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PDF | On Aug 1, , Sachin Sonawane and others published Food processing and preservation methods: The Impact on antioxidant properties of fruits and. FOOD PROCESSING AND PRESERVATION-FULL - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online. In this module the concept of processing and preservation will be explored from different Understand the importance of food processing and preservation. 1.

Food Processing And Preservation Pdf

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of each preservation method and handling procedure on foods is critical in food processing. The first edi- tion of this book was the first definitive source of. This paper dealt with various food processing techniques as well as preservation methods and compared them with what obtains in the western world to bring. Central Bringing Excellence in Open Access Annals of Food Processing and Preservation Review Article *Corresponding author Ruan-Soto F, Becario del.

J Agric Food Chem — CrossRef Google Scholar Thorne S. Food Irradiation. Google Scholar Satin M. Food Irradiation: A Guidebook.

Lancaster, PA: Technomic Publishers, Semmelweis Limited Partners. Thayer DW. Wholesomeness of irradiated foods. Food Technol ; 48 5 : — Higgins KT.

E-beam comes to the heartland. Food Engineer ; October: 89— Gregerson J. Bacteria Busters. Food Engineer ; 62— Parrott DL. Use of ohmic heating for aseptic processing of food particulates. Food Technol ; 46 12 : 68— Air Products. Allentown, PA. Google Scholar Buffler CR. Google Scholar Charin SE. Dehydration of foods. In: Charm SE, ed. Another factor leading to reduced effectiveness among food antimicrobials is food component interactions.

Most food antimicrobials are amphiphilic. As such, they can solubilize in or be bound by lipids or hydrophobic proteins in foods making them less available to inhibit microorganisms in the food product. Interest in natural antimicrobials is also driven by the fact that international regulatory agencies are generally very strict about requirements for toxicological evaluation of novel direct food antimicrobials.

In many parts of the world, toxicological testing of new synthetic compounds could take many years and many millions of dollars to obtain approval. For some types of food additives a payback may be possible e.

While this rationale may be true, it must be remembered that many of the antimicrobial compounds approved for use in foods today come from natural sources Table 2. If a truly effective antimicrobial was discovered from a natural source, it may be more economically feasible to synthesize it than to extract it from a natural source. This justification also leads The use of natural antimicrobials Table 2.

In addition to potential benefits associated with natural antimicrobials in foods, there are a number of potential concerns that need to be examined with respect to food safety. For example, if an antimicrobial is to be used exclusively to inhibit a pathogenic microorganism, it must be uniformly effective, stable to storage, and stable to any processes to which it is exposed. Standardized assays for activity need to be developed to ensure that the antimicrobial compounds retain potency.

Finally, producers and users of natural antimicrobials that make claims for efficacy of use will be likely to be liable for any claims they make. In short, natural antimicrobials have excellent potential but probably will not produce miracles.

There are compounds from animal, plant and microbial sources. As stated above, some naturally occurring antimicrobials have been approved for direct addition into foods by regulatory agencies including lactoferrin, lysozyme, natamycin and nisin.

It is produced commercially from chitin, a by-product of shellfish processing, by alkaline deacetylation. Chitosan is the designated name for the series of polymers with different ratios of glucosamine GlcN and N-acetyl glucosamine GlcNAc.

Chitosan inhibits growth of foodborne molds, yeasts and bacteria including Aspergillus flavus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Mucor 8 Food preservation techniques racemosus, Byssochlamys spp.

However, reported minimum inhibitory concentrations for both bacteria and yeasts vary widely from 0.

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Chitosan may directly affect the microbial cell by interaction with the anionic cell wall polysaccharides or components of the cytoplasmic membrane resulting in altered permeability or prevention of transport Tsai and Su, ; Fang et al. In contrast, fresh strawberries and bell peppers dipped in acidic chitosan solutions and inoculated with B. Roller and Covill reported that 0. The most sensitive strain was Z.


For S. Lactoferrin has two iron binding sites per molecule.

Lactoferrin is inhibitory by itself to a number of microorganisms including Bacillus subtilis, B. The compound has no activity against Salmonella Typhimurium, Pseudomonas fluorescens and little activity against E.

Some gram-negative bacteria may be resistant because they adapt to low iron environments by producing siderophores such as phenolates and hydroxamates Ekstrand, Microorganisms with a low iron requirement, such as lactic acid bacteria, would not be inhibited by lactoferrin. Since it is cationic, lactoferrin may increase the outer membrane permeability to hydrophobic compounds, including other antimicrobials.

According to Naidu and Bidlack , lactoferrin blocks adhesion of microorganisms to mucosal surfaces, inhibits expression of fimbria and other colonizing factors of enteric pathogens, such as E. The use of natural antimicrobials 9 Lactoferricin B or hydrolyzed lactoferrin HLF is a small peptide produced by acid-pepsin hydrolysis of bovine lactoferrin Bellamy et al. Jones et al. In contrast, while HLF was effective against L.

