PSYCHOLOGY CORE CONCEPTS 7TH EDITION PDF
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Instructor's Manual (Download only) for Psychology: Core Concepts, 7th Edition. Philip G. Zimbardo, Stanford University. Robert L. Johnson, Umpqua. Psychology: Core Concepts with DSM-5 Update, 7th Edition .. Core Concepts Plus NEW MyLab Psychology with eText -- Access Card Package, 7th Edition. Study Psychology: Core Concepts (7th Edition) discussion and chapter questions and find Psychology: Core Concepts (7th Edition) study guide questions and.
Proceed to knock down the first domino in the row, and students should clearly see how the "action potential" is passed along the entire length of the axon. You can then point out the concept of refractory period by showing that, no matter how hard you push on the first domino, you will not be able to repeat the domino effect until you take the time to set the dominoes back up i. You can then demonstrate the allor-none characteristic of the axon by resetting the dominoes and by pushing so lightly on the first domino that it does not fall.
Just as the force on the first domino has to be strong enough to knock it down before the rest of the dominoes will fall, the action potential must be there in order to perpetuate itself along the entire axon.
Finally, you can demonstrate the advantage of the myelin sheath in axonal transmission. For this demonstration, you'll need to set up two rows of dominoes approximately 3 or 4 feet long next to each other.
The second row of dominoes should have foot-long sticks e. By placing the all-domino row and the stick-domino row parallel to each other and pushing the first domino in each, you can demonstrate how much faster the action potential can travel if it can jump from node to node rather than having to be passed on sequentially, single domino by single domino.
Ask your students to discuss how this effect relates to myelination. Wagor, W. Using dominoes to help explain the action potential. Makosky, C. Sileo, L. Whittemore, C. Skutley Eds. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Demonstrating Neural Conduction: The Class as a Neural Network In this engaging exercise suggested by Paul Rozin and John Jonides , students in the class simulate a neural network and get a valuable lesson in the speed of neural transmission.
Depending on your class size, arrange 15 to 40 students so that each person can place his or her right hand on the right shoulder of the person in front of them. Note that students in every other row will have to face backwards in order to form a snaking chain so that all students playing the role of individual neurons are connected to each other.
Explain to students that their task as a neural network is to send a neural impulse from one end of the room to the other. The first student in the chain will. Core Concepts, 7th Edition squeeze the shoulder of the next person, who, upon receiving this "message", will deliver i.
Before starting the neural impulse, ask students as "neurons" to label their parts; they typically have no trouble stating that their arms are axons, their fingers are axon terminals, and their shoulders are dendrites.
To start the conduction, the instructor should start the timer on a stopwatch while simultaneously squeezing the shoulder of the first student. Next, explain to students that you want them to again send a neural impulse, but this time you want them to use their ankles as dendrites. That is, each student will "fire" by squeezing the ankle of the person in front of them. While students are busy shifting themselves into position for this exercise, ask them if they expect transmission by ankle-squeezing to be faster or slower than transmission by shoulder-squeezing.
Most students will immediately recognize that the ankle-squeezing will take longer because of the greater distance the message from the ankle as opposed to the shoulder has to travel to reach the brain. Repeat this transmission once or twice and verify that it indeed takes longer than the shoulder squeeze. This exercise - a student favorite - is highly recommended because it is a great ice-breaker during the first few weeks of the semester and it also makes the somewhat dry subject of neural processing come alive.
Rozin, P. Mass reaction time measurement of the speed of the nerve impulse and the duration of mental processes in class. Teaching of Psychology, 4, Human Neuronal Chain Objective: To illustrate that the transmission of messages in the nervous system is not instantaneous Materials: Ask the last student to tap either shoulder of the next person and each subsequent person to continue the process through the entire line, always using the same shoulder and never crossing the body i.
