TEXTBOOK OF ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES BY ERACH BHARUCHA EBOOK
The Importance Of Environmental Studies Cannot Be Disputed Since The Textbook of Environmental Studies for Undergraduate Courses Erach Bharucha. module syllabus for environmental studies for undergraduate courses of all branches of . Bharucha Erach, The Biodiversity of India, Mapin Publishing Pvt. Ltd., . scope of the textbook mode of teaching, into the realm of real learning in the. Erach Bharucha. Text book of Environmental Studies for undergraduate courses, University Grants Commission, New Delhi. Gupta, P.K. Methods in .
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In this post, we are providing University Grants Commission (UGC) Environmental Studies textbook written by Erach Bharucha for all. Erach Bharucha Text Book Of Environmental Studies For Undergraduate Courses The Scope Environmental Studies By Suresh K Dhameja Pdf Ebooks. Environmental Studies for Undergraduate Courses By Erach Bharucha Book serious about your studies, you should never consider eBooks/Books in PDF.
People in environment There are several internationally known environmental thinkers. Each of these thinkers looked at the environment from a completely different perspective. Charles Darwin: wrote the origin of species, which brought to light the close relationship between habitats and species.
Textbook of Environmental Studies for Undergraduate Courses
It brought about a new way of thinking about mans relationship with other species that was based on evolution. Ralph Emerson: spoke of the dangers of commerce to our environment way back in the s. Henry Thoreau: in the s wrote that the wilderness should be preserved after he had lived in the wilderness for a year.
Thoreau had many theories and beliefs, which he poured out in his journals and books. Among these was the concept of human ecology: of the relationship between humans and nature.
He saw unity and community as important aspects of nature, and he saw all disturbances in these links as caused by human beings. Thank God men cannot fly, and lay waste the sky as well as the earth is his famous quotation. John Muir: He was a Scottish-born American naturalist, author, and early advocate of preservation of wilderness in the United States.
His letters, essays, and books telling of his adventures in nature, especially in the Sierra Nevada mountains of California, have been read by millions. He is remembered as having saved the great ancient sequoia trees in Californias forests. Aldo Leopold: was a forest official in the US in the s. He designed the early policies on wilderness conservation and wildlife management. He was considered the father of wildlife ecology and a true Wisconsin hero. His book, A Sand County Almanac is acclaimed as the century's literary landmark in conservation, which guided many to live in harmony with the land and with one another.
Rachel Carson : was an American marine biologist and conservationist whose writings are credited with advancing the global environmental movement. In the late s, Carson turned her attention to conservation and the environmental problems caused by synthetic pesticides. Then in , she wrote Silent Spring , which was met with fierce denial from chemical companies, spurred a reversal in national pesticide policyleading to a nationwide ban on DDT and other pesticides and the grassroots environmental movement the book inspired led to the creation of the Environmental Protection Agency.
EO Wilson: is an entomologist who envisioned that biological diversity was a key to human survival on Earth. He wrote Diversity of life in , which was awarded a prize for the best book published on environmental issues. He emphasised the risks to mankind due to man made disturbances in natural ecosystems that are leading to the rapid extinction of species at the global level. There are several individuals who have been instrumental in shaping the environmental history of our country.
To name a few with their significant contributions goes as follows: Salim Ali: was an Indian ornithologist and naturalist, Known as the "birdman of India", Salim Ali was among the first Indians to conduct systematic bird surveys across India.
He was instrumental in creating the Bharatpur bird sanctuary Keoladeo National Park and prevent the destruction of what is now the Silent Valley National Park.
He was awarded India's second highest civilian honour, the Padma Vibhushan in His autobiography, fall of a sparrow , should be read by every nature enthusiast. He was our countrys leading conservation scientist and influenced environmental policies in our country for over 50 years. Indira Gandhi: as PM played a very significant role in the preservation of Indias wildlife. It was during her period as PM, that the network of protected areas PAs grew from 65 to and the wildlife protection act was formulated.
The Indian Board of wildlife was extremely active as she personally chaired all its meetings. S P Godrej was one of Inidas greatest supports of wildlife conservatio n and nature awareness programs. Between and SP Godrej received 10 awards for his conservation led to his playing a major advocacy role for wildlife in India.
