12TH PHYSICAL EDUCATION PDF
NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Physical Education in PDF form, Note and assignments, Important questions with answers for the session That's why we provide revision notes class 12 Physical Education in pdf format. These revision notes are created by our expert teachers from NCERT book. What are the different levels of trekking? Describe the levels in one How can physical education create leaders and desirable qualities o leaders in people.
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(Download) CBSE Text Books: Physical Education (Code No). https://lh5. yazik.info This is the CBSE Syllabus for Class 12 Physical Education PDF. Syllabus of CBSE Class 12 Physical Education contains all topics which you will study. As in the other subject areas, in Health and Physical Education, teacher plays .. Health and Physical Education—A Teachers' Guide Class VI. Body image.
This is more prevalent at the elementary school level, where students do not have a specific Health class. Recently most elementary schools have specific health classes for students as well as physical education class. Due to the recent outbreaks of diseases such as swine flu, school districts are making it mandatory for students to learn about practicing good hygiene along with other health topics.
Children have a primary responsibility of attending school and providing evidence that they are achieving the content standards of their given grade level. If children engage in unhealthy behaviors like poor eating habits, obtaining an insufficient amount of sleep, or overindulging in screen time or other sedentary behaviors, they are less likely to experience developmentally appropriate learning.
Many colleges and universities offer both Physical Education and Health as one certification. This push towards health education is beginning at the intermediate level, including lessons on bullying, self-esteem and stress and anger management. For example, by incorporating traditional knowledge from varying indigenous groups from across Canada, students can be exposed to many concepts such as holistic learning and the medicine wheel. A unit could be focused on connecting to a place or feeling while outdoors, participating in traditional games, or outdoor environmental education.
These types of lesson can easily be integrated into other parts of the curriculum and give Aboriginal students a chance to incorporate their culture in the local school community.
In a article, researchers found a profound gain in English Arts standardized testing test scores among students who had 56 hours of physical education in a year, compared to those who had 28 hours of physical education a year. Martial arts classes, like wrestling in the United States, and Pencak Silat in France, Indonesia , and Malaysia , teach children self-defense and to feel good about themselves.
In these areas, a planned sequence of learning experiences is designed to support a progression of student development. This allows kids through 6th grade to be introduced to sports, fitness, and teamwork in order to be better prepared for the middle and high school age.
In , the United States House of Representatives voted to require school physical education classes include both genders. Technology use in physical education[ edit ] New technology in education is playing a big role in classes. One of the most affordable and effective tools is a simple video recorder.
CBSE Syllabus for Class 12 Physical Education [PDF]
With this, students can see the mistakes they're making in things such as a throwing motion or swinging form. Projectors can show students proper form or how to play certain games. GPS systems can be used to get students active in an outdoor setting, and active exergames can be used by teachers to show students a good way to stay fit in and out of the classroom setting.
Along with video projectors, GPS and game systems such as Kinect and Wii, simulators where the participant is using goggles to be put in a certain setting are beneficial. One method commonly used in the elderly that could benefit children would be a horse-riding simulator. This simulator allows the participant to be put into a country setting where they are free to roam multiple fields.
This simulator is scientifically proven to help balance as well as stability. Relaxing the brain allows for better cognitive function leads to better test results in the classroom as well. This does not necessarily track how far a person is going, but lets them know the number of steps they are taking.
According to the World Health Organization it is suggested that young children should be doing 60 minutes of exercise per day at least 3 times per week in order to maintain a healthy body. Pupils may play games like football , badminton , captain ball , and basketball during most sessions. Unorthodox sports such as fencing , and skateboarding are occasionally played. In more prestigious secondary schools and in junior colleges, sports such as golf , tennis , shooting , and squash are played[ citation needed ] An Biennial compulsory fitness exam, NAPFA, is conducted in every school to assess pupils' physical fitness in Singapore.
Students are graded by gold, silver, or bronze, or as fail.
CBSE Syllabus for Class 12 Physical Education [PDF]
NAPFA for pre-enlistees serves as an indicator for an additional two months in the country's compulsory national service if they attain bronze or fail. In Malaysia , pupils from primary schools to secondary schools are expected to do two periods or one hour of PE throughout the year except a week before examinations.
