GRAPHOLOGY PDF BOOKS
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Learn Graphology FREE E-Book Your FREE E-Book will cover information contained in the Learn Graphology Course and is a great introduction if you're. Handwriting analysis is a direct way of analyzing graphology can do is to tell you what you are and has written several books on the subject, among. This book is written with a view to analyse personality traits rather than for document identification yazik.info yazik.info
Marne's Sex and Crime in Handwriting offers numerous ways of exposing different kinds of criminals . Unfortunately, the betraying signs are all recognized after-the-fact in the writing of previously convicted felons. Marne, as usual, offers no evidence that she could reliably identify the guilty parties in an anonymous pile composed of scripts of convicts and upright citizens and providing, of course, the contents of the scripts contained no useful clues, which they typically do.
It is bad enough that one might lose a coveted position on the basis of bogus advice, but to have one's standing in the community, and possibly even freedom, jeopardized in this way is frightening indeed.
How would you feel being branded a thief because you have "desire-for-possession hooks" on your S's? Bunker , the founder of Graphoanalysis, the self-proclaimed most scientific school of graphology, seriously contends that these "acquisitive hooks" reveal a disposition to snag others' belongings. The most transparently absurd claim in the whole field, one so bizarre that not even all graphologists endorse it, is that of "graphotherapeutics.
The oh-so-scientific Bunker  devotes a whole chapter to showing how "changing handwriting will change personality. Case in point: graphotherapists insist that personality causes writing causes personality. What better evidence of this could we seek than Bunker's  assertion: "He [Bunker's client] had made a few changes in his writing—not major changes, and he had achieved results.
Here we see another common attribute of crackpot science, namely that effects are posited which are dramatically disproportionate to the magnitude of their alleged causes. If it sounds too good to be true, it probably is. In philosophy, any doctrine can be dispatched merely by showing it to be internally inconsistent.
Graphology is so vague and self-contradictory that devotees have ample room to explain away blatant errors. On the one hand no pun intended , they say writing is such a sensitive psychological barometer that it varies, moment-to-moment, in response to subtle mood changes. But in the next breath, they will tell you writing is so impervious to change that you cannot hide your true nature by intentionally falsifying your script—the real you will still shine through.
Even though normal and disguised script from the same person look different, they still denote the same traits for the graphologist; but if those same disparities were found in the scripts of two different people the graphologist would say they were indicative of different traits.
Graphologists also reply to those who say their writing varies in response to haste, writing posture, desire to make an impression, etc. If you try to deceive the graphologist by disguising your handwriting, your rigid personality stubbornly keeps the graphological signs intact, but if you change your writing at the behest of a graphotherapist, your malleable personality will realign itself to reflect the new, improved script.
One manual for aspiring graphologists I reviewed cautioned neophytes not to become discouraged, because not everyone with a given sign has the suggested trait and not everyone with the trait has the sign. How could the system ever fail? This ability to be all things to all people makes graphology essentially unfalsifiable. On that ground alone, it can be excluded from the house of science. Critiques of the "Official" Rationales for Graphology Before presenting graphology's dismal record in empirical tests, let me first dispose of several oft-heard rationalizations for why handwriting analysis ought to work.
Handwriting is brainwriting. Yes it is, but walking is also controlled by the brain, so should we henceforth refer to it as "brainstepping," as Karnes and Leonard  wryly suggest? Why would we think that just because something is controlled by the brain, it necessarily correlates with any other traits, aptitudes or propensities? That is a claim to be supported with evidence, not glibly assumed. Vomiting has an associated center in the brain too. Does that justify using individual regurgitation styles to assess someone's intimate make-up?
In an earlier chapter , I maintained that research into the neural substrates of writing and personality actually supplies some of the best arguments against graphology. For instance, brain damage can alter either writing or personality, independently.
There is no evidence that if a head injury affects personality, writing will necessarily change too—as it should if graphology were valid. Furthermore, there is no reason to suspect that the brain mechanisms responsible for writing and those for temperament and aptitudes could be linked in the lockstep fashion necessary if graphology were to be taken seriously. Research on the physiological correlates of personality shows that individual traits are not localized in circumscribed brain areas that could conceivably be mapped, one-to-one, onto the minute muscle programs that create particular writing features.
In the same chapter, I also noted that the graphologists' naive notions of how the brain determines personality not to mention their outmoded conceptions of personality itself  are virtually identical to those of the discredited system of phrenology.
Graphology would require a brain organization akin to that posited by the phrenologists to make it remotely plausible. For this necessary but unlikely brain organization to exist, it would either need to have evolved and thus be inherited , or be acquired early in life. Either way, the implications for graphology are daunting. If natural selection shaped brain structure such that it could allow connection of every minute character trait with a unique writing movement, graphologists should be able to suggest what possible survival advantages this profligate use of biological resources might have conferred.
So far, no graphologist I am aware of has even realized that this is a serious impediment to scientific acceptance of graphology.
Moreover, since the ability to write is, at most, 6, years old and the brain evolved to essentially its modern form eons before that, the putative circuits that would eventually link personality and writing must have evolved for some other purpose. What was this stupendous number of presumably dormant neural pathways selected for and what were the selective pressures that pushed the brain in that odd direction so long before humans got around to inventing writing?
If, instead, one views expression of personality in writing as an acquired skill, the difficulties for graphology are equally grave. Since writing is obviously a learned behavior, how does the brain unerringly modify every learned writing movement to make it congruent with each of the numerous traits a child will grow up to express?
What kind of mechanism could conceivably ensure that everyone who is destined to be devious will acquire the same neural program, say, to make l-loops in the same way? Do parents ever say, "Susie, you are obviously gifted with leadership talents, be sure to form your capitals in this way, instead of the way your teacher showed you"?
Writing also varies across language groups. What differences in early experience in the various linguistic communities ensure that the infant's brain will develop into the appropriate variant so that it will attach emerging personality traits to quite different writing movements if the child happens to learn the Chinese as opposed to the Russian, Arabic, Hebrew, or Roman alphabets?
Writing in all of these scripts admittedly becomes personalized, but that individuality arises from biomechanical factors quite different from, and far more interesting than, the graphologists' parochial conjectures .