Use the stopwatch to time how long it takes for the last person to receive the stimulus. Harcum, E. Reaction time as a behavioral demonstration of neural mechanisms for a large introductory psychology class. Teaching of Psychology, 15, — Mapping the Brain Many students, especially those with little background in the sciences, will find it a challenge to keep track of the location of all the parts of the brain outlined in the text.
One simple way to reinforce their learning of brain structure is to have students locate the various parts on a photocopied diagram of the brain. The brain diagram and the student instructions for this exercise are included as Handout Master 2. The day before you present this activity, ask students to bring colored pencils or markers to class. On the day of the activity, divide students into small groups and distribute copies of the diagram of the brain and the accompanying questions in the student handouts.
Within their groups they can help each other locate each part of the brain and then color code them using their pencils or. Core Concepts, 7th Edition markers.
They can also indicate the function of each part on the diagram. This exercise is very useful for helping students to memorize brain anatomy, and the color-coded diagram serves as a helpful study guide. For your convenience, a completed diagram and suggested answers to the questions are furnished below. This is a diagram of the left side of the brain.
Left side functions: The left hemisphere controls touch and movement of the right side of the body, vision in the right half of the visual field, comprehension and production of speech, reading ability, mathematical reasoning, and a host of other abilities. Right side functions: The right hemisphere controls touch and movement of the left side of the body, vision in the left half of the visual field, visual-spatial ability, map-reading, art and music appreciation, analysis of nonverbal sounds, and a host of other abilities.
The front of the brain is on the left side of the diagram; the back of the brain is on the right. The cerebrum is the sum of the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes. The cerebellum is labeled on the diagram above. The cerebrum is responsible for higher forms of thinking, including a variety of specific abilities described under motor cortex, visual cortex, somatosensory cortex, and auditory cortex.
The cerebral cortex also contains vast association areas, whose specific functions are poorly defined but may include reasoning and decision making, planning appropriate behavior sequences, and knowing when to stop.
The limbic system, which appears to be strongly involved in regulating emotions, is also part of the cerebrum. The cerebellum aids in the sense of balance and motor coordination. The frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes are labeled on the diagram above. The motor cortex is labeled on the diagram above. The motor cortex in each hemisphere controls movements on the opposite side of the body. The visual cortex is labeled on the diagram above. The visual cortex in each hemisphere receives information from the visual field on the opposite side.
The auditory cortex is labeled on the diagram above. The auditory cortex is responsible for processing sounds. The somatosensory cortex is labeled on the diagram above. The somatosensory cortex on each side receives information about touch, joint position, pressure, pain, and temperature from the opposite side of the body.
It is responsible for our ability to carry out the movements necessary to produce speech. It is mainly involved in comprehension and planning of speech. Neurons would be found all over the drawing. The brain is made up of billions of neurons. Each neuron is very tiny compared to the size of the brain, so no single neuron would be visible to the naked eye in a drawing at this scale. The brain stem is labeled on the diagram above.
Different parts of the brain stem are involved in regulation of sleep and wakefulness, dreaming, breathing, heart rate, and attentional processes. Review of Brain-Imaging Techniques Objectives: To review information on brain-imaging techniques Materials: None Procedures: Ask students to tell which brain-imaging technique could answer each of the following questions: How do the brains of children and adults differ with regard to energy consumption?
PET In what ways do brain waves change as a person falls asleep? EEG In which part of the brain has a stroke patient experienced a disruption of blood flow?
MRI How can scientists view structures and their functions at the same time? Trip to the Hospital Objective: To demonstrate brain imaging techniques Materials: Local or regional hospital Procedure: Being able to see and hear about this equipment firsthand far exceeds what students can gain from the text.
Such a trip can be undertaken only if you have a small class, recitation, or laboratory section. A voluntary sign-up list also can be used. You will have to make your plans well in advance and at the convenience of the hospital staff.
If the size of your class precludes this field trip, you could invite a local physician or one of the technicians to discuss these procedures.
