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We hope that this book will be helpful for you to enjoy the spirit of the Coptic Liturgy, as we do. May God bless you as will as the mission of this book, by the. The Divine Liturgy of St. Basil - Reference book by Fr. Abraam Sleman The Coptic Orthodox Book of the Prayers of the Hours (The Agpeya), HTML. Listen. Results 1 - 49 of 49 This book is a deacon's service book presented in Coptic & English. Includes both annual hymns and hymns for feasts and fasts.

Coptic Liturgy Book

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2nd edition of the Divine Liturgy Book containing the Divine Liturgies of St. Basil, St. Gregory, and St. Cyril in English, Coptic, and Arabic. Quantity. Add to cart. Ċ, The Guide to Deacon yazik.info View, Deacon Service Book --English, Coptic, Arabic, Mar 23, , PM, St Mary St Mercurius Church. Ċ, The Guide to. Kids will love this combination of a liturgy guide and an activity book. It'll keep kids engaged throughout the whole liturgy with kid-friendly explanations.

Therefore, formal differences from the Coptic text, such as precise additions, are the exception. At this time, Coptic bilingualism was the normal case: the faithful still sang their hymns in Coptic, and the Arabic aided understanding until a second phase of systematic translations became necessary. Compared to its importance, the number of received textual witnesses to the Difnar is relatively small.

Significantly, there is a lack of early manuscripts, as most date from the 19th and 20th centuries. By far the most important and at the same time earliest-preserved Difnar manuscript is one dated to the year A.

A, Fig. After A. A offers a very pure text apart from dialectal peculiarities, especially in vocalization. It bears minor occasional corrections from a second hand, as well as decoration including highlighted initials at the beginning of a hymn or stanza.

Difnar transcripts, which are recognized by self-attestation in the colophons, also prove to be true copies. The most significant of these transcripts is a six-volume manuscript from the Coptic Museum, which originated in the years A. It bears the numbers Lit[urgica] a to f Simaika ff. This bilingual text is, like MS. A, arranged in two columns.

A, as an exact synopsis shows that it represents a faithful and complete copy of MS. A Mekhaiel ff. Other early Difnar manuscripts usually contain only parts of the Difnar: first of these is the manuscript Borg. Another manuscript from the Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Borg.

Copto , was written in the year A. Copto can also be compared with another text in the same collection: manuscript Borg. Copto In contrast, manuscript Borg. However liturgical services continued to thrive. As a result manuscripts of that type were produced in far greater numbers than any other literary element of the Coptic Heritage.

This became the attention-grabber of the travelers that passed through Egypt during the Renaissance era. Eventually this became the focus of their early study of the Coptic Church. This paper will survey the important work done in the field since the 14th century AD, as well as discusses in broad terms what is needed to be done in the future.

The periods discussed will be as follows: The Future 1. The 14thth Century During this period the Coptic Church was on the verge of experiencing its worst declining trend across all aspects of its heritage. Manuscripts production in that period were mostly of a liturgical nature.

There were three monumental works related to the liturgical heritage that came from that period. The first was the 14th century medieval encyclopedia of Ibn Kabar. The third, and most important, is a work by the Coptic Patriarch Gabriel V , intended to regulate and reform the liturgical practices of the time.

This work was titled simply, al-Tartib al-Taqsi, or the Ritual Order. The Arabic text of these works was published in our modern era with translations in numerous languages. However, none of them are available in an English translation. The 16th Century - 's As early as the 16th century, the European travelers brought some of these liturgical manuscripts to the Vatican, as is seen from early catalogues of manuscripts in the Vatican Apostolic Library.

Takla is President of the St. In the 17th century, Fr. Vansleb commissioned the copying of many of these Coptic liturgical manuscripts and deposited them in the Royal French Library now part of the National Library of France upon his return. The exotic published accounts of these travelers generated interest in the Coptic Church.

