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Book Review: Roel Grit, Project Management: A Practical Approach. Fourth edition Related Articles EPILEPSIA ROLANDICA EPUB DOWNLOAD. Makes it . Project management in education It is becoming increasingly more common in education to use a project-based approach in preparing for practical application. Get this from a library! Project management, a practical approach. [Roel Grit].


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Roel Grit, Project Management: A Practical Approach (Third Edition), Groningen, The Netherlands: Routledge, , pp. (Paperback). noordhoff uitgevers project management chapter 5 roel grit - guide project grit epub comparability counsel and reviews of equipment you can use with your. Chapter 5 Roel Grit Download Pdf, Free Pdf Project Management Chapter 5 Roel Grit. Download A Guide To The Project Management Body Of Knowledge Practical Project Management For Engineers And Technicians PDF ePub Mobi.

Employees often have little experience with this type of working method. Students in higher education are being trained in project-based work approaches, often even approaching the training they provide as a project.

Before a project gets under way, the project group or project team needs to put a lot of time into deciding on a uniform way of tackling the task. If this stage is rushed through, the individual project members will find themselves working in completely different ways, with inevitably unsatisfactory outcomes. Changes from the second edition The third edition of Project Management has been brought fully up to date based on user feedback. If you still require this information, these two sections can be downloaded free of charge by book owners from the website.

Website www. The website accompanying this book is extremely popular. The book there- fore makes clear reference to the website where relevant. This is shown in the text using the icon shown here. More detailed information on the contents of the website can be found in Appendix 2. Who is this book for? This book was originally written for students at institutes of higher learning and universities, though it is also a practical tool for use in non-educational organisations.

It was written as a practical introduction to working on projects. More and more students of higher education are being lectured on the theoretical backgrounds of project management.

This book emphasizes the practical aspects, not the theory. Project management in education It is becoming increasingly more common in education to use a project-based approach in preparing for practical application.

This includes detailed study assignments, internal projects, internship projects and thesis projects. A thesis project can — and perhaps should be — approached as a project. In higher vocational education and at universities, Section 1 can be covered during a number of classes or lectures.

In doing so, it is important that the philosophy behind a project-based approach is emphasised to students.

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In this instance, the instructor is more of an inspirer and motivator than a teacher. Groups of two to three students can be formed and given the assignment of drawing up a project plan and management summary based on a small case.

Assignments formulated for this purpose can be found at the back of this book. These have been tested extensively in an educational setting. If none is available, a detailed case can be used. Several cases are available on the website. The assignment should be carried out based on interviews with the sponsor or others and concretized in a project plan.

To practice project skills as effectively as possible, a large project group can also be formed. Because of its size, it will be necessary to allocate group tasks, while the supervisor of the group dictates which tools and techniques from this book are to be used: setting up a project, holding a meeting, drawing up a schedule, presenting the results and so on.

See the relevant chapters on tools in the second section, as well as Integration Assignment 3 at the back of the book. This book makes it much easier for the supervisor to monitor the quality of the project.

Project management, a practical approach

Roel Grit Emmen, Spring www. It also describes a number of practical tools for approaching project-based work activities. This section describes what a project-based approach entails, when it is appropriate to take such an approach and how to make it work. Chapter 4 deals with the scheduling of activities. Part 2 Project Tools The second section of this book describes a number of the practical tools and skills needed to tackle projects, including how to organize and hold a project meeting, how to make an executive summary and how to write a report.

An important aspect of the early stages of a project — drawing up a project plan — is dealt with in Chapter 5 and Chapter 6, which explains how to approach a project in a step-by-step fashion. A number of the skills that are dealt with in this section — organizing meetings, writing reports and holding presentations, for instance — are also useful in contexts other than those described here.

Website There is a detailed website with a range of different tools accompanying this book www. Two chapters can also be downloaded from the website that were omitted from this most recent edition of the book. Projects nevertheless frequently fail to attain their objectives. Since project work is very dependent on the people involved in it, those involved need to be aware of the fact that there is a difference between ordinary ways of approaching work and working in a project-based manner.

This section of the book deals with the theory underlying the project-based approach to work based on real-life situations. With our society caught up in a process of constant change, organizations are finding that they have to both respond to each change while already anticipating the next one. Their responses often take the form of projects. Being able to manage projects effectively has therefore become a necessity. The important issues are not only when to take a project-based approach and how to tackle the project itself, but even what a project actually is.

