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Bacharuddin Jusuf Habibie Indonesian: He succeeded Suharto , who resigned in His presidency is seen as a transition to the post-Suharto era. Upon becoming president, he liberalized Indonesia's press and political party laws, and held an early democratic election in , which resulted in the end of his presidency.

B.J. Habibie

His presidency was the third, and the shortest, after independence. Tuti Marini Puspowardojo. His father was an agriculturist of Buginese - Gorontaloan descent and his mother was a Javanese noblewoman from Yogyakarta. He is the fourth of eight children.

His parents met while studying in Bogor. Habibie's father died when he was 14 years old. In , Habibie returned to Indonesia for three months on sick leave.

During this time, he was reacquainted with Hasri Ainun , the daughter of R. Mohamad Besari. The two married on 12 May , returning to Germany shortly afterwards. In May they had a son, Ilham Akbar Habibie.

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When Habibie's minimum wage salary forced him into part-time work, he found employment with the railway stock firm Waggonfabrik Talbot , where he became an advisor. Habibie worked on two projects which received funding from Deutsche Bundesbahn.

Due to his work with Makosh, the head of train constructions offered his position to Habibie upon retirement three years later, but Habibie refused.

In , Habibie delivered his thesis in aerospace engineering and received the grade of "very good" for his dissertation, giving him the title Doktoringenieur Dr. During the same year, he accepted Hans Ebner's offer to continue his research on Thermoelastisitas and work toward his Habilitation , but he declined the offer to join RWTH as a professor per se.

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His thesis about light construction for supersonic or hypersonic states also attracted offers of employment from companies such as Boeing and Airbus , which Habibie again declined. There, he developed theories on thermodynamics, construction, and aerodynamics known as the Habibie Factor, Habibie Theorem, and Habibie Method, respectively.

He worked for Messerschmitt on the development of the Airbus AB aircraft. In , he was promoted to vice president of the company. In , Suharto recruited Habibie to return to Indonesia as part of Suharto's drive to industrialize and develop the country. In , he was appointed as Minister of Research and Technology.

B. J. Habibie

He continued to play an important role in IPTN other "strategic" industries in this post. Habibie became a pilot, assisted in his training by A. Wolff, former chief of staff of the Dutch Air Force.

In , he flew an N dubbed Gatotkoco commuter plane. In developing Indonesia's aviation industry, he adopted an approach called "Begin at the End and End at the Beginning". It pioneered a small passenger airplane, the N Gatokaca , in , but the project was a commercial failure.

Habibie was, continuously, a member of six Indonesian cabinets for over 20 years.

He was first appointed as a cabinet member by president Suharto in He then served in another five cabinets including the Development Reform Cabinet which, as president he formed after the resignation of Suharto in May In Suharto 's regime, as was expected of senior government executives, Habibie became a member of the Golkar organisation.

From to , he was a daily coordinator for the chairman of the executive board.

In January , after accepting nomination for a seventh term as President, Suharto announced the selection criteria for the nomination of a vice president. Suharto did not mention Habibie by name, but his suggestion that the next vice president should have a mastery of science and technology made it obvious he had Habibie in mind.

In that year, in the midst of the Asian Financial Crisis , this suggestion was received badly, causing the rupiah to fall. Despite this and protests the former minister Emil Salim tried to nominate himself as vice president , Habibie was elected as Vice President in March In late , John Howard , the Prime Minister of Australia, sent a letter to Habibie suggesting that Indonesia defuse the East Timorese issue by providing autonomy to be followed by the promise of a referendum in the long run, following the method used by France to settle New Caledonian demands for independence.

He also granted amnesty to more than political prisoners.

In Habibie announced that East Timor , a former Portuguese colony that had been invaded by Indonesia in , could choose between special autonomy and independence; the territory chose independence. Indonesia held free general elections the first since in June, as promised. Later that year Habibie ran for president, but he withdrew his candidacy shortly before the October election, which was won by Abdurrahman Wahid. After Wahid took office, Habibie essentially stepped out of politics, although in he established the Habibie Center, a political research institute.

This article was most recently revised and updated by John M.

It raised concerns about the veracity of the investigation by suggesting that the interrogation of Suharto was intended only for public appearances. Tommy was charged by Ghalib in December in conjunction with the Goro scandal, where the government, under pressure from Tommy, allegedly gave him a desirable parcel and below-market loan for the construction of a Goro supermarket. However, Tommy was found innocent in the case after several key witnesses, including one of Habibie's aides - Rahardi Ramelan - changed their testimony and declared that the deal did not cause losses to the state.

In September , Habibie issued a 'Presidential Instruction' forbidding use of the terms pribumi and non-pribumi to differentiate indigenous and non-indigenous Indonesians. Although the Chinese Indonesian community was not mentioned specifically, it is clear these policies were primarily for the Chinese Indonesians who, in the Suharto years, were referred to as non-pribumi and had to display the SBKRI to prove their Indonesian citizenship.

These three programs provided scholarships to thousands of high school graduates to earn their bachelor's degrees in the STEM fields and for other technical professionals to continue their study for master's and doctorate program in the United States, Europe, Japan, and other countries. Political reform[ edit ] Under Habibie, Indonesia made significant changes to its political system that expanded competition and freedom of speech.

Shortly after taking office, in June , Habibie's government lifted the Suharto-era restriction on political parties and ended censorship by dissolving the Information Ministry. He also quickly committed to holding democratic elections, albeit on an initially vague timetable.

In December, he proposed political reform laws that were passed by the legislature and MPR session.He was initially unclear about whether he would seek a full term as president when he announced parliamentary elections in June Habibie's government stabilized the economy in the face of the Asian financial crisis and the chaos of the last few months of Suharto's presidency.

This page was last edited on 15 April , at In March Suharto appointed Habibie to the vice presidency, and two months later, in the wake of large-scale violence in Jakarta , Suharto announced his resignation.

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