that returns current at zero electrical power flows to a light, tool, or appliance. Usually covered with white or light gray insulation.

Also called Armored cable: Two or more wires that are grouped the grounded wire. Outlet: See receptacle. Box: A device used to contain wiring connections. Usually Cable: Two or more wires that are grouped together causes a fuse to blow or a circuit breaker to trip. Pigtail: A short wire used to connect two or more Circuit: A continuous loop of electrical current flowing circuit wires to a single screw terminal.

Polarized receptacle: A receptacle designed to keep Circuit breaker: A safety device that interrupts hot current flowing along black or red wires, and an electrical circuit in the event of an overload or neutral current flowing along white or gray wires.

Power: The result of hot current flowing for a period of Conductor: Any material that allows electrical time. Use of power makes heat, motion, or light. Copper wire is an especially Receptacle: A device that provides plug-in access to good conductor. Conduit: A metal or plastic pipe used to protect wires. Romex: A brand name of plastic-sheathed electrical Continuity: An uninterrupted electrical pathway cable that is commonly used for indoor wiring. Commonly known as NM cable. Current: The movement of electrons along Screw terminal: A place where a wire connects to a a conductor.

Duplex receptacle: A receptacle that provides Service panel: A metal box usually near the site where connections for two plugs. In the service panel, electrical current is split into individual circuits. The Feed wire: A conductor that carries volt current service panel has circuit breakers or fuses to protect uninterrupted from the service panel. Fuse: A safety device, usually found in older homes, Short circuit: An accidental and improper contact that interrupts electrical circuits during an overload or between two current-carrying wires, or between a short circuit.

Greenfield: Materials used in flexible metal conduit. Switch: A device that controls electrical current See armored cable. Used to turn lights Grounded wire: See neutral wire. Grounding wire: A wire used in an electrical circuit UL: An abbreviation for Underwriters Laboratories, to conduct current to the earth in the event of a short an organization that tests electrical devices and circuit.

The grounding wire often is a bare copper wire. Hot wire: Any wire that carries voltage. In an electrical Voltage or volts : A measurement of electricity in circuit, the hot wire usually is covered with black or terms of pressure. Wattage or watt : A measurement of electrical power Insulator: Any material, such as plastic or rubber, in terms of total energy consumed.

Watts can be that resists the flow of electrical current. Insulating calculated by multiplying the voltage times the amps. Wire connector: A device used to connect two or Junction box: See box. Also called a wire nut.You may no longer tie into a receptacle in your garage to power anything outside of the garage, such as an outdoor security light.

Slide the cable ripper hand. PVC cover plates Sealed seams and are available threaded openings to fit switches. White neutral wires are connected together with a a screwdriver. Because switches receive constant use. Connect the green wire to the green-colored screw on bottom of the receptacle align with the holes in the box. Attach the Motion-sensor switch: The clips should these marks.