In sum, the graphologists' "brainwriting" argument is true but irrelevant to their claims. This rationale would only be necessary if there were a need to explain a proven relationship between writing and other personal attributes. Unfortunately for graphology, much empirical research, reviewed below, says such correlations are illusory in the first place.
Writing is individualized and personality is unique, so each must reflect the other. Aside from the obvious logical flaw in this argument, why should we accept, without good evidence, that any two admittedly idiosyncratic aspects of a person will necessarily bear any particular relationship to one another? True, forgeries have been exposed and writers of extortion notes convicted on the basis of distinctive penmanship, but does that imply that each of these identifiable writing features is reliably tied to another unique attribute of the author in that person alone, not to mention everyone else who writes similarly?
Faces are sufficiently different to serve as personal identification on a driver's license, but the state still requires that you take the road test before certifying your driving skills. At one time, though, it was believed that facial features could reveal other personal characteristics. The pseudoscience of physiognomy held there were uniquely honest faces and criminal faces, generous faces and miserly faces. None but the woolliest New Ager could swallow this today.
To show that mere uniqueness is no proof that every noticeable earmark is necessarily emblematic of something else, a colleague of mine relates the following story .
As a quirky hobby, he trained himself to identify individuals from the distinctive sound of their footsteps in the hallway leading to his office. Many a visitor was un-nerved by being welcomed by name, long before he or she came into view.
Here is a subtle, but reliably detectable, personal feature. It may be good for winning bets and amazing one's friends, but would any reasonable person seriously think that this toe-tapping signature would be a good basis for hiring an employee, rejecting a mate, or accusing someone of pilfering from the stockroom? Writing is a form of expressive movement, so it should reflect our personalities.
Elsewhere, I have reviewed the literature on expressive movements and facial expressions and shown why attempts to shore up graphology by appealing to these data fall short . While it is true that there are legitimate studies linking a few global aspects of temperament to certain gestural styles, these data offer no comfort to the graphologists who attempt to ride on their coattails.
The kinds of personal styles found to be loosely related to expressive body movements are much more general than the narrow traits the graphologists claim to infer from writing. A tendency to be forceful, irascible, or domineering might be readable from body language but, even there, the correlations are too weak to be useful in making the kind of detailed ascriptions graphologists attempt. And no reputable scientist has ever suggested that something as abstruse as piety or good business sense is any more likely to be encoded in gestures than, say, vegetarianism.
Nonetheless, graphologists proudly note that handwriting analysis is mentioned in Allport and Vernon's classic, Studies in Expressive Movement.
They are less quick to tell us, however, that in the estimate of those respected psychologists, " Similarly, facial expressions may sometimes betray a lie as it is being uttered, but no competent expert thinks everybody who tends to be duplicitous has a gestural tag for this or any other general inclination of the sort graphologists claim to detect.
Moreover, the body and facial movements studied by credible researchers are biologically-based social signals. They are unlearned and convey useful information only because they are the same for everyone. Writing is quite the opposite, a learned skill that graphologists think mirrors individuality because it is different for everyone.
And good actors are quite good at faking body and facial signals, something allegedly impossible with writing, according to graphologists. Perhaps most damaging of all to the graphologists' cause is the evidence that such information as can be gleaned from unconscious movements and facial expressions is readable by anyone without formal training.
There is no need to pay anyone a fee to interpret what they mean. The police and courts use graphology, so it must be valid. I am tempted to say, "Ronald Reagan used astrology, so it must be valid" and leave it at that, but there are a few other useful lessons to be derived here. Yes, unfortunately, some misguided officials have employed handwriting analysts in forensic settings, but the practice is not as widespread as graphologists imply. As a group, police officers, lawyers, and judges are no more or less prone to erroneous beliefs than anyone else.
Faced with difficult decisions where no other method offers certainty an ideal breeding ground for superstitions , some in the criminal justice system occasionally get swept up in hopeful nonsense, just like the rest of us. The vast majority do not endorse graphology or psychics, however. Graphologists occasionally offer their services to the police and get a polite hearing, as any citizen is entitled to. And for reasons related to the subjective validation effect, discussed below, the recipients may well have been more impressed than the performance warrants.
Of course, like psychics who claim to solve crimes, a few chance hits and reliance on conventional clues, boosted by a bit of embellishment and unabashed self-promotion, can establish a high but unearned reputation. The artificially inflated reputation enjoyed by handwriting analysis is largely due to the tendency to confuse the profession of graphologist with that of a questioned document examiner QDE.
As Dale Beyerstein  has observed, nonsense often rides piggyback on sensible knowledge, and graphology, though it bears only the most superficial resemblance to scientific document examination, misappropriates the latter's well-deserved prestige . Both fields analyze handwriting, but that is where the similarity ends.
A QDE is a scientifically-trained forensic investigator who also has considerable knowledge of the history of papers, inks, writing implements, systems of penmanship, and styles of expression . QDEs are respected experts who are frequently consulted by the police and the courts. Their modus operandi is quite different from that of a graphologist, however. The job of a QDE is to establish the provenance and authenticity of documents, some of which are handwritten.
Unlike a graphologist, a legitimate QDE would never attempt to discern the personality of the writer from the script he or she examines. Where appropriate, the QDE will compare the writing in disputed documents to known samples from the hand of the putative author. Thus a typical question for a QDE might be, "Is this an authentic letter from Mozart to his patron or a clever forgery? Or, "Did the defendant in the dock write this ransom note? In addition, he or she might compare grammar, style, and punctuation to social or historical norms, all for the purpose of establishing when, where, and by whom a given document was written.
As consultants in litigation or historical disputes they are asked only to rate the probability that a given person wrote the document in question, not to pass on the guilt, innocence, or any other psychological trait of the alleged author. That a few QDE's also practice graphology on the side also leads to confusion in the public mind.
Most QDEs are just as unhappy at being confused with a graphologist as an astronomer would be if mistaken for an astrologer. Hard-nosed personnel managers swear by graphologists' usefulness in selecting employees. Some do. Most do not. Regardless, there are many reasons, other than the validity of graphology, that could account for these relatively rare endorsements [11,24]. First, there is ample reason to believe that, even if they are not aware of it, graphologists use other, non- graphological clues that could highlight the better candidates.
For instance, the contents of handwritten application letters are rich in useful biographical information.