Swaminathan: He has founded the MS Swaminathan Research Foundation in Chennai, which does work on the conservation of biological diversity. Madhav Gadgil is a well-known ecologist in India. His interests range from board ecological issues such as developing community Biodiversity Registers and conserving sacred groves to studies on the behavior of mammals, birds and insects. His research interests include population biology, conservation biology, human ecology and ecological history and he has published over research papers and 6 books and and the editor for the series lifescapes of peninsular India..
Mehta: Environmental lawyer. Initiated the Government to implement Environmental education in schools and colleges, struggles for protection of Taj Mahal and cleaning of Ganga water. Anil Agarwal : a journalist who wrote the first report on the state of Indias Environment in Medha Patkar: known as one of rural Indias champions, has supported the cause of the downtrodden tribal people whose environment is being affected by the dams on the Narmada river.
Sunderlal Bahugunas chipko movement has become an internationally well-known example of a highly successful conservation action program through the efforts of local people for guarding their forest resources. His fight to prevent the construction of the Tehri Dam in a fragile earthquake-prone setting is a battle that he continues to wage.
The Garhwal hills will always remember his dedication to the cause for which he has walked over 20 thousand kilometers. A major part of natural resources are consumed in the developed world. The developing nations also over use many resources because of their greater human population. However, the consumption of resources per capita per individual of the developed countries is upto 50 times greater than in most developing countries.
Energy from fossil fuels consumed in relatively much greater quantities in developed countries. Their per capita consumption of food too is much greater as well as their waste. Producing animal food for human consumption requires more land than growing crops. Thus countries that are highly dependent on non-vegetarian diets need much larger areas for pastureland than those where the people are mainly vegetarian.
Our natural resources can be compared with money in bank. If we use it rapidly the capital will be reduced to zero. On the other hand if we use only the interest, it can sustain us over the longer term. This is called sustainable utilization or development. The quality of human life and the quality of ecosystems on earth are indicators of the sustainable use of resources.
There are clear indicators of sustainable lifestyles in human life. These are : Increased longevity, an increase in knowledge and an enhancement of income. These three together are known as the human development index. It means that reserve stock of supply which living things can take from nature for sustenance of life. Natural resources can be defined as variety of goods and services provided by nature which are necessary for our day-to-day lives. Eg: Plants, animals and microbes living or biotic part , Air, water, soil, minerals, climate and solar energy non- living or abiotic part.
They are essential for the fulfillment of physiological, social, economical and cultural needs at the individual and community levels. They are of two types namely Renewable and Non-Renewable Resources. Renewable resources: Natural resources which can be used but can be regenerated by natural processes provided if there is no intervention in natural regene ration cycle. Ex: water, wood Non Renewable Resources: Those which will be exhausted in the future if we continue to extract these without a thought for subsequent generations.
Example: minerals, fossil fuels. Different types of resources viz. It is derived from latin word foris means outside. Indias Forest Cover is 6,76, sq. Forest Functions : I. Protective and ameliorative functions. Productive functions Recreational and educational functions Development functions I.
Protective and ameliorative functions A.
Watershed protection Reducing the rate of surface run-off of water Preventing flash floods and soil erosion Producing prolonged gradual run-off and thus safeguarding against drought.
Erosion control Holding soil by preventing rain from from directly washing soil away C. Land bank Maintaining soil nutrients and structure. Atmospheric regulation Absorption of solar heat during evapotranspiration Maintaining carbon dioxide levels for plant growth Maintaining the local climatic conditions II.
Productive Functions Local use Consumption of forest produce by local people who collect it for sustenance Food: comsumptive use gathering plants, fishing, hunting from the forest.
Fodder for cattle Fuel wood and charcoal for cooking and heating Poles for building homes in rural and wilderness areas Timber for house hold articles and construction Fiber for weaving baskets, ropes, nets, strings, etc. Minor forest products NTFPs : Fuel wood, fruits, gum, fiber, etc which are collected and solid in local markets as a source of income for forest dwellers Major timber extraction for construction, industrial uses, paper pulp etc.
