KITCHEN DESIGN PDF JOURNAL
PDF | + minutes read | One of the most studied areas for increasing interior design performance is kitchen. When scientific studies conducted on kitchen design Journal of Engineering Design, 21 (2–3), PDF | A cross sectional survey was conducted to assess the impact of kitchen layout on employees' productivity. Key words: Kitchen Layout, Productivity, Kitchen Staff, Company Kitchens IJRDO - Journal of Applied Management Science. Kitchen Design. In residential homes, meals are prepared and shared in the kitchen, which also serves prior to beginning the design process because there are significant space, storage, . Journal of affective disorders, 50(2), 2.
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See above. Training of editors. It may be surprising, but a subject-matter expert needs to learn how to be a good editor. This comes naturally enough to some, but others struggle with it, and a few never quite get it.
Staff provide a lot of training and monitoring, and this is an area of some confidentiality as to what actually goes on. After all, nobody wants to lose face.
This is growing in importance as changes make the publishing and editorial environments more complex. Editorial board meetings. Another level of editorial support, this often involves meetings that include selected high-level reviewers, a tier of editors, statisticians or technical reviewers, and editors.
Staff have to plan, run, and manage these, along with editorial leaders. New expectations of a global editorial workforce — for diversity of opinions, to attract papers, and to ensure market presence — are increasing expenses and logistical complexity. Editor meetings. Often held separately from editorial board meetings, and often more frequently, meetings with the major editors editor-in-chief, executive editor, and other head editors are more strategic, may involve compensation or personnel issues, and usually involve top management.
Management of peer review process. New elements come in — like new disclosure rules, new grading or evaluation approaches, and new media forms. How these are integrated matters a good deal, and it takes work. Uniqueness: Moderate to high. Value: High, often underestimated. Ethics investigations. When someone alleges malfeasance or misconduct, publishers lead the investigation. While not always productive, these investigations are always time-consuming and complex, involving multiple stakeholders within the publishing organization and at outside organizations.
If lawyers get involved, hold on. Value: Variable. Importance: Variable. Staff training. With all the changes in publishing practices, policies, technologies, and business models, training staff is more important than ever, especially as they are interacting with authors, readers, and editors. Conflicts of interest and disclosures. As noted above, conflicts of interest and disclosures are becoming more important in many fields and should be very important in most.
Keeping current with the state of the art, collecting and organizing the forms from dozens of authors, matching them with manuscripts, and following up with reluctant or forgetful authors all requires a lot of work.
Implement and enforce editorial policies and procedures. There is an increasingly long list of editorial policies to implement and enforce, which has led to much longer and more convoluted instructions to authors. Enforcing these for each manuscript is hard work and requires diligent, trained, experienced staff.
Policies often need to be revisited frequently, and instructions to authors modified regularly. Increasingly, journals are serving as key players in ensuring researcher compliance with funder and institutional access policies.
For instance, more than half of what comes into PubMed Central comes from publishers. Without publishers, PMC would be far less useful and viable. CHORUS, which serves many US funding agencies and can support other public or private funders, was established by publishers, and is maintained by publishers.
Policies are constantly being updated and revised to help authors stay in compliance. Author attestations. Scandals around fake or shadow authorship have made it necessary to get authors to attest that they indeed wrote the paper submitted under their name, and were in a position to control the data and write freely.
With growing author lists, this can involve a lot of attestations for the average paper. Dealing with authorship problems. Authors get things wrong. Authors make mistakes. Authors commit fraud. Editors and publishers deal with allegations, try to understand their veracity, collaborate on what to do if claims have merit, and then implement a response — perhaps a retraction, perhaps an expression of concern, perhaps letters to the editor.
In extreme cases, authors can be banned from publishing for a period of time, and the publisher has to keep track of these bans.
Copy-editing, proofreading, and styling of materials. Generally thought of as a lighter form of editing, there is a spectrum — from extremely light to very rigorous.