Although graphologists claim to ignore these leads, there is evidence to the contrary [25,26]. Also, graphologists often chat up the managers who consult them to see which candidates the employers are already leaning toward. Thus the graphologist is often privy to conventional information about the applicants and, in many cases, merely reinforces the managers' intuitions.
Employers are often interested, as much as anything else, in this kind of reassurance that their hunches are correct.
This helps soothe the unease that surrounds the inherently error-prone practice of hiring and the high costs of a mistake. Graphologists can supply this peace at mind because they make comforting but highly inflated claims that ethical personnel experts would not and could not make . And, finally, in a corporate hierarchy, where covering one's backside is a fundamental imperative, it is also prudent to have someone like a graphologist to blame if the risky procedure of selecting an employee turns out badly.
Another unearned source of satisfaction with graphology stems from the fact that employers rarely give the scripts of all applicants to a graphologist—hat would be too expensive. The graphologist usually sees only the scripts of short-listed applicants, those already selected on the basis of superior education, work experience, supervisors' recommendations, etc.
Thus it is likely that everyone in this much-reduced pool would be at least adequate for the job. Because the rejects are not given a chance to show what they could do if hired, we have no way of knowing whether they would have performed as well as or better than the applicant recommended by the graphologist. And, of course, the mere fact that a graphologist has anointed the successful candidate may affect later appraisal of his or her job performance.
Much research on so-called "halo effects" shows that a recommendation from a trusted source can make average performance seem better than it is and can also make supervisors more apt to excuse less than adequate performance as a temporary aberration. The vast literature on "cognitive dissonance" shows that people who have staked their reputations or significant amounts of money on a course of action, especially if others have questioned its advisability, have strong psychological motives to interpret the outcome as favorable, even in the face of contrary evidence .
In scientific tests of the ability of graphologists to recognize job-relevant traits, it is possible to control for these spurious sources of consumer satisfaction. Klimoski contrasts the methods of scientifically-based personnel selection with those of graphologists.
He conducted many studies designed and carried out with the collaboration of eminent graphologists who approved all procedures in advance. In controlled tests in the workplace, handwriting analysis has fared very poorly [1,8,25,28,29]. Graphologists must have noticed over the centuries that certain kinds of people write in certain ways.
They might have, but they didn't. Systematically tabulating any relationships between personality and writing is the way a scientific investigator would have proceeded but, as shown above, there is overwhelming evidence that graphology has always followed the rules of divination rather than those of modern personality research [ ].
In fact, as Dean, Kelly, Saklofske, and Furnham  forcefully argue, the founders of graphology couldn't possibly have kept track of the huge number of independently varying combinations of writing and personality traits necessary to be able to extract any such patterns, had they existed in the first place. As they also point out, that is because: Graphological effects are too small to have been reliably observed. Graphological features are too numerous to be reliably combined.
Assessment of the match between graphology and the person suffers from too many biases to allow valid Psychologists have shown that, without sophisticated aids, human cognitive abilities are not capable of tracking the interrelationships of that many variables simultaneously.
As it turns out, modern mathematical techniques that would reveal such patterns find none, but even if they had been there, graphologists did not really go about looking for them systematically. The intuitive approach they did adopt would have been incapable of extracting any possible signals from the noise. It works. Research shows that when the ascriptions of a tea leaf reader, palmist, astrologer, or graphologist turn out by chance to fit, this will count far more than it should in supporting the belief that "it works" see the "the subjective validation effect," discussed below.
If someone asserts that potato- eating improves your tennis game and you find that your next five superior opponents recently ate potatoes, it hardly clinches the case, does it? But clients and graphologists alike tend to be impressed by this kind of "hit".
They rarely look to see how many other people have the written sign but not the trait, and how many have the personal attribute without its graphological indicator. Graphologists rely almost exclusively on anecdotal reports and personal testimonials that lack these essential comparisons. For reasons that will become apparent later in this chapter, such affirmations are worthless as scientific evidence. Research into so-called heuristic biases shows how common judgmental shortcuts often lead us to espouse bogus ideas and commodities .
When competent, impartial outsiders tally up both the hits and the misses, the seemingly impressive track record of graphology evaporates.
Follow the Author
Let us now turn to that evidence. The Empirical Eidence For and Against Graphology My task in summarizing the extensive scientific research on graphology has been made quite easy by the superb efforts of Geoffrey Dean , who has carried out an exhaustive review of the literature.
In any area of scientific controversy, a single study practically never decides the issue. It is only through the patient accumulation of many experiments, replicated by different investigators with converging methodologies, that a dependable pattern will emerge. Until recently, the most common way of trying to settle disputes in contentious areas was essentially to take a "box score"—i.
Not all empirical findings should count equally in such a tally, however. Those studies with larger sample sizes, better methodology, and less noisy data ought to carry heavier weight in the grand adjudication. Fortunately, there has emerged a way of factoring such considerations into the overall assessment, and thereby drawing more reliable conclusions from multiple studies on a given topic.
It is called "meta-analysis. In deciding whether graphology really works, Dean addressed questions about both its reliability and validity. In the case of reliability, we are asking about the consistency or repeatability with a given measurement technique.
Handwriting Analysis: The Complete Basic Book
The former is called "test-retest reliability," the latter, "inter-rater reliability. In technical terms, we would say that it had low reliability. Reliability is an essential, but not sufficient, condition for acceptance of a measurement method.
Unless a measuring instrument is reliable, it cannot have validity which is defined as the ability of the technique, test, etc. A mercury thermometer provides a valid measure of mean kinetic energy, for instance, but it would lack validity as a measure of gravitational pull.
A thermometer is reliable in that, all things being equal, repeated observations usually produce very close to the same result. That reliability, by itself, is no guarantee of validity can be seen from the following. If I assert that counting the number of moles on your back is a good way to estimate your intelligence, I could probably get roughly the same total on successive counts i. To satisfy you, I would need to present independent confirmation that variability in mole density in the population at large correlates well with accepted criteria of intelligence.
Obviously, this it would not do, so the measure lacks validity. With respect to graphology, reliability within and across practitioners trained by the same school has been tolerable in some, but not all, studies.
Since the various graphological schools often disagree, one would not expect the same result from followers of different systems. But even if graphology in the hands of well-practiced disciples of the same school gives the same answer on repeated assessments of the same script, is that sufficient reason to believe that it will be accurate when it is used to predict your degree of friendliness, honesty, creativity, or devotion to an organization?