In most secondary schools , games like badminton, sepak takraw , football , netball , basketball and tennis are available. Pupils may bring their own sports equipment to the school with the authorization of the teacher[ citation needed ].
In the Philippines , PE is mandatory for all years, unless the school gives the option for a student to do the Leaving Certificate Vocational Programme instead for fifth and sixth year. Some schools have integrated martial arts training into their physical education curriculum. Kindergarten through grade 3 students have gymnastics. Starting from Grade 4, students are introduced to traditional martial arts Pencak Silat and some team games such as badminton, football, futsal, rounders, and basketball.
Starting from junior high school , games such as basketball, volleyball, cricket, tennis, badminton, kho kho, and kabaddi are played. This goal dictates a learning environment in which seated learning behavior is considered appropriate and effective and is rewarded. Physical education as part of education provides the only opportunity for all children to learn about physical movement and engage in physical activity.
As noted, its goal and place in institutionalized education have changed from the original focus on teaching hygiene and health to educating children about the many forms and benefits of physical movement, including sports and exercise. With a dramatic expansion of content beyond the original Swedish and German gymnastics programs of the 19th century, physical education has evolved to become a content area with diverse learning goals that facilitate the holistic development of children NASPE, To understand physical education as a component of the education system, it is important to know that the education system in the United States does not operate with a centralized curriculum.
Physical education is influenced by this system, which leads to great diversity in policies and curricula.
These expanded waiver and substitution policies discussed in greater detail later in the chapter increase the possibility that students will opt out of physical education for nonmedical reasons. Curriculum Models Given that curricula are determined at the local level in the United States, encompassing national standards, state standards, and state-adopted textbooks that meet and are aligned with the standards, physical education is taught in many different forms and structures.
Various curriculum models are used in instruction, including movement education, sport education, and fitness education. In terms of engagement in physical activity, two perspectives are apparent. First, programs in which fitness education curricula are adopted are effective at increasing in-class physical activity Lonsdale et al. Second, in other curriculum models, physical activity is considered a basis for students' learning skill or knowledge that the lesson is planned for them to learn.
Physical Education class 12th latest syllabus
A paucity of nationally representative data is available with which to demonstrate the relationship between the actual level of physical activity in which students are engaged and the curriculum models adopted by their schools.
Movement Education Movement has been a cornerstone of physical education since the s.
Early pioneers Francois Delsarte, Liselott Diem, Rudolf von Laban focused on a child's ability to use his or her body for self-expression Abels and Bridges, Exemplary works and curriculum descriptions include those by Laban himself Laban, and others e.
Over time, however, the approach shifted from concern with the inner attitude of the mover to a focus on the function and application of each movement Abels and Bridges, In the s, the intent of movement education was to apply four movement concepts to the three domains of learning i.
The four concepts were body representing the instrument of the action ; space where the body is moving ; effort the quality with which the movement is executed ; and relationships the connections that occur as the body moves—with objects, people, and the environment; Stevens-Smith, These standards emphasize the need for children to know basic movement concepts and be able to perform basic movement patterns.
It is imperative for physical educators to foster motor success and to provide children with a basic skill set that builds their movement repertoire, thus allowing them to engage in various forms of games, sports, and other physical activities see also Chapter 3.
Sport Education One prevalent physical education model is the sport education curriculum designed by Daryl Siedentop Siedentop, ; Siedentop et al. The model entails a unique instructional structure featuring sport seasons that are used as the basis for planning and teaching instructional units. Students are organized into sport organizations teams and play multiple roles as team managers, coaches, captains, players, referees, statisticians, public relations staff, and others to mimic a professional sports organization.
Depending on the developmental level of students, the games are simplified or modified to encourage maximum participation. In competition, students play the roles noted above in addition to the role of players. A sport education unit thus is much longer than a conventional physical education unit. Siedentop and colleagues recommend 20 lessons per unit, so that all important curricular components of the model can be implemented.
Findings from research on the sport education model have been reviewed twice. Wallhead and O'Sullivan report that evidence is insufficient to support the conclusion that use of the model results in students' developing motor skills and fitness and learning relevant knowledge; some evidence suggests that the model leads to stronger team cohesion, more active engagement in lessons, and increased competence in game play.