The presence of these liturgical manuscripts directed the early studies of the Europeans to the services of the Church. Many of these early works were devoted to text editions with Latin translations of the Euchologion al-Khulagi.

The works of Scialach , Renaudot , Assemani 66 , and others typify that trend. In the first half of the 18th century, the short-lived French Expedition of Napoleon opened the cultural door of Egypt to Europe.

Later in that century, the Vatican made a concerted effort to preach Christianity among the Moslems of Egypt. This attempt of course failed due to the obvious opposition of the Moslem authorities in Egypt to such an activity. This also was met by failure, except for the nominal conversion of a few influential Egyptian families, who did it to preserve the peace of the church at the time.

As these early missionaries made their way back home, they took with them three young Copts to be trained at the Vatican. The most notable of them was a youth by the name of Raphael al-Tukhi.

This young man eventually was ordained a bishop over Al-Minya, but never made his way back to Egypt. He occupied his time with the editions of the Coptic liturgical books in Coptic and Arabic, among other things.


His editions were made on the basis of the multitude of liturgical manuscripts that were brought to the Vatican by that time. They were not intended to be critical editions of such texts but rather liturgical manuals to be used by the soon-to-be-established Coptic Catholic Church. They were modified to present the dogmatic differences that the Roman Catholic Church had with the Coptic Church. Otherwise they were replicas of those in use in the Coptic Orthodox Church. In the 19th century many more liturgical manuscripts found their way out of Coptic depositories in Egypt and into European libraries and Museums.

The most significant were the library of St. These additions as well as the many that were already in Europe generated even more interest in this branch of Coptic Studies. Pope Cyril IV shifted the course of the church to a more modern and educated direction.

He elevated the ecclesiastical education to a level not achieved since the golden age of the church in 4th-5th centuries. This brought forth many that pursued the study of the different aspects of the Coptic Heritage, especially liturgical services and the language.

He also brought a printing press for the first time into the church that made the service books more readily available. Arabic lectionaries seemed to be the first books to make it out of that press.

Liturgical books with Coptic texts did not appear till a few decades later in the late 19th and early 20th century.


The earliest liturgical book editions were of the Diaconal by Hegomenus Philotheos who also published a Euchologion containing the liturgies of St. Basil and St. Gregory as well as the Turuhat expositions of the Pascha But we can not forget the contribution of Ekladious Labib who was the icon of that period.

Later in that period we also see an edition of the book of Doxologies or Kitab al-Tamajid These editions at times incorporated not only collated manuscripts but liturgical practices of the time. However they can not be considered true critical editions because they did not include the list of manuscripts used or what reading came from which manuscript. They did serve their intended purpose at the time which was to make available to the clergy the necessary manuals of ecclesiastical practices.

Meanwhile, the Coptic Catholics in Egypt established their own press and began to publish their own manuals of liturgical practices. These works were primarily reprints of the 18th century work of al-Tukhi. His obedient son, Abel, learnt these rituals from his father, and when he offered a blood sacrifice of the first born of the best of his sheep the Lord accepted his sacrifice because it was offered according to the law.

God rejected the offering of Cain, because his sacrifice was not according to the law. By not offering a blood sacrifice, he showed that he did not feel the need for atonement. God also rejected his offerings because of his evil deeds. In the New Testament, our offerings are no longer a blood sacrifice but are from the fruits of the land and its produce.

God accepts them because, through His Incarnation and death, the curse was taken away from the land. During His Incarnation, He walked on the land and purified it. When He died He was buried in a 32 tomb engraved in the earth, and so He purified it. Facing him on the opposite side of the altar is the deacon who holds the cross and responds. The following is a summary of what the priest does around the altar. This is known as the Incense Circuit. Firstly, the priest raises incense over the altar towards the right of the throne where the chalice is kept , then on the left side of the throne, and finally in front of the throne.

