PHARMACEUTICAL ORGANIC CHEMISTRY PDF
PDF | On Oct 11, , Abhishek Tiwari and others published N Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry-II. PDF | Strictly as per New PCI syllabus for yazik.info second semester. Books REVIEWS Pharmaceutical Chemistry. Vol. 1: Theory and Application. Edited by L. G. CHATTEN. Marcel Dekker, Inc., 95 Madison Avenue, New York, N .
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Textbook of organic medicinal and pharmaceutical chemistry, 7th edition (Wilson, Charles O.) View: PDF | PDF w/ Links Practical pharmaceutical chemistry. Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry. Title: Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry. Subject Code: PHC. Semester: Third Semester (Second Year). Duration: 2 + 1. Organic Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Chemistry, coeditor of the 6th and 7th editions, Related Organic Compounds,” includes the content from 11th edition .
Marcel Dekker, Inc. This text is a contributive volume with 13 chapters by 13 different authors. A detailed examination of the book supports this contention. The introductory chapter introduces the concept of quality control and sampling; in addition, the subjects of mass and volume determination and laboratory techniques which are usually treated in a first course in analysis are reviewed.
Although the calculation of titration curve points and titration of mixtures is treated very well, some twenty pages are used t o review equilibria topics which should be familiar t o students at this level or at least they can review on their own. The chapter dealing with precipitation, complex formation, and oxidation-reduction methods is an extensive consideration of the very numerous analyses of this type with some theoretical comment.
Similarly, the chapter on acidimetry and alkalimetry deals with rudimentary analytical topics, e. This type of material would be better presented in a reference rather than a textbook.
Nonaqueous titrimetry is presented a t too practical a level without use of topics such as glacial acetic acid equilibria. The chapter on complexometry is good, but rigorous calculations involving complex equilibria are not adequately developed. Although the chapter on alkaloidal assay is interesting, it fails, e. However, the use of tables to summarize the many analytical methods is excellent.
The miscellaneous methods chapter is very good in its treatment of topics such as the Karl Fischer titration, gas analysis, and nitrosation.
Likewise, the section on ion-exchange separations is very well done. Enough theory is presented to permit the student to make simple calculations describing column behavior. Column, thin-layer, and paper chromatography are treated well in a single chapter but certain organizational lapses are disturbing, viz. The experiments a t the end of this chapter are good. Both chapters are disappointing in that they are listings of physical and chemical proccdures with some explanatory comment.
The chemical methods arc not adequately explained with equations and the calculations are represented by formulas which do not invite reasoning. The section on functional group analysis is not done well.
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Quantitative information includes melting point, boiling point, and index of refraction. Qualitative properties include odor, consistency, solubility, and color. Melting and boiling properties Organic compounds typically melt and many boil.
In contrast, while inorganic materials generally can be melted, many do not boil, tending instead to degrade. In earlier times, the melting point m. The melting and boiling points correlate with the polarity of the molecules and their molecular weight. Some organic compounds, especially symmetrical ones, sublime, that is they evaporate without melting. A well-known example of a sublimable organic compound is para-dichlorobenzene , the odiferous constituent of modern mothballs.
Solubility Neutral organic compounds tend to be hydrophobic ; that is, they are less soluble in water than in organic solvents.
Exceptions include organic compounds that contain ionizable which can be converted in ions groups as well as low molecular weight alcohols , amines , and carboxylic acids where hydrogen bonding occurs. Organic compounds tend to dissolve in organic solvents. Solvents can be either pure substances like ether or ethyl alcohol , or mixtures, such as the paraffinic solvents such as the various petroleum ethers and white spirits , or the range of pure or mixed aromatic solvents obtained from petroleum or tar fractions by physical separation or by chemical conversion.
Solubility in the different solvents depends upon the solvent type and on the functional groups if present in the solution.
Solid state properties Various specialized properties of molecular crystals and organic polymers with conjugated systems are of interest depending on applications, e.
For historical reasons, such properties are mainly the subjects of the areas of polymer science and materials science. The names of organic compounds are either systematic, following logically from a set of rules, or nonsystematic, following various traditions. Systematic nomenclature starts with the name for a parent structure within the molecule of interest.