It will be helpful if he or she can arrange to bring examples of the records or scans that are produced for evaluation of neurological disorders. You should plan to ask your guest speaker to compare modern procedures to earlier evaluations of neurological disorders. The Importance of a Wrinkled Cortex At the beginning of your lecture on the structure and function of the brain, ask students to explain why the cerebral cortex is wrinkled.
There are always a few students who correctly answer that the wrinkled appearance of the cerebral cortex allows it to have a greater surface area while fitting in a relatively small space i. To demonstrate this point to your class, hold a plain, white sheet of paper in your hand and then crumple it into a small, wrinkled ball. Note that the paper retains the same surface area, yet is now much smaller and is able to fit into a much smaller space, such as your hand.
You can then mention that the brain's actual surface area, if flattened out, would be roughly the size of a newspaper page Myers, Laughs usually erupt when the class imagines what our heads would look like if we had to accommodate an unwrinkled, newspaper-sized cerebral cortex! Myers, D. Psychology 4th ed. New York: Probing the Cerebral Cortex Use: This clip contains commentary by Wilder Penfield, a pioneer in mapping the areas of the cerebral cortex.
Penfield discusses the work that led to electrode-stimulation of the cortex. He also interviews a brain surgery patient about her experiences during surgery: Stimulation of various areas of her cortex produced memories of past events and the perception of music playing. Form a Hypothesis Q What happens when Penfield stimulates a small area of the temporal lobe, called the auditory cortex?
Test Your Understanding Q What are the four lobes of the cerebral cortex? A The four lobes of cerebral cortex are occipital, parietal, temporal, and frontal.
Q What are the functions of the somatosensory cortex, motor cortex, and association cortex areas? A Somatosensory cortex interprets sensations and coordinates the motor behavior of skeletal muscles. Association areas, located on all four cortical lobes, are involved in the integration of various brain functions, such as sensation, thought, memory, planning, etc. Q What two areas of the association cortex specialize in language? Thinking Critically Q What four types of research methods are commonly used in the study of behavioral neuroscience?
A Microelectrode techniques are used to study the functions of individual neurons. Macroelectrode techniques, such as an EEG, record activities of brain areas. Structural imaging, such as computerized axial tomography or CAT scans, is useful for mapping brain structures. Functional imaging, in which specific brain activity can be recorded in response to tasks or stimulation, offers the potential to identify specific brain areas and functions.
Lateralization Activities Procedure: There are several demonstrations that illustrate the lateralization of the brain. Several have been described by Filipi, and Gravlin A variant by Morton Gernsbacher requires students to move their right hand and right foot simultaneously in a clockwise direction for a few seconds.
Next, ask that the right hand and left foot be moved in a clockwise direction. Then, have students make circular movements in opposite directions with right the hand and the left foot. Finally, have students attempt to move the right hand and right foot in opposite directions.
This generally produces laughter, as students discover that this procedure is most difficult to do even though they are sure — before they try it — that it would be no problem to perform.
The pat will show slight signs of rotation as well.
The brain is lateralized to some extent, and this makes some activities difficult to perform. Challenge your students to explain why activities of these types are difficult to execute.
This will generally lead to interesting discussions and the assertion by some students that this type of behavior is no problem. Kemble, E. Cerebral lateralization. Makosky, L.
Whittemore, and A. Rogers Eds. Activities handbook for the teaching of psychology Vol. Washington, D. Some simple classroom experiments on cerebral lateralization. Teaching of Psychology, 12, 81— Localization of Function Exercise This exercise has several functions.
It is designed to get students to review the methods which are used to study the brain and where particular functions are localized. It is also intended to make students think critically about how we know what we know about functional localization.
The examples included are based on real life examples of situations which have provided information about localization of functions in the brain.
Some of the situations described may be difficult for students to conceptualize. Be prepared to assist students in conceptualizing each situation. Students can do this exercise individually or in small groups. Group work is probably preferable because students can learn by bouncing ideas off of each other. The student handout for this activity is included as Handout Master 2. Suggested answers are included below. The lesion method is being used to study brain function.