They may be Three groups characterized in the following three groups of activities: of activities 1 Improvised activities 1 2 Routine activities 3 Project-based activities This book deals with the last type. To show the special position that project- based activities occupy, all three types of activity will be described.

Improvised activities Improvised An improvised work approach to new activities is one option. People usually work improvise when something unforeseen that requires an immediate res- Ad hoc ponse occurs. Their reaction will be an ad hoc one: not according to a laid down plan, but decided on as events unfold. Since there are no directions about what to do that can be given before- hand, it is hard to predict with any accuracy the outcomes of working in an ad hoc manner.

The advantage of not having any directions is that the new situations can be met in a flexible manner.

However, while the large amount of freedom may be welcomed by the improviser, it carries the risk of chaos and could put the organization under a lot of pressure. Workers in an organization in which there is a lot of improvisation going on are likely to be working under a certain amount of strain.

Having to constantly adjust to changing working conditions is, after all, quite stressful. Routine activities Routine Routine activities are activities that are repeated frequently and are relatively predictable. The work will be carried out according to predeter- mined patterns. Since there is a precedent, it is not necessary to con- stantly think about what has to be done next. Work In order to be able to perform these routine activities efficiently, work procedures procedures or instructions have to be developed.

Most of the activities carried out within an organization belong to this type. Production line activities, sales procedures, downloading procedures and administrative activities are some examples.

Project-based activities Project-based activities fall roughly midway between improvised and routine activities. They are non-recurring and have a limited duration, but are reasonably predictable.

According In order to increase this predictability, the work should be done according to to a plan a plan. Plans gradually illuminate each phase of the process.

Before the activities get underway, some time needs to be spent on working out what the aims are and how to achieve them.

For this to be effective, large projects are often divided up into a number of Phases phases. After each of these phases, the aims and procedures may be Project plan adjusted. Before starting the project, a project plan is formulated, the instructions for which are given in Chapter 6. By working with a project plan based on fixed criteria, some degree of routine can be introduced to the project. This greatly enhances the possibility of success. People who do not normally work together may do so as part of the project group.

Each will have their own specific tasks. Some of the activities of businesses such as shipbuilding, aircraft construc- 1 tion and information technology are regularly carried out as project-based activities. In other businesses, project-based activities may be the excep- tion rather than the rule. Such a project might involve a departmental reorganization, moving into new quarters, or the introduction of a new computer network.

A project-based activity is not an objective in itself, of course. It is a way of structuring activities that are less predictable than others and that fall outside the scope of normal activities. These structured activities then become easier to manage and monitor. Table 1. TABLE 1. Ad hoc suddenly Predictable Repetitive Result? Uncertain Reasonably certain Certain Familiarity? New, sudden New, planned Well-known Freedom?

A lot of freedom A suitable amount Little freedom Procedures? The website accompanying this book www. During a long campaign, the logistics of a large army demanded a lot of prepara- tion. Napoleon was a great general because he was an excellent project manager! He was not as successful in executing his plans, however: India, and not America, was his destination.

This book is about project management, but what exactly is a project? A project can be defined as a group of people, usually from various fields of expertise, collaborating temporarily with the aim of reaching a predetermined goal within a predetermined budget. This could be a variety of things, such as a new machine, building, report or even an event.

The project result is the outcome of the project and contributes to the project goal. This is the person who has an interest in the project result, provide the project team with clarity on the project and make important decisions. The project group has to make do with that amount. A project without a financial budget should at least have a time budget applicable to those participating in the project. They include managers, financial experts, economists, marketing experts and technicians. Each is familiar with the terminology of his or her own field and has his or her own perspective on things.

This makes working on a project both interesting and challenging. An employee who is temporarily relieved of his normal duties to take part in a project will suddenly have a different person to be accountable to: the project manager. The person or body the project manager is accountable to is the sponsor. It never starts spontane- Never ously. It has to be initiated and organized consciously.

The sponsor spontaneously appoints a project manager with sufficient authority and the capacities to give shape to the project. The project manager then draws up a project plan in consultation with the sponsor. This project plan describes the project in detail.