Timber extraction is done in India by the forest department, but illegal logging continues in many of the forests of India and the world. Developmental Functions Employment functions Revenue Ecological significance of forests: 1. Balances CO2 and O2 levels in atmosphere. Regulates earth temperature and hydrological cycle 3. Encourage seepage and reduces runoff losses, prevents drought 4.
Reduces soil erosion roots binding , prevents siltation and landslides thereby floods 5.
Litter helps in maintaining soil fertility 6. Safe habitat for birds, wild animals and organisms against wind, solar radiation and rain Deforestation: Deforestation refers to the loss of forest cover; land that is permanently converted from forest to agricultural land, golf courses, cattle pasture, home, lakes or desert. Causes for Deforestation: 1. Agriculture: Conversion of forests to agricultural land to feed growing numbers of people 2.
Commercial logging: which supplies the world market with woods such as meranti, teak, mahogany and ebony destroys trees as well as opening up forest for agriculture.
Cutting of trees for fire wood and building material, the heavy lopping of foliage for fodder and heavy grazing of saplings by domestic animals like goals. The cash crop economy: Raising cash crops for increased economy.
Mining 5. Increase in population: The needs also increase and utilize forests resources. Forest fires Food problems 2. Ecological imbalance 3. Increasing CO2 4.
Floods leading to soil erosion 5. Destruction of resources 6. Heavy siltation of dams 7. Changes in the microclimate 8. Loss of biodiversity 9. Dessication of previously moist forest soil Heavy rainfall and high sunlight quickly damage the topsoil in clearings of the tropical rainforests. In such circumstance, the forest will take much longer to regenerate and the land will not be suitable for agricultural use for quite some time. Where forests are replanted, their replacement can mean a loss of quality Loss of future markets for ecotourism.
The value of a forest is often higher when it is left standing than it could be worth when it is harvested. Some indigenous peoples way of life and survival are threatened by the loss of forests. Fewer trees results an insecure future for forest workers Deforestation can cause the climate to become extreme in nature. The occurrence and strength of floods and droughts affecting the economy.
The stress of environmental change may make some species more susceptible to the effect of insects, pollution, disease and fire Most humid regions changes to desert Environmental pollution Global warming Conservation Conservation derived from two Latin words, con together,- servare to keep or guard measures, i. Concepts in conservation 1. Restraining cutting of trees and submerging the forests 2. Reforestation 3.
Afforestation 4. Control forest diseases and forest fire 5. Recycling forest products 6. Replacing forest products 7. Avoids diversion of forest lands for other activities through acts like Forest Conservation Act and Wild life protection Act 8. Implementing peoples participatory programmes.
Local people will only support greening an area if they can see some economic benefits from conservation. An informal arranagement between local communities and the forest department began in , in the Midnapore district of West Bengal. JFM has now evolved into a formal agreement which identifies and respects the local communitys right and benefits that they need from forest resources.
They participate in restoring the green cover and protect the area from being over exploited. Realising this, the MoEF formulated the National Forest Policy of to give added importance to joint forest management JFM , which co-opts the local village communities and the forest department to work together to sustainable manage our forests. Another resolution in provided a formal structure for community participation though the formation of village forest communities VFS.
From the initiation of the program. The various states have tried a variety of approaches to JSM. Some states have stopped grazing completely. While others have rotational grazing schemes that have helped in forest regeneration.
Local women led by a Bishnoi woman, Amrita Devi, clung to the trees to prevent the felling of the trees that formed the basis of the scarce resources on which they were dependent. The women were ruthlessly massacred. It is said that the ruler later realised his mistake. The story, however, has been remembered and was revived in the s when severe tree-felling for timber in the Himalayas prompted local women, supported by people such as Sundertat Bahuguna and Chandi Prasad Bhat, ted a peoples movement to prevent deforestation by timber contractors.
They catted their movement the Chipko movement in memory of the event during which women had clung to their trees and given up their lives. The movement followed the path the Bishnoi women had taken three centuries ago in Rajasthan. Chipko is a movement primarily begun and supported by local women in the hills of Uttarakhand and Garhwal, where the women the traditional fuel collectors have had to bear the brunt of deforestation.
