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Carbon and its. Compounds. 4. CHAPTER. In the last Chapter, we came to know many compounds of importance to us. In this Chapter we will be studying about. Notes of Carbon and its Compound For Class 10 Science Chemistry Download pdf. Name the carbon compound which on heating with excess of concentrated sulphuric acid at Carbon has four electrons in its valence shell.

Carbon And Its Compounds Pdf

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Carbon and its Compounds. Chapter Notes. Page 1. Neela Bakore Tutorials. • Carbon is an element which plays a very important role in our lives. • Importance . Free PDF download of Class 10 Science Chapter 4 - Carbon and Its Compounds Revision Notes & Short Key-notes prepared by expert Science teachers from. UNIT 7 CARBON AND ITS. COMPOUNDS. Structure. Introduction. Objectives. Allotropes of Carbon. Why are there a Large Number of Carbon.

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Carbon_and_Its_Compounds.pdf - Carbon and Its Compounds

Like carbon, silicon forms compounds with hydrogen upto seven or eight atoms of silicon called silanes. Since it requires four electrons, carbon is said to be tetravalent.

The smaller size of carbon atom enables nucleus to hold the shared pair of electrons strongly, thus carbon compounds are very stable in general. Hydrocarbons are further classified as Saturated and Unsaturated Carbon Compounds Saturated Compounds : Saturated compounds are hydrocarbons in which hydrogen and carbon have single bonds. They are also known as Alkanes.

A part from branched structures, carbon compounds are present in cyclic form.

Steps to draw a Lewis structure : 1. Decide how many valence outer shell electrons are possessed by each atom in the molecule. If there is more than one atom type in the molecule, put the most metallic or least electronegative atom in the center. Recall that electro-negativity decreases as atom moves further away from fluorine on the periodic chart. Arrange the electrons so that each atom contributes one electron to a single bond between each atom.

Count the electrons around each atom: are the octets complete? If so, your Lewis dot structure is complete. Functional groups Carbon also forms covalent bonds with oxygen, nitrogen, and sulphur atoms.


Presence of any of these elements in a compound confers specific properties to the compound. A group of atoms that imparts specific properties to hydrocarbons is called a functional group.

Homologous series A homologous series is a series of carbon compounds having different numbers of carbon atoms, but containing the same functional group.

Some functional groups in carbon compounds are shown in the given table. Before the IUPAC system of nomenclature, organic compounds were assigned trivial or common names based on their origin or certain properties. A series of organic compounds containing a particular characteristic group is called a homologous group.

While naming hydrocarbons, the first part of the name, called the root name, represents the number of carbon atoms and the last three letters represent the homologous series to which the alkane belongs. Alkenes: General formula CnH2n, Suffix -ene 3. Alkynes: General formula CnH2n-2, Suffix -yne 4.

To name a compound: Step — I: Select the longest carbon chain. Step — II: Assign lowest number to the side chain.

Names of some common compounds are shown in the given table. Halogen bromo, etc. Alcohol Suffix: -ol 3. Aldehyde Suffix: -al 4. Ketone Suffix: -one 5.

Chapter Notes: Carbon and its Compounds - Class 10 Science Notes

Carboxylic acid Suffix: -oic acid 6. Double bond Suffix: -ene alkenes 7. Triple bond Suffix: -yne alkynes Addition reaction: Unsaturated hydrocarbons yield saturated hydrocarbons when reacted with hydrogen in the presence of catalysts.

Substitution reaction: Under specific conditions, hydrogen atoms present in hydrocarbons can be replaced by atoms of other elements like chlorine and bromine.Covalent bond formation involves sharing of electrons between bonding atoms which may be either same or different.

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The properties of fullerenes split into buckyballs, buckytubes, and nanobuds have not yet been fully analyzed and represent an intense area of research in nanomaterials. Jump to Page. Ketone Suffix: -one 5.

Carbon compound undergo combustion reaction to produce CO2 and H20 with the evolution of heat and light. Detergents: Prepared by treating hydrocarbons obtained after refining of petroleum with concentrated sulphuric acid followed by sodium hydroxide solution.

It can form strong single, double, and triple bonds with other atoms of carbons.