Chapter 5 explains how to draw up a project plan. Since the members of the project team have to work together, they have to know what is expected of them. They must make mutual arrangements about such things as the resources to be used and where the meetings will be held.

These are only a few of the matters that need to be arranged. It is also essential that all members of the project team be able to work in a Result-oriented result-oriented fashion. After all, the goal is to achieve the project results! There is likely to be a lot of initial improvisa- tion when an organization takes on a new task. As soon as it becomes obvious that the task will have to be repeated, a greater degree of organiza- tion will become necessary.

A project whose aim is to put things on the rails properly could then be undertaken. By the end of the project, standard working procedures will have been developed. Improvisation will be a thing of the past; the activities can now be carried out as the standard routine. Figure 1. These projects are usually relatively easy to plan.

The end result is usually obvious. The construction of a building, a bridge, a road, a pipeline or a railway line are some such projects. Social projects The outcomes of social projects are usually not quite as evident. In the business arena, their aim is very often to change the corporate culture or organizational structure of a company.

They deal with the way in which people work together. Because people tend to resist changes, social projects are more difficult to execute than technical projects. Social projects include a reorganization of a firm or an adaptation of work procedu- res.

Commercial The ultimate goal of commercial projects is to earn money. Examples are projects conducting market research, developing a new product or introducing a new product on the market. Mixed projects Mixed projects combine some of the aspects of both technical and social projects.

The design, programming and installation of an extensive compu- ter program is an example of a mixed project. Events are a special kind of project, as the end result only appears at a certain point in time. Examples of events are a computer fair, pop festival, home fair or car show. Projects can also be categorized in different ways based on content, such as those with an internal sponsor as opposed to those with an external sponsor.

This section will describe a few of the basic principles. If you are the manager of a project, there are a number of things you will have to keep in mind. These are discussed below. Request planning time from the sponsor Systematism To work systematically, a project plan is essential. Make sure that the Decision- sponsor allows enough time for planning the project. It could be weeks or even months before the definitive project comes up for discussion and is approved.

When you draw up your schedules, you should allow for the time needed to get the project approved. If not, you will have to deal with delays even before your project gets underway! In a small organization, the opposite might be the case.

People are often 1 asked to start immediately. Nobody should expect a project manager to embark instantly on a task that has never been done before. Consult everyone involved Since there are likely to be people from various fields of expertise working together on the project, it is imperative that the project be talked over with all parties involved. Make sure you have enough enthusiastic people and enough funds for the project.

Make good arrangements about the contribu- tion expected of every worker. Mistakes made in the early stages of the project are best rectified there Mistakes and then. Before the activities get underway, some time needs to be spent on working out what the aims are and how to achieve them.

For this to be effective, large projects are often divided up into a number of Phases phases. After each of these phases, the aims and procedures may be Project plan adjusted. Before starting the project, a project plan is formulated, the instructions for which are given in Chapter 6. By working with a project plan based on fixed criteria, some degree of routine can be introduced to the project.

This greatly enhances the possibility of success. People who do not normally work together may do so as part of the project group. Each will have their own specific tasks. Some of the activities of businesses such as shipbuilding, aircraft construc- 1 tion and information technology are regularly carried out as project-based activities. In other businesses, project-based activities may be the excep- tion rather than the rule.

Such a project might involve a departmental reorganization, moving into new quarters, or the introduction of a new computer network.

A project-based activity is not an objective in itself, of course. It is a way of structuring activities that are less predictable than others and that fall outside the scope of normal activities. These structured activities then become easier to manage and monitor.

Table 1. TABLE 1. Ad hoc suddenly Predictable Repetitive Result? Uncertain Reasonably certain Certain Familiarity?

New, sudden New, planned Well-known Freedom? A lot of freedom A suitable amount Little freedom Procedures? The website accompanying this book www. During a long campaign, the logistics of a large army demanded a lot of prepara- tion.

Napoleon was a great general because he was an excellent project manager! He was not as successful in executing his plans, however: India, and not America, was his destination. This book is about project management, but what exactly is a project?

A project can be defined as a group of people, usually from various fields of expertise, collaborating temporarily with the aim of reaching a predetermined goal within a predetermined budget. This could be a variety of things, such as a new machine, building, report or even an event. The project result is the outcome of the project and contributes to the project goal. This is the person who has an interest in the project result, provide the project team with clarity on the project and make important decisions.