Venkitanarayanan et al. Bovine milk naturally contains 10 to 60 mg of lactoperoxidase per liter Ekstrand, This is termed the lactoperoxidase system LPS. Fresh milk contains 1 to 10 mg of thiocyanate per liter, which is not always sufficient to activate the LPS. Hydrogen peroxide, the third component of the LPS, is not present in fresh milk due to the action of natural catalase, peroxidase or superoxide dismutase. Approximately 8 to 10 mg hydrogen peroxide per liter is required for LPS.

However, it does inhibit both gram-positive and gram-negative foodborne pathogens including salmonellae, S. The LPS system can increase the shelf life of raw milk Ekstrand, Barrett et al.

LPS has also been used as a preservation process in infant formula, ice cream, cream, cheeses and liquid whole eggs Ekstrand, It is present in avian eggs, mammalian milk, tears and other secretions , insects and fish.

In hypotonic solutions, the enzyme causes lysis of bacterial cells. The enzyme is most active against gram-positive bacteria because the peptidoglycan of the cell wall is more exposed.

It inhibits the foodborne bacteria Bacillus stearothermophilus, Clostridium botulinum, C. There is variation in the susceptibility of gram-positive bacteria to lysozyme probably due to the presence of teichoic acids or other compounds that bind the enzyme. Also, certain species have greater proportions of 1,6 or 1,3 glycosidic linkages in the peptidoglycan which are more resistant than the 1,4 linkage Tranter, Gram negative cell susceptibility can be increased by combination with chelators e.

Lysozyme is used in Japan to preserve seafood, vegetables, pasta and salads. Lysozyme has been evaluated for use as an antimicrobial in wines to inhibit lactic acid bacteria and as a component of antimicrobial packaging Padgett et al.

Of greatest potential as food antimicrobials are compounds from spices and their essential oils. Additionally, compounds from the Allium family, the Cruciferae or mustard family and phenolic compounds have shown some potential. Cavallito and Bailey isolated the major antimicrobial compounds from garlic by using steam distillation of ethanolic extracts.

They identified the antimicrobial component as allicin diallyl thiosulfinate; thiopropenesulfinic acidallyl ester.

Allicin is formed by the action of the enzyme, allinase, on the substrate alliin [S- 2-propenyl -Lcysteine sulfoxide]. The reaction occurs only when cells of the garlic are disrupted, releasing the enzyme to act on the substrate.

A similar reaction occurs in onion except that the substrate is [S- 1-propenyl -L-cysteine sulfoxide] and one of the major products is thiopropanal-S-oxide. The products responsible for antimicrobial activity are also apparently responsible for the flavor of onions and garlic.

Food Preservation and Processing

In addition to antimicrobial sulfur compounds, onions contain the phenolic compounds protocatechuic acid and catechol, which could contribute to their antimicrobial activity Walker and Stahmann, The mechanism of action of allicin is most likely inhibition of sulfhydryl-containing enzymes Beuchat, These compounds are found in plants and plant foods and they frequently occur as esters and less often as glucosides Ho, The compounds were much less effective against Pseudomonas fluorescens and E.

In contrast, alkyl esters of hydroxycinnamic acids including methyl caffeoate, ethyl caffeoate, propyl caffeoate, methyl p-coumarate and methyl cinnamate were effective inhibitors of the growth of P. Stead determined the effect of caffeic, coumaric and ferulic acids against the wine spoilage lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus collinoides and L. At pH 4. Baranowski et al.

Ferulic acid was the most effective growth inhibitor tested. Chipley and Uraih found that ferulic acid inhibited aflatoxin B1 and G1 production by Aspergillus flavus and A. Salicylic and trans-cinnamic acids totally inhibited aflatoxin production at the same level. Furocoumarins are related to the hydroxycinnamates.

Purified psoralen and natural sources of the compound e. These compounds are formed from the action of the enzyme myrosinase thioglucoside glucohydrolase EC 3. In addition to the allyl side group, other isothiocyanate side groups include ethyl, methyl, benzyl and phenyl. These compounds have been reported to be potent antimicrobial agents. Inhibition against bacteria varies but generally grampositive bacteria are less sensitive to AIT than gram-negative bacteria.

However, cells recovered to a large extent if they were exposed to air. Park et al. AIT had a detrimental effect on germination of wet alfalfa seeds. AIT was ineffective against Salmonella inoculated onto alfalfa seeds and caused sensory problems with treated alfalfa sprouts Weissinger et al.

Ward et al.

Delaquis et al. Pseudomonas and Enterobacteriaceae were inhibited to the greatest extent while lactic acid bacteria were more resistant. The development of offodors and flavors was delayed and cooked meat color was preserved in the The use of natural antimicrobials 13 treated roasts.

Among the spices, cloves, cinnamon, oregano, thyme, sage, rosemary, basil and vanillin have the strongest antimicrobial activity. The major antimicrobial components of clove Syzygium aromaticum and cinnamon Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oils are eugenol 2-methoxy 2-propenyl -phenol and cinnamic aldehyde 3-phenylpropenal , respectively.