They have not only realized that their fuelwood and fodder resources have receded away from their resource use areas around their settlements due to commercial timber extraction, but that this has led to serious floods and the toss of precious soil. Chipko activists have made long padyatras across the Himalayas protesting against deforestation.
The movement has been highly successful and has been primarily supported by empowering local womens groups, who are the most seriously affected segment. The movement has proved to the world that the forests of the hills are the life-support systems of local communities and of immense value in terms of local produce, and that the forest has less quantifiable but even more important ecological services such as soil conservation and the maintenance of the natural water regime of the whole region.
The ability of local women to band together in the foothills of the Himalayas goes back to the preindependence days when women such as Miraben, a disciple of Gandhiji, moved to this region and understood that it was the deforestation that led to floods and devastation of villages in the valleys and in the Gangetic plains below. They also appreciated that substitution of oak and other broad-Leaved forests of the Himalayas with the planting of fast-growing pine for timber and resin was an ecological and social disaster which reduced the forest resources used by traditional hill communities.
Mangroves are salt-tolerant plants of tropical and subtropical intertidal regions of the world. The specific regions where these plants occur are termed as 'mangrove ecosystem'. These are classified as salt-tolerant evergreen forests, found along coastlines, lagoons, rivers or deltas in tropical and subtropical countries and areas, protecting coastal areas against erosion, cyclones and wind.
These are highly productive wood, food, fodder, medicine and honey but extremely sensitive and fragile. Besides mangroves, the ecosystem also harbours other plant and animal species. They are habitats for many animals like crocodiles and snakes, tigers, deer, otters, dolphins and birds. A wide range of fish and shellfish also depends on these coastal forests and mangroves help to protect coral reefs against siltation from upland erosion.
Indonesia, Australia, Brazil, Nigeria and Mexico together account for around 50 percent of the total global mangrove area. The total mangrove area has declined from The world has lost around 3. The rate of mangrove loss is significantly higher than the loss of any other types of forests. If deforestation of mangroves continues, it can lead to severe losses of biodiversity and livelihoods, in addition to salt intrusion in coastal areas and siltation of coral reefs, ports and shipping lanes.
Tourism would also suffer. Asia suffered the largest net loss of mangroves since , with more than 1. FAO cited high population pressure, the large-scale conversion of mangrove areas for shrimp and fish farming, agriculture, infrastructure and tourism, as well as pollution and natural disasters as the major causes for the destruction of mangroves. As the experiences have proved that the presence of mangrove ecosystems on coastline save lives and property during natural hazards such as cyclones, storm surges and erosion, the conservation efforts are given importance.
The distribution of mangrove ecosystem on Indian coastlines indicates that the Sundarban mangroves occupy very large area followed by Andaman-Nicobar Islands and Gulf of Kachch in Gujarat. Rest of the mangrove ecosystems are comparatively smaller. Over plant and animal species have been identified from these areas. A Senior Forestry Officer reported that part of the largest mangrove area in the world, the Sundarbans Reserved Forest in Bangladesh, is well protected and no major changes in the extent of the area have occurred during the last few decades, although some damage to the mangroves was reported after the cyclone in In Ecuador, the abandoning of ponds and structures for shrimp and salt production led to a rebuilding of various mangrove sites.
Since ancient times, water has been recognized universally as an invaluable resource. Water has been harvested in India since the dawn of civilization.
The Ramayana, Mahabharata and various other Vedic, Buddhist and Jain texts contain several references to water harvesting structures in existence and water being revered as a life giving and sustaining force. Water is renewable resource. It may change its form but quantity of water on earth has remained same for millions of years. Out of million cu. As per the National Commission on Agriculture, considering an average rainfall of mm,the water wealth of India is about million hectare meters.
Main sources of water for our use are: Rainfall: India can be broadly divided into 15 ecological regions. The vast ecological diversity of this country is reflected in the diversity in available water resources. With an average annual rainfall of mm, India is one of the wettest countries in the world. However, there are large variations in the seasonal and geographical distribution of rainfall over the country.