Consistently-processed rubbish is still rubbish. Increasingly, graphologists are appealing to the unwary by advertising that they now use computers, hoping by adopting these trappings of science to acquire a patina of respectability. Computerization may increase the reliability of graphological attributions, but if the raw materials of an analysis slants, pressures, flourishes, i-dots, etc. And that, in a nutshell, is the question: "Are graphological 'signs' valid indicators of their supposedly correlated personality traits or aptitudes?
If we are evaluating a test that claims to predict superior sales ability, for instance, the criterion might be the agent's total annual sales or the number of deals closed per number of contacts. An acceptable test would have to show not only that those who ace the test tend to be high on such criteria but also that those who do poorly end up at the bottom of the sales charts . In his worldwide search for empirical evaluations of graphology, Dean  unearthed more than studies that had unambiguous criteria of this sort and were acceptable with respect to sample sizes, experimental controls, statistical analyses, etc.
After subjecting these studies to a meta-analysis, Dean showed that graphologists have failed unequivocally to demonstrate the validity or reliability of their art for predicting work performance, aptitudes, or personality. Graphology thus fails according to the standards a genuine psychological test must pass before it can ethically be released for use on an unsuspecting public.
Dean found that no particular school of graphology fared better than any other, belying the smug claims of Graphoanalysis that it is scientifically superior to its rivals. In fact, no graphologist of any stripe was able to show reliably better performance than untrained amateurs making guesses from the same materials.
In the vast majority of studies, neither group exceeded chance expectancy. Perusing Dean's accumulated corpus of studies, an interesting relationship emerges. The better a given study is, methodologically, and the more stringent the peer review process of the journal in which it is published, the more likely it is that the results will be unfavorable to graphology.
For this reason, it is not surprising that the majority of studies that find any merit whatever in graphology are published by graphologists themselves—in promotional pamphlets, their own proprietary journals, or the for-profit popular press.
When pro-graphology pieces occasionally make it into scientific journals they are typically the organs that have the lowest rejection rates and charge the authors for the privilege of publishing. Of course, graphologists hotly contest the foregoing conclusions, claiming that the tests that belittle their abilities are unfair and irrelevant.
The fact remains, however, that, in many of the best studies, graphologists gave prior approval to the tasks they would be asked to perform and the assessment criteria; i. Often graphological societies nominated their best to represent them in these tests. In one rigorous series of studies, by Klimoski and his colleagues, the graphologists were so confident they would excel that they even funded the projects.
They agreed at the outset that the assigned tasks were a fair approximation of what they do in their everyday practices. Only when the results turned out disastrously for them did the graphologists begin to quibble about the fairness of the tests, at one point even going so far as to threaten legal action to suppress publication of the results.
Summarizing his own research and that of many others, Klimoski concludes, " I know it works and I have hundreds of satisfied customers to prove it.
People pay good money and come back for more—they must be receiving good value, mustn't they? Not necessarily. If graphology's track record in large-scale, carefully controlled tests is as poor as critics say it is, how could so many intelligent, well-educated people still believe it has merit? As mentioned earlier, the power of personal experience often overshadows reams of tables and graphs when people try to make complex judgements about the world . Hope and uncertainty evoke powerful psychological processes that keep all occult and pseudoscientific character readers in business.
In everyday settings, their pronouncements can seem remarkably specific and telling, even though they are not. The spurious feeling that something deeply informative has been revealed in an astrological, graphological, or psychic reading arises from a kind of cognitive slippage that has come to be known as "the Barnum effect. Barnum, who advertised, "I have a little something for everyone. Have you ever opened a fortune cookie that didn't somehow apply to you? The fascinating thing is that we "read in" the specifics with practically no awareness that they arise from our own associative processes, rather than the character reader's insights.
This is not mere gullibility. It stems, instead, from the overapplication of one of our most useful cognitive skills—the ability to make sense out of the barrage of disconnected information we face daily. In fact, we become so good at filling in to make a reasonable scenario out of disjointed input that we sometimes make sense out of nonsense. Human nature is so complex and individual behavior so varied, there is almost always something in our background to fit a reader's pronouncement.
Psychologists have learned a great deal about the social and cognitive variables that make Barnum-type generalities seem so penetrating and personally relevant [11,26, ]. The Barnum effect is so powerful that an informal demonstration of any personality test, fringe or orthodox, is all but useless. Our enquiring minds will automatically embellish the bare bones of such output to make it seem self-referential.
Once again, this is not feeblemindedness; in fact, more intelligent people are more facile at inserting these extrapolations. For that reason, a proper test of any character reading scheme will need to control for this false sense of accuracy.
Thus, instead of simply asking clients if the palm reader or astrologer has accurately portrayed them, a proper test would first have readings done for a large number of clients and then remove the names from the profiles coding them so they could later be matched to their rightful owners. After all clients had read all of the anonymous personality sketches, each would be asked to pick the one that described him or her best. If the reader has actually included enough uniquely-pertinent material, members of the group, on average, should be able to exceed chance in choosing their own from the pile.
No occult or pseudoscientific character reading method, graphology included, has successfully passed such a test. Additional evidence that the apparent accuracy of nonscientific character readings is, like beauty, in the eye of the beholder can be found in many studies see references above that led people to think they were receiving a reading done specifically for them.
When experimental subjects are asked to rate how well the resulting profile describes them, they overwhelmingly endorse its contents although, unbeknownst to them, they are all given the identical astrologer or graphologist's report. In one recent study, subjects read statements about other people produced by a certified Graphoanalyst and an number of "Barnum statements," intentionally written to be so vague as to be applicable to virtually everyone .
The subjects rated the Graphoanalyst's descriptions of strangers as being just as good descriptors of themselves as the intentionally-vague Barnum statements.
When a group is given random profiles from valid psychological tests under the same conditions, they do not rate them as good a match to themselves because legitimate diagnostic tools do produce profiles that are not equally applicable to everyone. Conclusion In this essay I have argued that graphology, despite its scientific pretensions, remains mired in its occult past. I have shown why the graphologists' favorite justifications are inadequate and alluded to many well-controlled studies which have found that handwriting analysts, denied non-graphological clues about their clients, do no better than chance in describing them.