Smith-Palmer et al. Ruan-Soto et al. Mushrooms can be roasted over a comal a large historically transmitted and refined traditional mycological cast-iron pan , made into broth, soups, creams, pasties, memelas knowledge to do so. Frequently, WEM are cooked along In addition to the richness of species consumed by Mexican with meats or vegetables and seasoned with typical spices from peoples, there exists richness in the way wild edible mushrooms Mexican cuisine such as: peppers Capsicum annuum L.

Dysphaniaambrosioides L. Miller water to rid them of dirt, putrid residue, or other unwanted [5,7,11,14,18,19]. During their cleaning, each carpophore is verified as edible, thus avoiding poisoning [5,6]. Although people are often Some recipes depend on the quantity of carpophores that unaware of the chemical components of mushrooms, they carry are picked, the species that are found at one time, the degree out different practices and processes before cooking some of mycophilia in a culture, and other aspects.

The preparation species. These practices are frequently destined to improve the method for Agaricuscampestris, for example, is based on the flavor of the dish and extract certain substances perceived as quantity that is picked. When few mushrooms are obtained, they noxious for their bodies. Certain species, it is prepared with ground yellow corn and scented with bell such as Amanita rubescens, Boletus edulis, and various Suillus pepper Capsicum annum L.

Although other species can because this tissue can convey a slightly bitter flavor. In the case be prepared this way, mushrooms are never mixed for this dish of Tylopilusfelleus, Turbinellusfloccosus, and Russuladelica the since each species requires a different cooking time and conveys epicutis from the pileus, the stipe, the vains, scales, and lamellae a different final taste [5].

Similarly, Amanita sect. Similarly, after Amanita sect. There are special ways to prepare certain species, such as Ustilagomaydis. This species is prepared boiled with sugar, for Some species require repeated boiling before being cooked. This last composition, either perceived or real.

Different species of recipe is an important meal before leaving to work the fields [14]. Pleurotus and Ramaria are boiled once or twice before cooking, discarding the first batch of water to get rid of both bitterness If mushrooms are consumed raw, they are generally sliced or and chewiness in western and central Mexico [12,13]. Some species, like Melanogaster umbrinigleba, Clavariadelphustruncatus, Across Mesoamerica, cooking techniques for mushrooms Rhizopogonsp.

Among certain groups, such as the Nahua from central features, namely those related to the worldviews of different Mexico, WEM are thought to be inedible and even toxic when peoples. This quality is non-indigenous community in the Lacandon Rainforest in related to the places and season rains in which these organisms southeastern Mexico considers consumption of raw mushrooms grow [14].

Contrastingly, some Tseltal communities in the to cause harm [20]. This hot-cold quality in foods is While WEM are mostly cooked within family units for meals, widespread across peoples from Mexico and Central America and some are cooked specifically for sale or instead are sold along it is a reflection of the duality in the worldview of Mesoamerican with all the ingredients necessary for special recipes [21,22].

A consequence for WEM processing Wild edible mushroom preservation is that they are cooked in diverse forms and sometimes raw, depending on their placement within this classification system. Two forms of traditional wild mushroom preservation techniques among Mexican peoples have been reported: drying Of course, physical features are also taken into consideration and, less importantly, pickling [7]. Very few studies mention when choosing a processing technique for mushrooms in general other forms of preservation such as freezing or canning [11].

This way, they are manageable and can be easily hung as important among groups inhabiting the Central part of the during the process.

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Some species are simply sliced to be sundried country. These are used as heat sources and often Drying is in fact an important preservation technique for the drying is completed in the sun [7].

Elsewhere mushrooms are long-term storage of different basic foods among rural people in dried using solely the energy and heat from the sun [9]. If this is Mexico. Given that mushrooms appear during the most humid the case, the mushrooms will hang in a well ventilated area where part of the year, their preservation by drying requires special the sun can reach them for several days.

Otherwise, they can be care and dedication; risk of spoilage is very high [7]. Furthermore, they are linked to social rehydrated, sometimes previously washed, and strained [9,27]. WEM in certain regions of the country, which makes preservation in these environments a rare occurrence.

Regarding the reasons behind WEM preservation, some selected species are kept beyond the rainy season exclusively The ready availability of WEM during the rainy season, for self consumption. Many times these are the most appreciated along with widely spread social convention that these resources species because of their flavor.

The Raramuri in appreciation. Even among mycophilic societies, such as the Nahua northern Mexico seem to preserve mushrooms mostly for this from Morelos, certain species like Suilluspunctipes are considered purpose, either dried or pickled.The factors of production include natural resources, labour, capital and entrepreneur.

In contrast, fresh strawberries and bell peppers dipped in acidic chitosan solutions and inoculated with B. The earliest preservation technologies developed were drying, smoking, chilling and heating. It becomes imperative therefore that proper processing operation be done with appropriate technologies. Demon Slayer. Similarly, organized peasant maya. Perrier-Cornet, Dr F.

So does ginger, which reduces inflammation and pain. This is a money spinning venture now. For food products with a pH of 5.