At one extreme are areas like Cherrapunji, in the northeast, which is drenched each year with 11, mm of rainfall, and at the other extreme are places like Jaisalmer, in the west, which receives barely mm of annual rainfall. Though the average rainfall is adequate, nearly threequarters of the rain pours down in less than days, from June to September.
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Groundwater: India's groundwater resources are almost ten times its annual rainfall. According to the Central Groundwater Board of the Government of India, the country has an annual exploitable groundwater potential of Besides, groundwater is now the source of four- fifths of the domestic water supply in rural areas, and around half that of urban and industrial areas.
However, according to the International Irrigation Management Institute IIMI , the water table almost everywhere in India is falling at between one to three meters every year. Furthermore, the IIMI estimates that India is using its underground water resources atleast twice as fast they are being replenished.
Already, excessive ground water mining has caused land subsidence in several regions of Central Uttar Pradesh. Surface water: There are 14 major, 44 medium and 55 minor river basins in the country. Consumption Patterns Today, due to increasing consumption patterns, water is becoming scarce and this scarcity is an emerging threat to the global population, rendering the adages of the Bible and Koran irrelevant.
Global consumption of water is doubling every 20 years, more than twice the rate of human population growth. At present more than one billion people on earth lack access to fresh drinking water. If per capita water availability is any indication, water stress is just beginning to show in India. This index is based on the minimum per capita level of water required to maintain an adequate quality of life in a moderately developed arid zone country.
The annual per capita availability of renewable freshwater in the country has fallen from around 5, cubic meters in to 2, cubic meters in Given the projected increase in population by the year , the per capita availability is likely to drop to below 1, cubic meters i. If it falls below cu. India is expected to face critical levels of water stress by At the global level, 31 countries are already short of water and by there will be 48 countries facing serious water shortages. The United Nations has estimated that by the year , 4 billion people will be seriously affected by water shortages.
This will lead to multiple conflicts between countries over the sharing of water. Around 20 major cities in India face chronic or interrupted water shortages. There are countries that share the waters of 13 large rivers and lakes. The upstream countries could starve the downstream nations leading to political unstable areas across the world. Examples are Ethiopia, which is upstream on the Nile and Egypt, which is downs tream and highly dependent on the Nile. International accords that will look at a fair distribution of water in such areas will become critical to world peace.
USES: Is essential for all forms of life. Many uses of water include agricultural, industrial, household, recreational and environmental activities. Virtually, all of these human uses, require fresh water. No plant or animal species can survive without water. Reasons for decline of ground water Population continues to rise at an unprecedented and unsustainable rate; many more areas are expected to experience this imbalance in the near future.
The total annual freshwater withdrawals today are estimated at cubic kilometers, twice as much as just 50 years ago World Commission on Dams, Use of more water than really needed by human beings. Many agriculturists use more water than necessary to grow crops.
Industries in order to maximize short-term economic gains does not bother its liquid waste and releases it into streams, rivers and the sea. Forest cover permits water to be held in the area permitting it to seep into the ground.
This charges the underground stores of water in natural aquifers. This can be used in drought years if the stores have been filled during a good monsoon.
This soil and water management and afforestation are long-term measures that reduce the impact of droughts. The destruction of forests influence the regulation of natural water cycle. The removal of dense and uniform cover over the hilly zones leads to occurrence of floods in drainage basins. Nations situated in tropical climates including India experience disastrous floods caused by the indiscriminate deforestation of the slopes above the valleys. Rain fall: The erratic and inadequate rainfall results in reduction in storage in subsurface reservoirs.
The building construction activities are sealing the permeable zone, reducing the area for per collation of rainwater into subsurface and increase in surface runoff. Indias increasing demand for water for intensive irrigated agriculture, for generating electricity, and for consumption in urban and industrial centers, has been met by creating large dams. DAMS: It can be unequivocally stated that dams have made significant contributions to human development and the benefits derived from them have been considerable.
Large dams are designed to control floods and to help the drought prone areas, with supply of water. But large dams have proved to cause catastrophic environmental damage.
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