The clients, on the other hand, cannot exceed chance either when asked to select their own from a stack of anonymous graphological profiles. Despite graphology's poor showing in these well-controlled tests, both practitioners and an a goodly portion of the public at large steadfastly continue to believe it works.
The latter sections of this chapter were devoted to the interesting cognitive biases that have kept graphology alive by giving customers the strong illusion that it is revealing and accurate when it is not. If graphology cannot legitimately claim to be a scientific means of measuring human talents and leanings, what is it really? In short, it is a pseudoscience. Pseudosciences are thinly disguised occultisms that have the trappings and usurp the prestige of science but lack the attitudes, the methods, and the repeatable findings that define a real science .
Pseudosciences have a number of telltale signs. They are typically isolated from the legitimate scientific disciplines that relate to their subject matter. Devotees are apt to be proud of their lack of orthodox credentials and hostile toward an "establishment" they see as ignoring if not outright persecuting them. They claim powerful but secret techniques that only work for believers, but frown upon skepticism and demands for proof.
Pseudoscientists tend to shun mathematical analyses and cling to anecdotal data. Testimonials from satisfied customers substitute for rigorous tests. The idea of a simple control group is foreign to their way of thinking. The point of the arrow should be on the baseline at the base of the letter you wish to measure. Locate the angle of slant that most closely approximates that of the sample. Whenever possible. Baseline Baseline Place the slant graph over or near the writing sample you wish to measure.
Measure upper and middle zone letters to determine slant. Measure several upper and middle zone letters. This type has a head-over-heart emotional attitude. Once emotional control is lost it is quickly regained. With a variation of niore than two positions. The manner is undemonstrative. He is open to the experience of the moment. The person is self-interested and asks.
The more extreme the degree of variation. Here emotional expression is under control. When the slant never varies at all. After some practice measuring slant with the graph.
The range of expression is seldom overdemonstrative. The writer is normally sensitive and emotionally healthy. These people cry and laugh readily. Judgment and logic rule. Often he has a great deal of personal magnetism arid a dry wit that is quite attractive. They express their emotional self impulsively.
Very Inclined. Feelings will influence decisions. These writers are out of touch with themselves emotionally yet are self-absorbed at the same time. The public self-image of the reclined writer is often quite polished. Don't be fooled. They feel an inward longing to be different and will give more to the development of inner abilities and resources than to emotional development.
Reclined writers resist accepting progress or change. Extremely Inclined. Very Reclined. The writer is independent. This is very abnormal. These writers somehow manage to be charming in social situations while remaining emotionally aloof. Feelings are repressed-fears and anxieties are not acknowledged. This type is a volcano of emotional reactions: Often there is found an immature attachment to the ideals and values of their mother figure. He is past-oriented and strongly influenced by the values of his mother.
It's a well constructed front made to cover up and compensate for inner withdrawal. This type of slant indicates complete self-interest. In most cases of reclined writing. The more the writing leans to the right past 4. He may act friendly while keeping you at arms' length but rarely shows true feelings or desires. The nature is nervous. Unstable Slant. Mother identification is so strong that individual development is blocked.
Extremely Reclined. These writers can still show the well-developed and charming public personality so often found with the reclined slant. If one is righthanded yet slants to the left. The writer is out of touch with his environment and lives in the past. The behavior is very evasive and the emotional nature is withdrawn. He swings between repression and expression with a complete lack of prevailing attitude. In writing. This type has all of the above characteristics amplified.
This is the direction of contact with environment. This slant is very rare. This type is unsettled and inconsistent. The emotional nature is erratic. He is subject to the moods and thoughts of the moment. In order to conform to the writing style of the western world. Research has shown that they have an impulse to swing the left arm away from the body in a leftward direction. Begins with control but then quickly gets carried away.
The most natural writing for a lefthander would be from right to left with reversed letter formations and a leftward slope of 35 to 40 degrees. S o p e lefthanded writings reveal the frustration of their counter-movements while others do not. Expressive feelings associated with this word. Yet in the final analysis. It is possible for a lefthander to achieve a fluid.
Why is this so? But body position is only the means of achieving the slant on life which has been dictated by the emotions. The pen to the fingers and hand. Repressive feelings are associated with this word. Starts off with enthusiasm.
This is not to deny that handedness plays a role in the social development of an individual. There is evidence that it does. In fact. Sudden change of slant on one word indicates discomfort with the word-could be a lie. They have a fixation on the mother figure which blocks the avenue to emotional maturity. Sexual energy has been displaced into work or other goal-directed pursuits.
In this example the lower-zone has taken a reclined position. Women with this type of lower zone are also very dependent on their spouses. This is an indication of repression of instinctual needs and feelings. Men with this type of lower zone slant change are dependent on their wives or lovers and feel shattered by any breakup of that relationship.
Both sexes seem fixated on a need for maternal care. This indicates dependence on others for fulfillment of inner needs and drives. They often marry young and will quickly remarry if the first union ends. They continue to seek the security of childhood through their mates and expect a form of mothering from them.
Lower Zones that Pull to the L e f t. In this case the wife or partner is seen as an extension of the motherlson relationship. Lower Zones that Pull to the Right. Religious leader. L expressing different moods. Wife of President Lyndon Johnson. Upstrokes are release strokes and are indicated by dotted lines. The resistance is everyone and everything else the ego encounters. Downstrokes are contracting strokes and are indicated by solid lines. Your eye can aid you. It is also the resultant thinness or thickness of the stroke and the relative pastiosity or sharpness of the inking pattern.
This can be demonstrated by the jaw or the hand. After you have felt a lot of samples. It is very difficult to assess the force of pressure from photocopies. The contraction and release action of the fingers continually modifies the force o f the pen against the paper. Contracting strokes carry more strength. It is natural for the upstrokes and the rightward strokes release to be somewhat lighter than the downstrokes contraction. When you clench your jaw or your fist.
The degree of force can only be determined by feeling an original sample with your thumb and index finger. The energy pouring outward is the life force of the ego as seen in the writing stroke.
The Depth Dimension of Movement Pressure is the degree of force applied by the writer against the writing surface. Think of pressure as outward-pouring energy meeting the resistance of the environment. Heavy Pressure. When extreme pressure is found in the vertical dimension up and down movement the writer adheres strongly to his principles.