Students may be puzzled by this, thinking that the. This is not the case; much of the information we have about functional localization comes from fairly old studies of veterans who received gunshot wounds to their brains.
This part of the brain controls movement on the opposite side of the body. It is the motor area of the cerebral cortex. By looking at the drawing we can see that damage high up on the brain results in paralysis which is lower down on the body and vice versa. Based on the information provided, the part of the brain labeled J is responsible for the ability to speak. The area marked J controls the ability to speak; it is on the left side of the brain.
The equivalent area on the right side of the brain must be doing something else since damage to this area does not produce any affect on speech.
The function of this part of the brain is being studied with the electrical stimulation method. Students may be surprised, and horrified, to find out that people are often awake during surgery on their brains. This is necessary because in real life the brain is not color coded, nor does it come with nice little labels saying what its different parts do.
During surgery, surgeons have a general idea where they are, but one part looks pretty much the same as the next. During surgery, the scalp, bone, and membranes covering the brain must be anesthetized, so that the patient does not feel pain. The brain itself does not have pain receptors, so that working on the brain is not physically painful.
This part of the brain appears to process visual information; in fact, it is the visual cortex. When this part of the brain is stimulated electrically, neurons are activated in much the same way that they would be by natural visual stimulation. Therefore, the patient reports seeing a visual stimulus that is not actually there.
The information provided suggests that there is an upside-down and backwards map of the visual world on the visual cortex note the similarity to the upside-down and backwards map of the body on the motor cortex in the first example. Note that the left side of the brain is being stimulated. Yet, when the patient fixates on the cross in the middle of the screen, all of the points of light that he reports are to the right of the fixation point.
Therefore, the information from the right side of the visual field is relayed to the left side of the brain. Note also, that when points which are higher up on the cortex are stimulated, the patient reports seeing flashing lights in the lower part of the visual field; conversely, when points lower down on the visual cortex are stimulated, the patient reports flashing lights in the upper part of the visual field.
Hence, the notion of an upside-down and backwards map of the visual world in the visual cortex. The function of this part of the brain is being studied through the electrical stimulation method. This part of the brain is responsible for the sense of touch among other things on the opposite side of the body. The area being stimulated is the somatosensory cortex. By looking at the drawing we can see that stimulation high up on the brain results in a tingling sensation which is lower down on the body and vice versa.
The notion of the world being mapped upside down and backwards on the brain should be starting to sound like a recurring theme by now! The method being used is positron emission tomography PET scanning. This area is responsible for processing information concerning sounds; it is the auditory cortex. A needle electrode is being used to record the electrical activity of this part of the brain. The evidence suggests that this part of the brain may be responsible for triggering eating behavior; alternately, it may be responsible for the sensation of hunger.
The lesion method is being used to study brain function, but this time, in contrast to examples 1 and 2, the damage to the brain was created intentionally. The corpus callosum relays information from one side of the brain to the other when it is intact. In this example, because the corpus callosum is cut, information cannot be relayed from one side of the brain to the other. This explains the two specific deficits noted in this example.
The patient is unable to name an object placed in her left hand because the sensory information from that. Core Concepts, 7th Edition hand is relayed to the right side of her brain, which has little or no language or speech ability. The patient is unable to pick out an object with her right hand that she has already felt with her left hand because that would require comparison of sensory information relayed to the two sides of the brain, which is no longer possible with the corpus callosum cut.
Students may wonder why it is important that the patient kept her eyes closed in these two examples. This was done because each eye, when open, sends information to both sides of the brain. If the patient had had her eyes open in these examples, information would have been sent to both sides of the brain, and the patient would not have had difficulty with these tasks. Looking Left, Looking Right Objective: To demonstrate that lateral eye movements are associated with thinking Materials: Left and Right Hemisphere Questions Handout 2.
It has been theorized that when language-related tasks are being performed in the left hemisphere, the eyes look to the right; when nonlanguage, spatial abilities are being used in the right hemisphere, the eyes look to the left.