This parent name is then modified by prefixes, suffixes, and numbers to unambiguously convey the structure. Given that millions of organic compounds are known, rigorous use of systematic names can be cumbersome. Thus, IUPAC recommendations are more closely followed for simple compounds, but not complex molecules.
To use the systematic naming, one must know the structures and names of the parent structures. Parent structures include unsubstituted hydrocarbons, heterocycles, and monofunctionalized derivatives thereof.
Nonsystematic nomenclature is simpler and unambiguous, at least to organic chemists. Nonsystematic names do not indicate the structure of the compound. They are common for complex molecules, which includes most natural products.
Thus, the informally named lysergic acid diethylamide is systematically named 6aR,9R -N,N-diethylmethyl-4,6,6a,7,8,9-hexahydroindolo-[4,3-fg] quinolinecarboxamide. With the increased use of computing, other naming methods have evolved that are intended to be interpreted by machines. Structural drawings Organic molecules are described more commonly by drawings or structural formulas , combinations of drawings and chemical symbols. The line-angle formula is simple and unambiguous.
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In this system, the endpoints and intersections of each line represent one carbon, and hydrogen atoms can either be notated explicitly or assumed to be present as implied by tetravalent carbon. History By an explosion in the number of chemical compounds being discovered occurred assisted by new synthetic and analytical techniques.
Grignard described the situation as "chaos le plus complet" as due to the lack of convention it was possible to have multiple names for the same compound. This led to the creation of the Geneva rules in Acetic acid , shown here, is an example. The concept of functional groups is central in organic chemistry, both as a means to classify structures and for predicting properties. A functional group is a molecular module, and the reactivity of that functional group is assumed, within limits, to be the same in a variety of molecules.
Functional groups can have decisive influence on the chemical and physical properties of organic compounds.
Molecules are classified on the basis of their functional groups. Alcohols, for example, all have the subunit C-O-H.
All alcohols tend to be somewhat hydrophilic , usually form esters , and usually can be converted to the corresponding halides. Most functional groups feature heteroatoms atoms other than C and H. Organic compounds are classified according to functional groups, alcohols, carboxylic acids, amines, etc. The rest of the group is classed according to the functional groups present.
Such compounds can be "straight-chain", branched-chain or cyclic.
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The degree of branching affects characteristics, such as the octane number or cetane number in petroleum chemistry. Both saturated alicyclic compounds and unsaturated compounds exist as cyclic derivatives.
The most stable rings contain five or six carbon atoms, but large rings macrocycles and smaller rings are common.
The smallest cycloalkane family is the three-membered cyclopropane CH2 3. Saturated cyclic compounds contain single bonds only, whereas aromatic rings have an alternating or conjugated double bond.
Cycloalkanes do not contain multiple bonds, whereas the cycloalkenes and the cycloalkynes do. Aromatic compounds Benzene is one of the best-known aromatic compounds as it is one of the simplest and most stable aromatics. Aromatic hydrocarbons contain conjugated double bonds. This means that every carbon atom in the ring is sp2 hybridized, allowing for added stability. Particular instability antiaromaticity is conferred by the presence of 4n conjugated pi electrons. Heterocyclic compounds Main article: Heterocyclic compound The characteristics of the cyclic hydrocarbons are again altered if heteroatoms are present, which can exist as either substituents attached externally to the ring exocyclic or as a member of the ring itself endocyclic.
In the case of the latter, the ring is termed a heterocycle. Pyridine and furan are examples of aromatic heterocycles while piperidine and tetrahydrofuran are the corresponding alicyclic heterocycles.The chapter on complexometry is good, but rigorous calculations involving complex equilibria are not adequately developed.
Solvents can be either pure substances like ether or ethyl alcohol , or mixtures, such as the paraffinic solvents such as the various petroleum ethers and white spirits , or the range of pure or mixed aromatic solvents obtained from petroleum or tar fractions by physical separation or by chemical conversion. Thc second chapter, dealing with the oxidation of sulfur dioxide, is particularly good.
Organic compounds are classified according to functional groups, alcohols, carboxylic acids, amines, etc. Edited by L.
The treatment in several of the chapters is too elementary. Download PDF.
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