He is proud. Expect intense sexual preoccupation from this writer as over-compensation for feelings of sexual inadequacy and inhibition. Sometimes libertine behavior develops or the sexual energy is displaced and the writer is overly ambitious. He is critical. This type is internally inhibited.
They express in a heavy manner.
He cannot seem to release the forces within to meet the environment and overcome its resistance. These types make an impression. This determines how the writer is able to project his available energy upon his environment.
You definitely know when they are around. Those with forceful pressure can inspire others. This person falls into k category of reversal of the usual meaning of heavy pressure. He is tenacious. Pressure strong on directional change indicates that the energy level is consis- Pressure weak on directional change shows an inability to modify actions in time to meet environmerfal changes smoothly. Extremely Heavy. There is a great deal of energy available to them for their actions.
The paranoid is unable to take responsibility for the hostility he feels inside. This is the norm between the extremes and is an indication of healthy vitality and willpower.
Remember that it isn't natural to be heavy on these release strokes. Medium Pressure. The social self. This is one sign of the schizoid personality and is also seen in the writing of highly-anxious Sudden bursts of pressure within a generally heavypattern are displayed in the writing of the paranoid personality.
Remember that the above specific characteristics of pressure must be seen in combination with very heavy pressure in order to interpret the misplaced pressure pattern as extreme. Pressure exerted at the top of a letter instead of increasing with the downward motion can be taken as another sign of anxiety. Very light pressure frequently turns up in the writing of actors or actresses.
There is often great creative ability. This aspect o f pressure has more to do with the manner in which a person grasps the pen than it does with muscular energy. Note the unique effect produced by each writer.
This passive resistance is expressed gently. The willpower is not strong. The following three examples were supplied by three different individuals using the same pen-a wide-point felt tip. It takes a certain amount of strength and willpower to check pressure. They are far more tolerant and genial than their counterparts. When the rest of the writing is harmonious. The personality is sensitive and impressionable.
One pen can produce different results in the hands of different people. These people possess a certain delicacy of feeling. Four Widths of Stroke Standard. Their energy is displayed conservatively through conventional means. These types can be said to possess discipline. It becomes obvious that the pen plays a role in the resultant thickness of the stroke. One person can produce different widths with different pens. How do you recognize the standard width? The following five examples were penned by one individual using various instruments.
Shaded Thick and Thin. They are intellectual in their approach to life. These writers respond sensually to color. The shading of the stroke can be seen in both vertical and horizontal movement. These strokes appear dry and sparse on the background of the page. Writing on a page is marked by two dimensions. These writers have a vitality about them and seek a wide range of application for their energies.
They apply their energy with precision and efficiency. They become so involved in whatever they are doing that future obligations can be momentarily forgotten. When generally heavy pressure is accompanied by shading of the stroke. Artists of all kinds. They are made by those who apply their energy to everything they do. Pressure with shading produces the third dimension. In this example. They are sentimental in nature and express it warmly.
Those who write with thin strokes are attentive to detail and concept. These strokes are soft and dark and appear to dominate the background of the page. The manner in which the arm rests on the writing surface helps determine this. To detect pastiosity. It is easy to see the shading of the stroke.
These writers have normal sensual and emotional responses. To understand this better. Some ballpoints spill indiscriminantly. Another interpretation of pastiosity is genuine warmth and humor as well as a deep capacity for the enjoyment and appreciation of new situations. This slowing and speeding up helps the car and the writing stroke maintain a smooth traction on the roadway the paper.
Carehl consideration of the sample should enable you to distinguish pen failure from extreme pastiosity. Thus it may be seen anywhere in the writing-either alongside or on top of the stroke. Often the blob will be followed by a slight lightening of the stroke. Writing records these nearly imperceptible changes in the flow of the ink. The relative pastiosity or sharpness of the inking pattern will tell you how sensual or spiritual the writer is. Much apparent pastiosity is the result of a broken-down pen.
This sample was penned with a fountain pen. It results from the relaxed manipulation of the pen. Normal Pastiosity. For dotting to occur. As the car approaches the turn. Extreme Pastiosity.
The anxiety produced from the repressed sexuality also makes the person guarded about natural self-expression.
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Many blobs of ink with occasional smearing and sometimes ink-filled ovals characterize this writing. Excessive pastiosity is often displayed in the writing of the physically or mentally ill. Excessively pastiose writers can be distracted from the responsibilities of daily life or escape from them through sexual day-dreaming. And they are far more likely to commit crimes of violence than are non-pastiose writers.
Thus the pastiose writer who is deeply inhibited or externally thwarted will exhibit the negative characteristics of his inherent sensuality. These writers are physically oriented. At their highest, they are re: They are usually verbally articulate and discriminating, projecting a sense of subtlety, nuance and irony.
They are mentally intense but convey the iimpression of physical weakness, which may or may not be true. In any case, they save their physical strength for when it is needed. On the minus side, sharp writers are cold, resentful and somewhat unable to enjoy their experiences. Inner remoteness, rigidity and a lack of ability to relate on a physical level contribute to their special brand of loneliness.
Idealistically, they see themselves as heroes. The intensity or depth-this force tells you how much energy is available for work or goal-directed pursuits. The width of the stroke-the relative thinness or thickness of the stroke tells you how the writer displays energy in action. The pastiosity of the stroke-the relative pastiosity or sharpness of the inking pattern tells you how sensual or spiritual the writer is. These people need and enjoy attention and admiration.
Normal or Average Copy-Book Size. People who write with normal sized script can be expected to fit into conventional or prevailing circumstances with adaptability and balance of mind. It is an indication of how the writer will impress himself upon his environment. They are practical and realistic. They can act with boldness. Variable Letter Sizes. They are quite independent of what others think.
Although they are modest. Small writers often have an academic mentality and can concentrate for long periods of time in their studies and projects. Too much caught up in his own feelings. Those around him often find him moody and immature. The distance that the writer places between the letters shows how he relates on a personal level to other people. If he makes a broad letter form he can be expected to be inwardly broad-minded with himself.
This is a person who appears to be very outgoing wide connecting strokes but is inwardly up-tight and cautious with his feelings narrow letters.