The project group has to make do with that amount. A project without a financial budget should at least have a time budget applicable to those participating in the project. They include managers, financial experts, economists, marketing experts and technicians.

Each is familiar with the terminology of his or her own field and has his or her own perspective on things. This makes working on a project both interesting and challenging. An employee who is temporarily relieved of his normal duties to take part in a project will suddenly have a different person to be accountable to: the project manager. The person or body the project manager is accountable to is the sponsor. It never starts spontane- Never ously. It has to be initiated and organized consciously.

The sponsor spontaneously appoints a project manager with sufficient authority and the capacities to give shape to the project. The project manager then draws up a project plan in consultation with the sponsor. This project plan describes the project in detail. Chapter 5 explains how to draw up a project plan. Since the members of the project team have to work together, they have to know what is expected of them. They must make mutual arrangements about such things as the resources to be used and where the meetings will be held.

These are only a few of the matters that need to be arranged. It is also essential that all members of the project team be able to work in a Result-oriented result-oriented fashion. After all, the goal is to achieve the project results!

There is likely to be a lot of initial improvisa- tion when an organization takes on a new task. As soon as it becomes obvious that the task will have to be repeated, a greater degree of organiza- tion will become necessary. A project whose aim is to put things on the rails properly could then be undertaken. By the end of the project, standard working procedures will have been developed. Improvisation will be a thing of the past; the activities can now be carried out as the standard routine.

Figure 1. These projects are usually relatively easy to plan. The end result is usually obvious. The construction of a building, a bridge, a road, a pipeline or a railway line are some such projects. Social projects The outcomes of social projects are usually not quite as evident. In the business arena, their aim is very often to change the corporate culture or organizational structure of a company. They deal with the way in which people work together. Because people tend to resist changes, social projects are more difficult to execute than technical projects.

Social projects include a reorganization of a firm or an adaptation of work procedu- res. Commercial The ultimate goal of commercial projects is to earn money. Examples are projects conducting market research, developing a new product or introducing a new product on the market. Mixed projects Mixed projects combine some of the aspects of both technical and social projects.

The design, programming and installation of an extensive compu- ter program is an example of a mixed project. Events are a special kind of project, as the end result only appears at a certain point in time.

Examples of events are a computer fair, pop festival, home fair or car show. Projects can also be categorized in different ways based on content, such as those with an internal sponsor as opposed to those with an external sponsor. This section will describe a few of the basic principles. If you are the manager of a project, there are a number of things you will have to keep in mind.

These are discussed below. Request planning time from the sponsor Systematism To work systematically, a project plan is essential. Make sure that the Decision- sponsor allows enough time for planning the project. It could be weeks or even months before the definitive project comes up for discussion and is approved. When you draw up your schedules, you should allow for the time needed to get the project approved.

If not, you will have to deal with delays even before your project gets underway!

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In a small organization, the opposite might be the case. People are often 1 asked to start immediately. Nobody should expect a project manager to embark instantly on a task that has never been done before. Consult everyone involved Since there are likely to be people from various fields of expertise working together on the project, it is imperative that the project be talked over with all parties involved. Make sure you have enough enthusiastic people and enough funds for the project.

Make good arrangements about the contribu- tion expected of every worker. Mistakes made in the early stages of the project are best rectified there Mistakes and then. At the beginning of a project a mistake can usually be easily rectified, whereas later on in the project it might take ten times as long to do so.

Recensie(s)

A word of warning: if you think that a project is doomed from the start, you should make sure that you are not the project manager! Work from the top down Set out the main lines of the project first. Avoid getting bogged down in details: they should be dealt with later on.

However enticing it may be to commence with the more minor aspects of the project, make sure you avoid doing this. You may find that you have lost sight of the whole. Dividing a project into phases is one way of keeping it manageable. Projects can Phases generally be divided into the following phases Figure 1. As such, you cannot rely on your experience. You need to determine what exactly needs to take place when carrying out the project.

It is important not to overlook a single activity because your schedules will otherwise not be reliable. When a new bridge is built, it is not only the initial steps that need to be thought through. There may be tasks associated with the concluding stages that could 1 easily be overlooked.