In a more recent review, Hastie and colleagues report on emerging evidence suggesting that the model leads to improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness only one study and mixed evidence regarding motor skills development, increased feeling of enjoyment in participation in physical education, increased sense of affiliation with the team and physical education, and positive development of fair-play values. The only study on in-class physical activity using the model showed that it contributed to only Hastie and colleagues caution, however, that because only 6 of 38 studies reviewed used an experimental or quasi-experimental design, the findings must be interpreted with extreme caution.
The model's merits in developing motor skills, fitness, and desired physical activity behavior have yet to be determined in studies with more rigorous research designs.
Fitness Education Instead of focusing exclusively on having children move constantly to log activity time, a new curricular approach emphasizes teaching them the science behind why they need to be physically active in their lives. The curriculum is designed so that the children are engaged in physical activities that demonstrate relevant scientific knowledge. The goal is the development and maintenance of individual student fitness.
In contrast with the movement education and sport education models, the underlying premise is that physical activity is essential to a healthy lifestyle and that students' understanding of fitness and behavior change result from engagement in a fitness education program. The conceptual framework for the model is designed around the health-related components of cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular strength and endurance, and flexibility.
A recent meta-analysis Lonsdale et al. Several concept-based fitness education curriculum models exist for both the middle school and senior high school levels.
Get Fit! Activities in the curriculum are designed for health benefits, and the ultimate goal for the student is to develop a commitment to regular exercise and physical activity. It is assumed that all children can achieve a health-enhancing level of fitness through regular engagement in vigorous- or moderate-intensity physical activity.
Randomized controlled studies on the impact of a science-based fitness curriculum in 15 elementary schools showed that, although the curriculum allocated substantial lesson time to learning cognitive knowledge, the students were more motivated to engage in physical activities than students in the 15 control schools experiencing traditional physical education Chen et al. Longitudinal data from the study reveal continued knowledge growth in the children that strengthened their understanding of the science behind exercise and active living Sun et al.
What is unclear, however, is whether the enthusiasm and knowledge gained through the curriculum will translate into the children's lives outside of physical education to help them become physically active at home.
It is suggested that through this proposed comprehensive framework, fitness education be incorporated into the existing physical education curriculum and embedded in the content taught in all instructional units.
Technique: Demonstrate competency in techniques needed to perform a variety of moderate to vigorous physical activities. Technique in developing cardiovascular fitness.
Class 12 ISC Board Exam : Physical Education Paper 1 (Theory)
Accordingly, fitness education in school physical education programs is being enhanced through the incorporation of active video games, also known as exergaming. These active games have been incorporated into school wellness centers as high-tech methods of increasing student fitness levels to supplement the traditional modes for attaining vigorous- or moderate-intensity physical activity Greenberg and Stokes, Mean metabolic equivalent MET values for each game were comparable to or higher than those measured for walking on a treadmill at 3 miles per hour.
Graf and colleagues , studying boys and girls aged , found that both Wii boxing and DDR level 2 elicited energy expenditure, heart rate, perceived exertion, and ventilatory responses that were comparable to or greater than those elicited by moderate-intensity walking on a treadmill. Similar results were found by Lanningham-Foster and colleagues among 22 children aged and adults in that energy expenditure for both groups increased significantly when playing Wii over that expended during all sedentary activities.
Staiano and colleagues explored factors that motivated overweight and obese African American high school students to play Wii during school-based physical activity opportunities.
They found greater and more sustained energy expenditure over time and noted that players' various intrinsic motivations to play also influenced their level of energy expenditure. Mellecker and McManus determined that energy expenditure and heart rate were greater during times of active play than in seated play.
Fawkner and colleagues studied 20 high school—age girls and found that dance simulation games provided an opportunity for most subjects to achieve a moderate-intensity level of physical activity. The authors conclude that regular use of the games aids in promoting health through physical activity. Haddock and colleagues conducted ergometer tests with children aged and found increased oxygen consumption and energy expenditure above baseline determinations. Maddison and colleagues , studying children aged , found that active video game playing led to significant increases in energy expenditure, heart rate, and activity counts in comparison with baseline values.