This writer can be egocentric and self-centered much the same as the middle zone emphasis writer or the person who communicates in printed capitals. If the writer is outgoing. If he is cautious or introverted the letters will be crowded close to each other.
Movement is inward. A normal. If he makes a narrow letter form he can be expected to be narrow-minded about himself. The combination of narrow letters with wide spaces between them is sometimes termed a typically American handwriting characteristic and is often found in feminine handwriting.
This person is extroverted. Very narrow spaces between the words show someone who will crowd others for attention. Such a writer can be selfish in his demands and unwilling to give of his own time and energies to others. The combination of narrow letters with cramped spacing between the words shows a person who is fearful and dependent. He will be able to deal flexibly and objectively with himself and with other people.
Through inhibition or need this writer will impose blindly on others. Once again. The combination of wide letters with wide spaces between the words denotes a person who demands attention in an extravagant or exaggerated manner.
Normal spacing has its own personal harmony and flexibility. Often these people cannot see the forest for the trees. The writer who sets his lines far apart from each other on the page is isolating himself from his environment. Such writers are lively.
Distance between lines is also an indication of extravagance. Or he may have constructed grandiose fantasies for himself that set him apart from others. He hides behind a carefully arranged facade of "beautiful" letter forms and planned spaces. The inner pressure of many emotional reactions puts this type of individual in constant need of expressing himself in words.
He has grown to fear contact and closeness. In the lower zone. Uneven spacing that leads to tangled words and lines shows inner confusion. Such a per son has little sense of social boundaries and is usually unaware of his own moodiness.
Inner fatigue or depression caused by haste or overwork. Fear of the future. The left side of the paper represents the past from which the writer starts. Can't let go of the past.
Eager to move away from past into world. Importance placed upon money. Placement on the page also shows the quality of the person's taste. Avoidance of the past. Desire to communicate. Impulsive moods. Defiance and rebellion toward the rules of society. When the writing on the envelope is consistent in size and form with that of the letter inside. Over-embellishment or false show on the envelope is ostentatious and deliberately misleading.. Addresses on envelopes are public ego manifestations for the writer.
The speed with which the person moves comfortably over the page reflects the tempo of his thinking. Slower than Average Writing generally appears conventional. Be on the watch for a change of writing pace in individual words where the writer has instinctively hesitated.
The faster the writing the more the size tends to increase and the strokes to reach out and forward. Pressure that alternates naturally is more quickly and smoothly performed than extremely light or heavy lines. Dots are hard to make at high speed and tend to turn into commas and dashes. His personal pace is a measure of his spontaneity and will affect his writing rhythm and form quality.
The urge toward spontaneity slants the writing to the right. Key words and phrases have a way of changing pace and position subtly on the page. The stroke is overly controlled or hesitant. Letters are very small or very large. Curves are more easily written than straight lines. The pressure is either barely sufficient or ex- The connective forms are more often arcades and angles.
The Pace of Writing speed increases naturally with practice. Ends of words may increase in size. The graphologist finds speed vital to understanding the writer's personality. Elaboration and exaggeration give so many negative clues to personality. Connective forms are garland or threadlike and the letters streamlined and of medium size.
The rhythm and form level are poor overall. The directional trend will be rightward with the i dots streaklike and placed to the right of the stem or linked to the next letter.
In its role of producing a simple and sophisticated hand. Nor is there time for touching up. A quick legible hand is partly a matter of experience and manual skill. Speed gives impetus to the individualization of letter forms as the writer unconsciously creates his own smooth shortcuts. Slow writing is almost always suspect of calculation.
Faster than Average or Speedy Writing will have an unadorned. The natural. A naturally speedy writing has a smooth. Endings of words can become threadlike and there is an overall neglect of detail and flourish. The pattern will be animated and rhythmic with smooth. Such forms can be highly original. President and wife. To determine the rhythm of a sample hold the page up in front of you and allow yourself to react to the total impression that the pattern of written strokes produces.
These writing characteristics demonstrate the balance. Look for balance between the upper. Examine the breadth of the letters. The letter zones. Beware of a rigid machine-like quality which suggests an anxious. Sometimes this is an aesthetic Remember that the two major principles of rhythm are repetition and change. The combination of these spatial characteristics on the page: Feel the pressure on the paper and try to determine the direction of the stroke from the width of the upstrokes and the downstrokes.
Like heartbeats and light waves. Rhythm and Form Quality Each handwriting has its own unique rhythm. How does the writing fit on the page? Notice the margins and the space between lines and the balance between the height and the width of the letters.
In keeping with the basic principle of rhythm. On the other extreme recognize in an uneven. Since rhythm is a subtle over-view comprised of many individual factors.
As an aid. On the other hand. Above all. Even the most intuitive graphologist should beware of interpreting specific letter characteristics out of the context of the entire writing. For example: In contrast. Regulated handwriting can be rhythmical providing it is not rigidly artificial.
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The evaluation of the aesthetics of the rhythm and form quality will provide the base for a positive or a negative interpretation. Some react favorably to more conventional forms.
Letter form quality is determined by the contour.
True genius personalities. This primary overall evaluation of rhythm and form quality gives the graphologist a yardstick in deciding whether to interpret a specific sign in the writing in a positive or a negative way. The spine of the letter the downstroke is drawn by contracting the hand muscles.
Creative qualities are judged by how successfully the writer improves yet simplifiesthe script.
This poised. Ornamentation and Neglect. As long as the writing is natural and spontaneous. A writer who values speed and economy of motion may streamline the letter form to its essential skeleton. As the writing style matures and develops away from the standard forms it can take two opposite directions. If richness is valued. Notice the well-balanced height width.
All samples show signs of neurotic immaturity. In the three samples below observe the unstable slant and spacing. It is neither ornamental nor neglected and manages to convey a feeling of personal style within a traditional structure. Ornamented strokes are slow to make. Simplification can reach an unrhythmic extreme for quite different reasons than speed or maturity. Neglected Writing. Ornamented capital letters usually go beyond a respect for tradition.
Overly Embellished Writing. Showy and pretentious script is. Remember that a simple and speedy script is a sign of maturity and purposefulness. Rhythmic Disturbance due to Old Age. It is natural. Jerks and tics appear. Lack of spontaneity and repression of communication interferes with good rhythm. Often the anxious writer will mix cursive and printed script. Tension in the hand will cause strokes to lighten suddenly.