He then swings the censer in a full circle before the altar, from left to right. This is done carefully so that no embers from the censer fall onto the floor. This motion of offering three times over the altar, then 33 in a circular motion, represents The Holy Trinity, in One Essence. While the priest is raising incense and praying the introduction to the Litany of Peace, the deacon stands opposite him on the other side of the altar and says, "Pray for the peace of the One, Holy, Universal and Apostolic church of God.

Bless them. Let Your people be thousands and thousands Pope and Patriarch of the great city of Alexandria, and his brother in the Apostolic ministry, our father Metropolitan or bishop Abba The deacon completes his activity around the altar in silence.

Let all Your enemies be scattered and flee before Your face. He steps out of the altar with his left foot, while still facing the altar. In the following page we Summarise the circuits with a diagram. After leaving the sanctuary, the priest raises incense before the sanctuary three times; the first time saying, "We worship You O Christ our God with Your gracious Father, and the Holy Spirit for You have come and saved us. The third time, he says, "I will praise You with my whole heart.

Before the angles I will sing praises to You" Ps. He then raises incense once to the North of the sanctuary where the icon of St. Mary is displayed, and says, "We hail you with Archangel Gabriel. Hail to you highly favoured one, the Lord is with you. Blessed are you among women" Luke Then he turns and raises incense towards the West, saying, "Hail to the hosts of angels, hail to my fathers the apostles, the martyrs and all the saints.

The priest, standing at the door of the sanctuary, raises incense in all four directions, signifying that God is Omnipresent and can hear our prayers.

Praying for the departed is very important and a well established teaching in the Coptic Church for numerous reasons: It declares that the souls of those who have passed away are still alive, unlike the animals, because God said, "I am the God of the living, not of the dead," so we have to remember those living souls whenever we pray, striving to help them attain eternal happiness.

It confirms the Resurrection; we ask God to raise their bodies on the Judgment Day and forgive their petty mistakes which they may not have had a chance to repent and confess before dying. It verifies the Day of Judgment; through our prayers for the reposed, we confess the day of reckoning, reminding some, and teaching others, to be watchful of their deeds.

It ensures that nobody has yet received their full reward, as written in the book of Hebrews , 37 "And all these, having obtained a good testimony through faith, did not receive the promise.

It comforts the living in knowing that we shall receive everlasting life, and grants us patience. It fulfils our debt towards the reposed, for God ordered us, as mentioned by the Apostle James, "pray for one another" James Dionisious, a disciple of St.

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Paul, said, "The prayers of the righteous benefit the reposed. If the reposed's sins were trivial there would be great benefit from what was done for him after his departure.

However, if his sins were serious and heavy, the Lord has already closed the door. Therefore the Litany of the Offerings is prayed instead of the Travellers on these days. Fill their houses and stores with good things. In this litany it becomes apparent that the Church raises the standing of the offerings to the level of a sacrifice, saying, "Accept them on Your holy, heavenly altar as a fragrance of incense", as the Apostle Paul teaches us, "Do not forget to do good and to share, for with such sacrifices God is well pleased" Heb.

Good deeds are a sacrifice of love and kindness which one offers to others, resembling the sacrifice of the Lord Jesus Christ on the cross Who died for our salvation, "For God so loved the world that He gave His Only Begotten Son, that whoever believes in Him should not perish, but have everlasting life" John The Apostle Paul says, "And walk in love, as Christ loved us and gave Himself up for us, a fragrant offering and sacrifice to God" Eph.

The Coptic Liturgy

The priest prays the Litany of Offerings at the altar, facing East, not at the door of the sanctuary where the rest of the litanies are prayed. The Litany of Offerings is usually prayed when the Lamb is present in the church, that is, during weekdays. On Sundays and the Lordly feasts, however, the Litany of Offerings is prayed even if the Lamb is not present in the church.

Some Points About the Litanies The Litany of the Reposed is prayed during Vespers, that is at sunset, to remind the believers that our lives on earth shall one day come to an end.