They conclude that playing these games for short time periods is comparable to light- to moderate-intensity conventional modes of exercise, including walking, skipping, and jogging.
Mhurchu and colleagues also conclude that a short-term intervention involving active video games is likely to be an effective means of increasing children's overall level of physical activity. Additionally, Sit and colleagues , studying the effects of active gaming among year-old children in Hong Kong, found the children to be significantly more physically active while playing interactive games compared with screen-based games.
Exergaming appears to increase acute physical activity among users and is being used in school settings because it is appealing to students.
Despite active research in the area of exergaming and physical activity, however, exergaming's utility for increasing acute and habitual physical activity specifically in the physical education setting has yet to be confirmed. Further, results of studies conducted in nonlaboratory and nonschool settings have been mixed Baranowski et al. Moreover, any physical activity changes that do occur may not be sufficient to stimulate physiologic changes.
For example, White and colleagues examined the effects of Nintendo Wii on physiologic changes. Although energy expenditure was raised above resting values during active gaming, the rise was not significant enough to qualify as part of the daily 60 minutes or more of vigorous-or moderate-intensity exercise recommended for children.
While collecting data on the effects of Nintendo Wii on year-olds in New Zealand, White and colleagues found that active video games generated higher energy expenditure than both resting and inactive screen watching. Therefore, it may be helpful in reducing the amount of sedentary behavior, but it should not be used as a replacement for more conventional modes of physical activity. Sun found that active gaming can increase student motivation to engage in physical activity, but the motivation may decrease as a result of prolonged exposure to the same games.
This study also found that exergaming lessons provided less physical activity for children than regular conventional physical education. For inactive children, however, the exergaming environment is conducive to more active participation in the game-based physical activities than in conventional physical education Fogel et al.
Finally, Sheehan and Katz found that among school-age children the use of active gaming added to postural stability, an important component of motor skills development.
From the research cited above, as well as ongoing research being conducted by the Health Games Research Project funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, active gaming is promising as a means of providing young children an opportunity to become more physically active and helping them meet the recommended 60 or more minutes of vigorous- or moderate-intensity physical activity per day.
Different types of games may influence energy expenditure differentially, and some may serve solely as motivation. Selected games also appear to hold greater promise for increasing energy expenditure, while others invite youth to be physically active through motivational engagement. The dynamic and evolving field of active gaming is a promising area for future research as more opportunities arise to become physically active throughout the school environment.
Other Innovative Programs While several evidence-based physical education programs—such as the Coordinated Approach to Child Health CATCH and Sports, Play, and Active Recreation for Kids SPARK —are being implemented in schools, many innovative programs also have been implemented nationwide that are motivating and contribute to skills attainment while engaging youth in activities that are fun and fitness oriented. These programs include water sports, involving sailing, kayaking, swimming, canoeing, and paddle boarding; adventure activities such as Project Adventure; winter sports, such as snow skiing and snowshoeing; and extreme sports, such as in-line skating, skateboarding, and cycling.
Differences Among Elementary, Middle, and High Schools Instructional opportunities vary within and among school levels as a result of discrepancies in state policy mandates. Although the time to be devoted to physical education e. With respect to content, in both elementary and secondary schools, physical activity is an assumed rather than an intended outcome except in the fitness education model. The goals of skill development and knowledge growth in physical education presumably are accomplished through participation in vigorous- or moderate-intensity physical activity.
Data are lacking, however, to support the claim that physical activity offered to further the attainment of skills and knowledge is of vigorous or moderate intensity and is of sufficient duration for children to reap health benefits. Children in Nontraditional Schools Research on physical education, physical activity, and sports opportunities in nontraditional school settings charter schools, home schools, and correctional facilities is extremely limited. Two intervention studies focused on charter schools addressed issues with Mexican American children.
In the first Johnston et al. The instructor-led intervention was a structured daily opportunity for the students to learn about nutrition and to engage in structured physical activities. The results indicate that the children in the instructor-led intervention lost more weight at the end of the intervention than those in the self-help condition. In the second study Romero, , to year-old Mexican American children from low-income families participated in a 5-week, lesson, hip-hop dance physical activity intervention.