This is a relatively easy class activity. After pairing up, one student asks the questions and records lateral eye movements, while the other attempts to answer the questions. The Brain Diagram Students often have trouble encoding the location and function of the different parts of the brain, both because a they glance too quickly over the colorful textbook illustrations and b their eyes tend to glaze over during class discussion of the brain's structure and function.
As an easy remedy to this problem, try asking students to draw their own colorful rendition of the human brain, an active learning strategy that ensures that they encode and think about the parts of the brain rather than passively glossing over them in the text. Prior to the class period in which you will be discussing the brain, ask students to read Chapter 2 and to hand-draw a diagram of the brain in a cross-section on a clean white sheet of unlined paper. For each of the following sections of the brain, students should color and label the appropriate structure, and also list at least one or two of its major functions: Added benefits of this assignment are that it is easy to grade, students enjoy doing it and it is an easy and fun way for them to get points , and it can be used by students as a study aid for the exam.
Brain and Nervous System In this activity, we will use the brain and the nervous systems to study psychology. First identify the particular parts of the brain and the nervous systems that you will use when studying psychology. For example, your occipital lobe helps you see the pages. Which parts will be most important during a regular studying and b exams?
How can you maximize the functions of the brain to help in your studying psychology? His compassionate retelling of bizarre and fascinating tales includes patients plagued with memory loss, useless limbs, violent tics and jerky mannerisms, the inability to recognize people or objects, and unique artistic or mathematical talents despite severe mental deficits.
Ask your students to write a book report focusing on a few of the cases that most interest them, and to apply principles from the text and lecture to the stories. As a more elaborate project, you might consider assigning this book at the end of the semester, as many of the cases are ripe with psychological principles that may be encountered later in the course e. Sacks, O. The man who mistook his wife for a hat.
Harper Collins. PT interview: Oliver Sacks; the man who mistook his wife for a Psychology Today, 28— Crossword Puzzle Frequently instructors want an activity that is interactive for their students as well as a reinforcement of the material just covered in the lecture. An activity such as a crossword puzzle can fulfill both criteria.
Copy and distribute Handout Master 2. The answers for the crossword puzzle are: Across 1. Inhibitory 3. Core Concepts, 7th Edition 4. Corpus Callosum Central Down 2. Neuron 8. Agonists 9. Limbic Hormones The Biological Perspective 2. Core Concepts, 7th Edition Handout Masters 2.
Is this a drawing of the left side or the right side of the brain? What are the particular functions of that side of the brain as compared to the other hemisphere? Left side functions:. Where would you expect to find neurons in this drawing and how big would they be if they were drawn? Label the brain stem. What is its function?
Handout Master 2. Holmes sees a series of patients with gunshot injuries to parts of their frontal lobes. Patient 1 has some paralysis of his right hip and thigh muscles. Patient 2 has paralyzed trunk muscles on his right side. Patient 4 shows paralysis of the muscles on the right side of her face. What can you say about the representation of this function in the brain based on this information what are the rules of organization?
Case 2. After J dies, Dr. Broca studies the brain and discovers an area of damage in the location marked with J in the drawing below. Later another patient K dies and Dr. Broca is amazed to discover that this patient has damage to the comparable area of the brain on the right side with NO effect on speech. Core Concepts, 7th Edition c. Case 3. The patient is awake during the surgery. To check out where he is, Dr. Brightman applies a brief pulse of electricity to various areas of the brain and asks the patient to describe the sensation.
The patient is looking up at a screen with a cross in the middle of it; he is fixating on the cross. After each point on the brain is touched, the patient reports seeing flashing lights and points to the area on the screen where he sees the lights. What can we say about how this function is mapped on the brain based on the information provided? Case 4. Penfield is operating on the brain of a young woman with intractable epilepsy.