Rhythmic Disturbance through Nervous Anxiety. This writer believes that he has something to hide or fears what he might do if he lost control. This is rigidly adhered to.
Specific numerical age cannot be determined from handwriting. Sometimes the t bars of sick people become longer and stronger as their will to live is kindled. Heart disease. Below is the same writer at the age of sixty-eight. Injury to the body most often changes the rhythm and form quality in the zone of the writing which corresponds to the injured area.
It is difficult to separate the signs of normal aging from those of physical illness. The aged writer who feels well shows few rhythm changes. Below I s the writing of a vigorous seventy year-old man. Above is the nineteenth century Spencerian script of a twemty yearsld man. Anxious preoccupation with body functions leads to swelling of lower zone loops.
Preoccupation with the body leads to swelling lower loops. Many older people suffer from depression. Broken and repaired middle zone letters. MZ threading and falling. Good pressure pattern zone. Erratic pressure. Dotting and blobs with slow. Uncontrollable Jerksof the hand cause mistakes and sudde-n odd shapes. The pressure is very uneven. Most alcoholics. Reality is often painful for these people.
The stronger anti-depressants and mood-changing drugs cause tiny uncontrollable jerks of the hand. A functioning alcoholic will have fast and muddy but legible writing. Hospitalized patient on the drug. Minor tranquilizer users have difficulty writing on a level line and keeping even spacing and letter size. Letters rise and fall unexpectedly. In the writing look for signs of immaturity: These produce sudden and obvious mistakes and weirdlyshaped letters.
The inner critic at work against himself and others is disclosed in points at the baseline. Overall the rhythm pattern shows evenness punctuated by abrupt and noticeably bizarre tremors and mistakes. In general. Deterioration in signature. It represents the forces of nature and all aspects of the physical body. Things made up of circles are atoms. B and D are male formations while A and C are female formations.
It is represented by the lower zone and by the Left. The circle is a symbol of the eternal. Yin is female. In handwriting. Lower zone letters are seen as reflections of what is above the baseline and are therefore reversed in their directional trend.
The other is straight movement. Many letters are comprised of parts of a circle. Yang is male. In the illustrations above. Arrows indicate the usual directional trends as seen in middle and upper zone letters. The Circle and its Components.
It is a loving container of intuitive. One is curved movement. It is represented by the upper zone and by the Right. Of all writing formations.
The garland stroke is the lower arc of a circle. In their avoidance of the lower zone. The quickest and most natural way to form or correct a letter is with a garland.
Shallow Garlands. These people like the visible. These types are expressive yet conventional. It is concave in shape. They prefer the tangible world. In their impulsive recklessness to reach goals. In their eagerness to express themselves and to communicate with others.
In their desire to avoid conflict. This is sometimes to distract others from noticing the difficulty they have in facing up to emotional situations. They make much of connecting to others. At times. They want communication with and acceptance by other people. AeL d? This is one indication of the masochistic personality. They are impressionable. Guilt feelings make it difficult for them to express their anger. They have a hard time giving up possessions.
They handle life with ease. These writers express the qualities indicated by the garland formation. These writers give up-some of their horizontal mobility. Here the garland has been carried to extremes. Firm Garlands. These writers are too passive for their own good.
The arcaded writer can accept change. People who make weak. They have good intentions but their energy level is low. It goes against his grain to be offensive. This type is not domineering. The garland with retracing can produce the sham formation. Sham Garlands. Generally speaking. Its shape is convex. He can get along with most personalities and finds the garland type quite pleasant.
The individual cannot express his aggressive feelings in a social situation. As in the yin-yang principle. It indicates a socially repressed personality. They are easily taken advantage of.
Arcaded writers are as protective and paternal as garland writers are receptive and maternal. He has an artistic sense of proportion and is highly creative. This person is feeling threatened. They are watchful and defensive and can lack flexibility. If everyone else is going one way garlands are the most common stroke formation. This is a sign of dishonesty. It has a sinuous and snaky quality to it and is an indication of an aloof.
Flat Arcades. This formation acts more as a cover-up than as a protector. These people rely on instinct and intuition rather than on reason. Often these extremes are covering feelings of inferiority with showiness.
Predominately Arcaded. They make good directors or heads of organizations and are fond of public speaking. They have imagination. Wild or Big Arcades. These wild flourishes are made by dramatic and theatrical people who wish to call attention to themselves. This type has a good memory. On the negative side. Behavior will be cautious. When very arched. These types are emotional and physical. It is thought of as a vessel in which emotion and feeling are contained.
When creative. Their responses are impulsive more often than they are premeditated. Round writers are flexible and yielding. Since roundness is a feminine trait. They are sympathetic. Generally Loopy Writers. These people place more emphasis on the emotional and feeling content of an experience than they do on the conceptual aspects of it.
While it is considered normal for teenagers to write in a round style. The emotional nature is rebellious. When writing contains short or meager loops. It is rare to see this on the downstroke. When loops become extreme in their fullness. This writer is emotionally guarded. Most of the time. Retracing reveals the person who is strongly inhibited emotionally to the extent that free expression of feeling is impossible.
Here emphasis is placed on doing the opposite of what is expected. Some loops become so meager the upstrokes and downstrokes coincide. The ability to express emotion has been stunted. Feeling gets bottled up. When seen in the upstroke. If you do. A key phrase here is excessive emotional need. Retraced Loops. This is one indication of amorality.
This is an indication of emotional well-being. When a loop deviates from its usual ovoid or-circular shape to trace a twisted path. Here it is important to consider the direction and shape of the distortion before determining the type and extent of the emotional problem.
Here the emotional energy is directed to the pursuit of goals. These writers need someone and something to touch. They cling to old ways of being and are dependent on sustained relationships for emotional fulfillment. In the upper zone. Attraction t o t h e right reveals the ambitious go-getter. Emotions focus on the intangible. This is an indication of emotional turbulence.Many blobs of ink with occasional smearing and sometimes ink-filled ovals characterize this writing.
I Three Dimensionsof Movement: It is difficult to alter their thinking with emotional pleas. This is an indication of repression of instinctual needs and feelings. The 'Barnum Effect' in personality assessment: A review of the literature.
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