In comparison with data collected prior to the intervention, the children reported greater frequency of vigorous- or moderate-intensity physical activity, lower perceived community barriers to physical activity, and stronger self-efficacy for physical activity. Collectively, the results of these two studies suggest that a structured physical activity intervention can be effective in enhancing and enriching physical activity opportunities for Mexican American adolescents in charter schools.
Research on physical activity among home-schooled children is also limited. The only study found was published in Welk et al. It describes differences in physical fitness, psychosocial correlates of physical activity, and physical activity between home-schooled children and their public school counterparts aged No significant differences were found between the two groups of children on the measures used, but the researchers did note that the home-schooled children tended to be less physically active.
Research on physical education and physical activity in juvenile correction institutions is equally scarce. Munson and colleagues , conducted studies on the use of physical activity programs as a behavior mediation intervention strategy and compared its impact on juvenile delinquents' behavior change with that of other intervention strategies. They found that physical activity did not have a stronger impact than other programs on change in delinquent behavior.
Fitness Assessment All states except Iowa have adopted state standards for physical education. However, the extent to which students achieve the standards is limited since no accountability is required. An analysis of motor skills competency, strategic knowledge, physical activity, and physical fitness among 4th- and 5th-grade children demonstrated that the physical education standards in force were difficult to attain Erwin and Castelli, Among the study participants, fewer than a half 47 percent were deemed motor competent, 77 percent demonstrated adequate progress in knowledge, only 40 percent were in the Healthy Fitness Zone on all five components of the Fitnessgram fitness assessment, and merely 15 percent engaged in 60 or more minutes of physical activity each day.
Clearly most of the children failed to meet benchmark measures of performance for this developmental stage. This evidence highlights the need for additional physical activity opportunities within and beyond physical education to enhance opportunities for students to achieve the standards. Relationships among these student-learning outcomes were further decomposed in a study of children Castelli and Valley, The authors determined that aerobic fitness and the number of fitness test scores in the Healthy Fitness Zone were the best predictors of daily engagement in physical activity relative to factors of gender, age, body mass index BMI , motor skills competency, and knowledge.
However, in-class engagement in physical activity was best predicted by aerobic fitness and motor skills competence, suggesting that knowledge and skills should not be overlooked in a balanced physical education curriculum intended to promote lifelong physical activity. As an untested area, student assessment in physical education has been conducted on many indicators other than learning outcomes. As reported in a seminal study Hensley and East, , physical education teachers base learning assessment on participation 96 percent , effort 88 percent , attitude 76 percent , sportsmanship 75 percent , dressing out 72 percent , improvement 68 percent , attendance 58 percent , observation of skills 58 percent , knowledge tests 46 percent , skills tests 45 percent , potential 25 percent , and homework 11 percent.
These data, while several years old, show that most learning assessments in physical education fail to target relevant learning objectives such as knowledge, skills, and physical activity behavior.
Fitness assessment in the school environment can serve multiple purposes. On the one hand, it can provide both teacher and student with information about the student's current fitness level relative to a criterion-referenced standard, yield valid information that can serve as the basis for developing a personal fitness or exercise program based on current fitness levels, motivate students to do better to achieve a minimum standard of health-related fitness where deficiencies exist, and possibly assist in the identification of potential future health problems.
On the other hand, an overall analysis of student fitness assessments provides valuable data that can enable teachers to assess learner outcomes in the physical education curriculum and assess the present curriculum to determine whether it includes sufficient fitness education to allow students to make fitness gains throughout the school year.
Fitness assessment also provides a unique opportunity for schools to track data on students longitudinally.
The ultimate goal of assessing student fitness in the school environment should be to educate students on the importance of maintaining a physically active lifestyle throughout the life span.
When administering fitness assessments in the school setting, caution is essential to ensure confidentiality of the results. When fitness assessment becomes part of a quality physical education program, teaching and learning strategies will guide all students to acquire the knowledge and skills necessary to maintain and improve their personal health-related fitness as part of their commitment to lifelong healthy lifestyles.
For example, the development of the Presidential Youth Fitness Program with the use of a criterion-referenced platform provides students with the educational benefits of fitness assessment knowledge see Box The emergence of one national fitness assessment, Fitnessgram, along with professional development and recognition protocols, further supports fitness education in the school environment.