He is going to remove the part of the brain where the seizure starts. He does not want to remove the wrong part, so the patient is awake during surgery, and Dr. Penfield identifies where he is in the brain by applying brief pulses of electricity to various parts of her brain. As Dr. Penfield touches each part of her brain, the patient reports feeling a tingling sensation on various parts of her body.
At point 1 she feels tingling on her right thigh.
Solutions Manual for Psychology Core Concepts 7th Edition by Zimbardo
At point 2 she feels tingling on the right part of her rib cage. At point 3 she reports a tingling on her right hand. At point 4 she feels a sensation on the right side of her face. Core Concepts, 7th Edition. Case 5. Lashley is doing experiments on brain function. He persuades a Doe College student to participate in his experiment. The student is injected with radioactive glucose and then asked to listen to recordings of various sounds for half an hour in a darkened room. The most intensely radioactive area is indicated on the drawing below.
Case 6. Gross places an electrode in part of the hypothalamus of a rat and measures the electrical activity in the hypothalamus during various activities. She finds that the part of the hypothalamus where the electrode is located is most active just before the rat eats. Case 7. Sperry cuts the corpus callosum of a young woman to stop the spread of intractable epilepsy from one side of the brain to the other.
After the woman has had time to recover from the surgery, Dr. Sperry tests her on various tasks. Sperry finds no impairment on most tasks. There are two exceptions. When the patient is asked to close her eyes and name an object placed in her hand, she can do so correctly for things placed in her right hand, but not for things placed in her left hand. She has no problems with paralysis or lack of sensation, however. When she is given a task where she is asked to close her eyes and feel something with her left hand, then pick it out of a group of objects using her right hand, she is also unable to do so.
Core Concepts, 7th Edition Handout Master 2. Core Concepts, 7th Edition Across 1. Down 2. The Basic Structure of the Neuron. Neuroscience the Biological Perspective 1. The basic cell that makes up the nervous system and which receives and sends messages within that system is called a. The long tube-like structure that carries the neural message to other cells on the neuron is the On a neuron, the branch-like structures that receive messages from other neurons is the.
The fatty substances produced by certain glial cells that coat the axons of neurons to insulate, protect, and speed up the neural impulse is the. The bundles of axons in the body that travel together through the body are known as the.
The charged particles located inside and outside of the neuron are called. The are sack-like structures found inside the synaptic knob containing chemicals. The neurotransmitter causes the receiving cell to fire. The mimic or enhance the effects of a neurotransmitter on the receptor sites of the next cell, increasing or decreasing the activity of that cell. The a long bundle of neurons that carries messages to and from the body to the brain that is responsible for very fast, lifesaving reflexes.
A neuron that carries information from the senses to the central nervous system and is also known as the afferent is called a. All nerves and neurons that are not contained in the brain and spinal cord but that run through the body itself are in the system.
The system division of the PNS consisting of nerves that control all of the involuntary muscles, organs, and glands sensory pathway nerves coming from the sensory organs to the CNS consisting of sensory neurons. The part of the ANS that is responsible for reacting to stressful events and bodily arousal is called the of the nervous system.
A machine designed to record the brain wave patterns produced by electrical activity of the surface of the brain is called an. The part of the lower brain located behind the pons that controls and coordinates involuntary, rapid, fine motor movement is called the. The part of the limbic system located in the center of the brain, this structure relays sensory information from the lower part of the brain to the proper areas of the cortex and processes some sensory information before sending it to its proper area and is called the.
The is an area of neurons running through the middle of the medulla and the pons and slightly beyond that is responsible for selective attention. The is a curved structure located within each temporal lobe, responsible for the formation of long-term memories and the storage of memory for location of objects.
Core Concepts, 7th Edition The is a brain structure located near the hippocampus, responsible for fear responses and memory of fear. The is the outermost covering of the brain consisting of densely packed neurons, responsible for higher thought processes and interpretation of sensory input. The thick band of neurons that connects the right and left cerebral hemispheres is called the.