A good copy-editor or proofreader can catch important inconsistencies and errors, flaws in logic, and problems with data. Applying uniform style guides also aid readers while occasionally revealing problems in a manuscript. Language and substantive editing. Some journals employ experienced subject-matter editors who have gained such deep experience in a field that they are able to push authors to be clear and precise, revise their writing with confidence, and catch errors and logical elisions.
Manuscripts handled by these editors are typically heavily revised, shorter, clearer, and easier to read at the end of the day. Some high-end journals provide illustration staff to authors of selected papers, particularly review articles or review journals. Some improve the basic illustrations authors provide, for the sake of clarity and consistency.
Art handling. Multimedia handling. A new area, so slightly different. Layout and composition. Whether the journal in question is still printed, the PDF is still in high demand, and typesetting and layout still occur.
Figure-sizing, pagination, and other factors demand knowledgeable human intervention and skills. Importance: Surprisingly high. Design print and various online versions. Keeping these complementary and coordinated takes a lot of work, not to mention the creative process behind the designs.
Finally, some journals design each issue in print and online to some degree, to improve user experience.
Format migrations. It takes planning, money, and management to do it right. Content stores are becoming larger, as well. Publisher migrations. Contracts with large publishers are more common as the industry consolidates, with the services provided varying. But contracts come to an end, and journals can move from publisher to publisher. This creates work all around, from the publisher surrendering the title to the publisher receiving the title. The goal is to make the transition seamless.
To generate good metadata, articles and elements are often tagged using either semantic, custom taxonomies, or both. Sometimes, tagging is manual, sometimes automated, and sometimes a little of both. The emergence of new social collaboration networks like Mendeley, Academia. DOI registration. A minor task usually, and easily accomplished. But a task.
Search engine optimization. Ah, Google, how you vex us! The black magic of SEO can drain teams and budgets. And Google keeps things interesting. But authors want their papers to be found, readers want to find papers, so publishers stay on top of this. Search engine marketing. More and more content means more noise, so some publishers are cutting through the clutter with search engine marketing SEM. While the cost of acquisition remains high, the lifetime value can make sense, and practice often drives down the cost-per-acquisition.
Integrate and track metrics and, increasingly, altmetrics.
The Internet throws off data, and now publishers are running more data-intensive businesses. A busier marketplace e. Rapid publication practices.
More common than ever, most journals have a custom path for rapid publication. This often involves special staff and processes, some of which require revisiting earlier versions with later versions, adding to the workload.
The emergence of preprint servers may curtail the need for journals to support these functions in some fields. Dealing with data. Data is a new frontier of research publication, and publishers are the least constrained players compared to governments, funders, and universities , making them a driving force in finding new ways to create the kind of transparency, infrastructure, incentives, and requirements that will make data publication work. Nevertheless, with more machine-generated structured data genes, crystals, populations, etc.
This involves more now than ever the next few steps at least. Value: Moderate, uncertain. Importance: Moderate, uncertain. Physical distribution. Mailing is more complex in some ways, because the mail streams are less robust, and public postal systems are struggling in the face of austerity and changing consumer economics. Reduced print runs have made postal expenses lumpy. Distrust in online sources has placed a new emphasis on print or print proxy distribution.
Vendor management. As publishing has grown more complex and technology-driven, and as cost pressures have mounted with limited library and research budgets, publishers have had to outsource more. This has created a new, complex, and not inexpensive internal task of managing all these vendors. Given that many are international, travel is sometimes involved, and problems can arise at all hours.
Enjoy the jet lag! Media relations and publicity. Press coverage drives awareness, and important authors of important studies from important institutions and important funders expect to be featured in the mediasphere. Given the increased emphasis on media metrics altmetric, for example , these activities have become more ingrained in data about researchers, funders, and their effectiveness. Social media distribution and management. Twitter and Facebook have created new alerting expectations and outlets.
Video has receded somewhat. More editorial and marketing time is being spent on these outlets now, especially with Twitter informing Altmetric to a high degree. New technologies to measure things like sentiment, traffic sourcing, and value are being taken up, requiring staff time, even dedicated staff.