Presidential Youth Fitness Program. The Presidential Youth Fitness Program, launched in September , is a comprehensive program that provides training and resources to schools for assessing, tracking, and recognizing youth fitness. The program promotes more Online Physical Education Online physical education is a growing trend. Fully 59 percent of states allow required physical education credits to be earned through online courses.
Only just over half of these states require that the online courses be taught by state-certified physical education teachers. Daum and Buschner report that, in general, online physical education focuses more on cognitive knowledge than physical skill or physical activity, many online courses fail to meet national standards for learning and physical activity guidelines, and teachers are not concerned about students' accountability for learning.
Although online courses differ from traditional in-school physical education courses in the delivery of instruction, the standards and benchmarks for these courses must mirror those adopted by each individual state, especially when the course is taken to meet high school graduation requirements. NASPE a , p. Online physical education can be tailored to each student's needs, and it helps students learn how to exercise independently. The physical education policy of one online school, the Florida Virtual School, is presented in Box Sections This document satisfies more Online physical education provides another option for helping students meet the standards for physical education if they lack room in their schedule for face-to-face classes, need to make up credit, or are just looking for an alternative to the traditional physical education class.
On the other hand, online courses may not be a successful mode of instruction for students with poor time management or technology skills. According to Daum and Buschner , online learning is changing the education landscape despite the limited empirical research and conflicting results on its effectiveness in producing student learning.
Through a survey involving 45 online high school physical education teachers, the authors found that almost three-fourths of the courses they taught failed to meet the national guideline for secondary schools of minutes of physical education per week.
Most of the courses required physical activity 3 days per week, while six courses required no physical activity.
The teachers expressed support, hesitation, and even opposition toward online physical education. Scheduling Decisions Lesson scheduling is commonly at the discretion of school principals in the United States.
The amount of time dedicated to each subject is often mandated by federal or state statutes. Local education agencies or school districts have latitude to make local decisions that go beyond these federal or state mandates. Often the way courses are scheduled to fill the school day is determined by the managerial skills of the administrator making the decisions or is based on a computer program that generates individual teacher schedules.
Successful curriculum change requires supportive scheduling see Kramer and Keller, , for an example of curriculum reform in mathematics.
More research is needed on the effects of scheduling of physical education. In one such attempt designed to examine the impact of content and lesson length on calorie expenditure in middle school physical education, Chen and colleagues found that a lesson lasting minutes with sport skills or fitness exercises as the major content would enable middle school students to expend more calories than either shorter 30—40 minutes or longer 65—90 minutes lessons. The evidence from such research can be used to guide allocation of the recommended weekly amount of physical education minutes for elementary schools, minutes for secondary schools to achieve optimal health benefits for youth.
Additional discussion of scheduling is provided later in this chapter in the section on solutions for overcoming the barriers to quality physical education. Physical activity during a school day may also be associated with academic benefits Chapter 4 and children's social and emotional well-being HHS, ; Chapter 3. Physical education, along with other opportunities for physical activity in the school environment discussed in Chapter 6 , is important for optimal health and development in school-age children.
It may also serve as a preventive measure for adult conditions such as heart disease, high blood pressure, and type 2 diabetes.Haddock and colleagues conducted ergometer tests with children aged and found increased oxygen consumption and energy expenditure above baseline determinations.
Kindergarten through grade 3 students have gymnastics. Physiology and Sports. According to the World Health Organization it is suggested that young children should be doing 60 minutes of exercise per day at least 3 times per week in order to maintain a healthy body.
This study also found that exergaming lessons provided less physical activity for children than regular conventional physical education. The four concepts were body representing the instrument of the action ; space where the body is moving ; effort the quality with which the movement is executed ; and relationships the connections that occur as the body moves—with objects, people, and the environment; Stevens-Smith, Question Paper for CBSE Class 12 Physical Education are very useful for students so that they can better understand the concepts by practicing them regularly.
Download eBooks as PDF. Longitudinal data from the study reveal continued knowledge growth in the children that strengthened their understanding of the science behind exercise and active living Sun et al. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention stated that over the past three years[ when?
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