The section of the brain located at the rear and bottom of each cerebral hemisphere containing the visual centers of the brain is the called the. The sections of the brain located at the top and back of each cerebral hemisphere containing the centers for touch, taste, and temperature sensations is called the.
The is the area of the cortex located just behind the temples containing the neurons responsible for the sense of hearing and meaningful speech. The are areas of the cortex located in the front and top of the brain, responsible for higher mental processes and decision making as well as the production of fluent speech.
The glands secrete chemicals called hormones directly into the bloodstream. The endocrine glands located on top of each kidney that secrete over 30 different hormones to deal with stress, regulate salt intake, and provide a secondary source of sex hormones affecting the sexual changes that occur during adolescence are called the. Answers to Fill-in-the-blanks: The Biological Perspective 1. A good starting point for a number of assignments, such as writing short papers or assembling study guide terms.
Neuropsychology Central: Neuroscience for Kids: This site can be enjoyed by people of all ages who want to learn about the brain. A fun, superbly organized site providing information and links to other neuroscience sites. A website replete with information for instructors and students. Many visual aids and links. Whole Brain Atlas: Alex Becker at Harvard University. Site includes brain images, information about imaging techniques, and information about specific brain disorders. Making Connections — The Synapse: Neural Processes Tutorial: Covers material typically found in an introductory psychology textbook chapter with a title like "Brain and Behavior" or "Neuropsychology.
The Brain Brain and Behavior: Students can complete several interactive exercises to learn more about brain functions. Brain Connection: The Brain and Learning: Brain Function and Pathology: Brain Model Tutorial: The Brain Observatory: Right Down the Middle: Drugs, Brains, and Behavior: Lobes of the Brain: Includes link to "Lobes of the Brain Review," a very brief quiz on functions associated with major lobes of the brain.
Answers provided online: Nice summary of evidence for sex-related differences in brain structure, prepared by Eric Chudler. What is the Cerebellum? Video Resources: Biological Psychology 1. The Big Picture: The Basics: How the Brain Works? Part 1 3. Part 2 4. Special Topics: The Plastic Brain 5. Thinking Like a Psychologist: The Pre-Frontal Cortex: In the Real World Application: Biology of the High This new video series offers instructors and students the most current and cutting edge introductory psychology video content available anywhere.
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Psychology: Core Concepts (7th Edition)
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Robb, M. Hudson County Community College Psychology: Zimbardo Stanford University Robert L. Although Chapter 2: Table of Contents 2. Chapter 2: The Peripheral Nervous System Chapter 2: Table of Contents Chapter 2: Core Concepts, 7th Edition Teaching Objectives for Chapter 2 After reading this chapter, the student should be able to: Table of Contents Chapter 2 Key Questions 1.
Table of Contents Chapter 2 Core Concepts 1. There are probably only a few ounces of these substances in the body, but they may have a profound effect Chapter 2: Core Concepts, 7th Edition Pituitary malfunctions Hypopituitary Dwarfism If the pituitary secretes too little of its growth hormone during childhood, the person will be very small, although normally proportioned.
Thyroid malfunctions Hypothyroidism In hypothyroidism, the thyroid does not secrete enough thyroxin, resulting in a slower than normal metabolism. Additional Discussion Questions 1. How would a biopsychologist and a neuroscientist work together to study a brain disorder? Table of Contents Activity: Core Concepts, 7th Edition 8. Core Concepts, 7th Edition 2. Table of Contents Assignment: Where is the front of the brain? Where is the back? Label the cerebrum and cerebellum and describe their functions.
Your ability to smell pizza in the oven and to then remove and eat that pizza is due to the activity of a. The autonomic nervous system is largely responsible for involuntary processes. The somatic nervous system controls such processes as motor control and sensory reception. The peripheral nervous system consists of a.
The peripheral nervous system is comprised of a. Your ability to play the piano is regulated by the a. Control of voluntary muscles, such as those in the hand, are under the auspices of the somatic nervous system. There is no such thing as a medial nervous system. Voluntary muscles are controlled by the a.