Depositing content and data. Downstream deposit of articles and data to help authors comply with funder requirements or community norms is a growing function of publishers, who are responsible for the majority of compliance overall. Requires setup and monitoring of related production systems and workflows, and ongoing management, as well as occasional interventions when things go off the rails. Integrating new standards. As new actual and de facto standards emerge e.
Revisions to standards, which are inevitable and unpredictable, require repeated work. Third-party licensing and negotiation. Your direct audience is not your only audience. Some companies want to pay you to reuse the content in their offerings, or try to sell the content into adjacent markets.
Negotiating and managing these deals and relationships takes time. Hosting and archiving. Hosting platforms can be expensive because they support many of the functions above. Archiving is a new expectation that comes with the digital age, and one that is not trivial or simple to do well. Archiving policies and practices are viewed as one indicator of legitimate publishers, as opposed to the predatory entrants who come and go.
Platform upgrades and migrations. Ah, the fun of either upgrading your platform or moving to another provider. Recent changes in the landscape have accelerated activity for many publishers, as they are evaluating their options. More mature technologies make it possible to refactor platforming decisions. Legacy content and soon, legacy data make these shifts more complex, expensive, and time-consuming. Native search engine improvements. The variability of the underlying content combined with the variability of user search practices makes this a difficult area to resolve.
Uniqueness: Low to moderate.
Value: Moderate, declining. Importance: Moderate, declining. Journals packaging and sales. Journals are sold in bundles or as database packages, at least to certain customer segments institutions, consortia, corporations. Publishers have to understand the sales process and approach, package and price their offerings to match, and conduct and complete sales. Database offerings are distinctly more complex to create. Recent efforts to create virtual sales packages also add complexity.
Negotiations are bespoke, time-consuming, and complex. Comment and community moderation. Sure, nobody comments on articles — until they do. Then what? The publisher has to staff for it and establish policies around it. Also, with comments occurring on PubPeer and other platforms, monitoring is part of the new information deal.
Implementing and managing interlinking services. With the Web, linking became a new expectation, and publishers had to work with vendors to implement linking options at various points in their content sets and across their service offerings. These links need to be reevaluated periodically, and some of the data they throw off tracked. Anti-piracy efforts. Authors, editors, and publishers are all concerned with piracy, and publishers are on the front line.
Identifying pirated materials, sending take-down notices, enforcing these, and reviewing related reports all take effort and attention. Occasionally, a piracy incident escalates recently, Sci-Hub and ResearchGate have escalated and endured, in what seems like a long-term stalemate.
On a broader scale, publishers collaborate to ensure they operate in a framework that decreases the likelihood of piracy. Authentication and authorization. Sci-Hub has revealed that publisher systems coexist with other systems, meaning there is a through-line for security and reliability.
Hackers that gain administrative credentials to a publisher system might also score university login credentials. Upgrading systems to support two-factor authentication and other security measures, along with considerations around new options RA21, CASA , all deserve attention. Supplement proposals. Some journals allow supplements. Dealing with proposals alone is a chore. Publishing supplements delves into many of the steps that precede and follow. But because these can come from core authors, they have to be handled delicately.
Many journals have integrated or related educational offerings, either in the health, medicine, or legal space. Others support less formal certification courses. Developing, implementing, and managing these programs can be involved and requires a lot of meticulous work and interactions with editors and oversight bodies.
Analytics and abuse monitoring. Is your site under attack? Has someone stolen a paper and reversed its meaning on a commercial site?
Is Sci-Hub harvesting papers? And then there are the more mundane analytics editors and business units need, which are becoming more important as competition for dollars increases. Managing and protecting financial records. Yes, publishers and their platforms get hacked, so everyone involved has to create firewalls, protect credit card transactions, guard payroll records, and so forth.