Remember: if you overlook it in the beginning stages, it will return with a vengeance later on! Staying within the budget, getting the job finished by the deadline, and achieving the project result can all present problems. It is the task of the sponsor to ensure that the project is manageable. Projects such as the Channel tunnel between England and France and the Dutch land reclamation scheme were difficult to manage. On the whole, long-term projects are more difficult to manage than short-term ones.

This is understandable in light of the changes constantly taking place within the world. The longer a project lasts, the more chance there is that the aims and goals of the project will have to be adjusted.

There are a number of measures that can be taken to keep a project Project plan manageable. First, a project plan plan of approach should be made at the commencement of the project. This should contain a clear description of the project. Phases A large project is often divided into a number of phases. Each phase will, naturally, be shorter in duration than the project as a whole.

A phase can be regarded as a series of project activities that have a logical connection to each other. Phasing minimizes the risks associated with the project.

The concept phase of a project often results in a project proposal. If the proposal is approved by management the sponsor , the next phase may commence.

The result of the definition is a project plan.

With complicated projects, it is common to carry out various sub-projects, each with its own project plan. What will the sponsor be getting for his money? This phase results in the design report. This phase results in a detailed design, such as a building plan. This phase results in the end result desired by the sponsor.

The result is maintained by adapting it to new desires and resolving any problems. Design Preliminary design What is the ultimate goal? Preparation Detailed design How do you need to go about it? Execution Project results Doing it! Aftercare Using the project results Operation and maintenance Adapting the project results The various phases will now be described.

Each phase will be illustrated using a concrete example: building a house a technical project. Concept At this stage, the project exists only as a problem or an idea in the minds Idea of those who have thought it up. If desired, a feasibility study or a preliminary investigation could be carried out.

This phase could result in an authorized commission or project proposal in Project which the sponsor gives the go ahead for starting the project.

Alternatively, proposal it could be decided not to take any further action and to let the matter rest. The project has been given a fiat; the desired objectives must now be established. It is desirable that the wishes of those concerned be met, but Wishes there is no necessity about this. At the conclusion of the definition phase there should be a project plan in which the project is defined in detail.

The drawing up of a project plan is the subject of Chapter 5. By the end of the Project plan definition phase there needs to be an answer to the following question: what will have been achieved when the project has been completed? During the design phase, a way of resolving the problem has to be found.

If the project is building a house, it is during this phase that a detailed construc- tion drawing is made. This phase makes a demand on the creativity of the 1 Brainstorming participants. It can be stimulated by holding brainstorming sessions with all sessions the participants. In order to determine whether the proposed solution conforms to the Prototype requirements as laid down, one option is to make a prototype of it. A prototype is a simplified version of the real thing, and it can be used to test the demands that are likely to be made of the design.

Preparation During the preparation phase, the design that was prepared during the previous phase is made ready for production. Attention is now focused on how the design can be produced. This could take the form of a detailed construction drawing that shows a metal worker exactly how to make a certain part, or assembly instructions showing exactly how certain parts should be fitted together. The product itself is not produced during this phase.

The aim is to create the conditions to allow the production phase to take place without a hitch. The motto of this phase is look before you leap. Execution After all the preliminaries, the actual work can now get underway.

Depen- ding on how thorough the preliminaries have been, there will be a proportio- nally less risk of unpleasant surprises during the production phase. During this phase, the objectives of the project are achieved and the product constructed.

It does not necessarily have to be a technical product such as a machine: it could also be the reorganization of a factory or the introduc- tion of a new system for production planning. Implementation This phase is also the phase of implementation.

In the case of a transition from an old to a new situation, these will take the form of Conversion conversion measures.Before a project gets under way, the project group or project team needs to put a lot of time into deciding on a uniform way of tackling the task.

A lot of freedom A suitable amount Little freedom Procedures? The project manager then draws up a project plan in consultation with the sponsor. Chibs rated it it was ok Jul projectmanagsment, Rick added it Jan 05, Chantal is currently reading it Mar 30, Roel grit projectmanagement 1 out of 29 pages.

In order to show work-related implications, literature usually provides studies where the health impairment process is associated with outcomes such as organizational well-being or job performance Bakker et al. With our society caught up in a process of constant change, organizations are finding that they have to both respond to each change while already anticipating the next one.

While he is working on the drawings he frequently consults the couple about various details: for example, the colour of the bathroom tiles and 1 where to put the power points in the living room. Project Management A practical approach Roel Grit. Table 1.