The Litany of the Sick is said in the morning because the church is like a hospital which opens its door for the sick and wounded and cures them, as St. John Chrysostom described it. The Mystery of Anointing the Sick is said in the morning when the priest, deacons, and those who are sick are all fasting. The Litany of the Travellers is prayed in the morning because, in the past, people would only travel in the morning light when it was safe to do so. David the Psalmist says, "While the sun rises man goes out to his work and to his labor until the evening" Ps.

In fear of You, I will worship towards Your holy temple. I will worship toward Your holy temple.

The tradition of the Coptic Church is to place the icon of St. Mary to the right of the temple's veil, according to the verse, "King's daughters are among Your honourable women, at Your right hand stands the queen in gold from Ophir" Ps. The priest then offers incense to the congregation.

The Divine Liturgy Book

We notice during the procession of Palm Sunday and 42 of the Holy Cross that the chapter from the Bible about John the Baptist is read to the South of the sanctuary door. The priest once again raises incense towards the East, saying, "Let us worship our Saviour, the Good Lover of mankind, because He has had compassion upon us and has come and saved us.

He takes the blessings of the Bible by touching it with his hand and then kisses it. This tradition can be seen also in public life, whereby appropriate people are chosen to present to a king or a leader the gifts or messages on behalf of others. In doing this, they show their respect and reverence to the king or leader, while, at the same time, securing acceptance of the gift, or the consideration of the petition. It is for these reasons that incense is offered to the Patriarch or the Bishop.

Because he has the seniority in priesthood, the incense is offered to him which he then offers with his prayers to the Lord, praying to the Lord on behalf of the people and the clergy. The priest asks the Patriarch or Bishop to intercede for us when he says, "Pray for us to the Lord Jesus to forgive our sins. These are: These are the prostrations offered to God during our individual or public worship, such as at the beginning of each of the hourly prayers when we say "Lord have mercy Isaac said about such prostrations, "Bow at the beginning of your worship, asking God from your heart, with humiliation, to give you patience and control over your thoughts during prayers.

When they have finished reciting the Psalm they do not prostrate themselves in a hurry, as if it is a duty they want to get out of the way, like many of us do. On the contrary, they stand for a while to raise a short prayer, then they prostrate themselves in awe and great devotion.

After that, they get to their feet in a brisk manner, standing uprightly with all their thoughts absorbed in prayer. He should kneel down after each psalm or praise, or whenever the words "kneeling down" are contained in the prayer. The aim of prostration is to offer thanks to the Lord for His great mercies, or for His help in a certain matter.

These are known as thanksgiving prostrations. Another aim of prostrating in prayer is to implore the Lord to grant us certain virtues or to pray for other people, saying such things as, "Thank You my Lord Jesus Christ, for You Also a person may devote a number of prostrations on behalf of those who have asked him to pray for them. He may be motivated to offer worships for them without their knowledge through his love for them and his awareness of their needs.

One may also devote some prostrations to the Lord for the Church and its fathers, or for the safety of the world and its leaders, and so on. On the topic of prostration in prayer, Mar Isaac said, "Do not think that prostrating yourself before God is a light matter.

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None of all the good deeds equals persevering in completing prayers with prostrations. The Prostration of Repentance There are two types of these prostrations: Offering metanias to God, asking Him to have mercy on us, to give us the life of repentance and to forgive us our sins.

These prostrations may be given as a task from our father of confession for the repentance of a certain sin, either for practice or as a corrective measure. Offered by a person to his brethren after a meeting of discussion or reconciliation.He performs the whole procedure twice through, after which the two of them hold hands and prostrate before each other, kissing each other's hand.

David the Psalmist says, "While the sun rises man goes out to his work and to his labor until the evening" Ps. This accomplishes both teaching them while having fun at the same time.

The next Epiclesis consists only of the prayer to the Holy Spirit to come and manifest the gifts, without any explicit request to change the gifts in the Body and Blood of Christ. Of these one notes above all the work of Gawdat Gabra and Maria Cramer. Within the Synaxarion, a possible source for at least for a part of the complete Difnar corpus can be located.