Managing and protecting editorial records. Peer reviews are confidential. Records showing which manuscripts you rejected are confidential and definitely touchy. With new entrants allowing reviews to be posted or anonymous conversations about papers, monitoring these third party sites is becoming another part of the job. Responding to legal actions. Sometimes, authors are sued, and publishers get entangled. Or vice-versa. In either case, things get interesting, take time, and cost money.
Basic management functions. Publishers have to manage HR, legal, facilities, corporate compliance, and so forth. This would likely point to HTML5 as the future for online and mobile content formats. EPUB should certainly be counted in that future, since the specification was drawn from existing and emerging web standards, in particular HTML5. Scholarly journal publishers were among the first to move toward digital content delivery.
This first-mover status has placed journal publishers in a unique position of having created a reader community that is comfortable reading content on web platforms, or alternatively downloading the existing file distribution method at the time, PDF. For the vast majority of scholarly content consumers, reading of electronic journals predominantly takes place on computer screens or on printed versions of page facsimiles, not on reading devices.
The growth of mobile distribution forms is not something that should be over looked. Many large publishers have moved quickly toward the application development route for distributing their content. I have written about the fool-hardiness of creating device-specific apps , but is EPUB 3 the answer to these concerns for most journal content providers? The main purpose of these services has been to allow readers to access journal content on their e-book reading devices such as Kindle, Nook, etc.
PDF remains one of our core publication formats, but we wanted to address the growing need for more mobile access to content. The reason is fairly simple — most readers of scholarly journal content prefer PDFs and have for years.
The reading experience of PDFs is not ideal for a variety of reasons. The most basic reason is that almost no device has a standard page-size screen that matches the page-image-replication functionality of PDF. Therefore a PDF image file will never fit perfectly onto a device screen and users are forced to either scroll left to right, read impossibly small text, or switch to horizontal screen presentation that displays only a few lines of the text at a time and thus requires a lot of virtual scrolling.
A second problem with PDF is that the types of embedded image and their functionality are limited.
PDF is a poor vehicle for the more interactive, data-intensive, and interlinked forms where content is moving. While there are methods for embedded linking and metadata within a PDF file, few publishers take advantage of these functionalities. A third issue with PDF is accessibility for the print disabled. While the capability for such accessibility is available — if the file is properly formatted — it is not trivial to enable this and is so rarely done that in most cases, PDF files are nearly useless for the print disabled community.
There are other more advanced rendering features that exist with PDF, but they are also not generally implemented. Since content is originally created in some other software and then converted to PDF, incorporating these functions can be difficult and not all PDF readers or platforms support all functions. In , Alyssa Goodman and several physics colleagues published a paper in Nature that made use of advanced 3D viewer capabilities within the PDF format.
Brian Hayes in his post PDF vs. And I have never seen any other kind of interactive graphics embedded in a PDF. Could EPUB improve the reading experience for those that are currently downloading PDF as well as for those wishing to include interactive content?
Is It Time for Scholarly Journal Publishers to Begin Distributing Articles Using EPUB 3?
This leads to another important question: Are journal publishers — or more importantly are authors — going to embrace the multimedia content forms that would take advantage of the functionality that EPUB offers? Discussions around non-textual content and the impending flood of interactive data or multimedia content have been ongoing for years but such rich content has yet to really take hold among researchers and authors. There has been significant movement toward data distribution, but often outside of traditional publisher distribution channels.
Creating multimedia is a challenge for researchers who are not expert on video, visualization tools, or audio mixing.
Those publications that do include this content also invest heavily in its creation and support for the authors to do so. Support for advanced markup like MathML , however, is critically important in some fields and is accommodated in the EPUB 3 specification.Accepting a paper is becoming more complex, as mandates, disclosures, various ethical aspects of authorship attestation, and so forth gain prominence, and as integrations with online infrastructure e.
The process has become more complex in the online world. Hence, the value for operators to have access to industry information, in order for them to be alert and better prepared to face such situations, is paramount.
Catalogues and brochures.
A new emphasis on the stability and stronger returns associated with the subscription model may make this activity more important in the coming years. Pragle, A.
Google Scholar. Search engine marketing.
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