Answer: a. The autonomic nervous system controls involuntary muscles and glands. The somatic nervous system controls voluntary muscles. Which of the following is controlled by the autonomic nervous system?
This involuntary, yet crucial, process is controlled by the autonomic nervous system. Running is a voluntary process, so it would be controlled by the somatic nervous system. Respiration The autonomic nervous system has two divisions, called the. The parasympathetic nervous system is a subdivision of a. Promoting your sexual development b. Monitoring the operation of the body's routine functioning c.
Picking up a dime off the floor d. Preparing yourself to fight an attacking dog Correct. Remember that the sympathetic nervous system is sometimes referred to as the fight or flight system.
Figuring out the answer to a difficult test question Incorrect. This would be under the control of the cerebrum, not the sympathetic nervous system. Preparing yourself to fight an attacking dog The branch of the autonomic nervous system that restores the body to normal functioning after arousal and is responsible for day-to-day functioning of the organs and glands is called the a.
Malcolm is studying alone in his room late at night when he hears a loud noise downstairs. His heartbeat increases significantly and his breathing becomes shallow. He wonders if a burglar has entered the house and decides to investigate. When he gets downstairs he discovers his cat has knocked over a plant stand.
His body begins to relax and return to normal.
Top Questions from Psychology: Core Concepts (7th Edition)
Which part of his nervous system is responsible for returning Malcolm to a normal state? The sympathetic nervous system mobilizes the body in times of stress. The parasympathetic nervous system restores the body to normal functioning after arousal. The network of glands that manufacture and secrete hormones is referred to as the a.
Endocrine glands secrete this group of chemicals into the bloodstream: a. Hormones are chemicals that are secreted and go directly into a. Hormones are chemicals secreted into the bloodstream by a. The pituitary gland is controlled by the hypothalamus, so to suggest that calling it the master gland is completely accurate is something of a misnomer.
The pituitary gland can be thought of as the master of the endocrine system, but it is still controlled by the hypothalamus in the brain. It is only found in lower species. The "master gland" is a term that refers to the a. The sexual desire of a woman is primarily determined by hormones produced by her a. Tim is overweight. His physician has decided to test him to see if there is a problem with the regulation of his metabolism.
Which endocrine gland will be the focus of diagnostic testing? The adrenal glands have nothing to do with metabolism.
They secrete sex hormones and hormones that regulate salt intake. The thyroid gland regulates metabolism. Secretions from the thyroid gland control a. The is a brain component that regulates the endocrine system.
Agonist is to antagonist as: a. Agonists mimic neurotransmitters by stimulating specific receptor sites, and antagonists block receptor sites.
Which of the following is true of Prozac? Prozac can cause changes in sleep, appetite, and thinking. Amphetamine is another name for Prozac. The effects of Prozac are specific to mood. Prozac is an antagonist for dopamine receptors. B and C are correct. Phineas Gage tragically had a tamping iron propelled through his head.
Both left and right sides of the prefrontal cortex were severely damaged. As a result of the accident, Phineas Gage a. A device used to record brain waves that involves placing electrodes directly on the scalp is called a n a.
Rene Descartes b. Walter Hess c. Wilder Penfield d. Paul Broca e. Wilder Penfield Which scanning method produces a computerized image of X-rays that have been passed through the brain at various angles? PET scanning b. CT scanning c. MRI scanning d. CT scanning In the procedure, a composite picture of brain activity is produced by sensing which areas of the brain show the highest concentration of a low-level radioactive glucose.
PET b. MRI d. EEG e. PET She is given an injection of a radioactive glucose-like substance and then is told to lie down with her head in a scanner. The technique being used is a. PET involves injecting a radioactive glucose into the patient. The scanning device that makes highly detailed pictures from tissue responses to powerful pulses of energy is the a.
Our ability to breathe is controlled by the. Nerve fibers that interconnect the left side of the brain to the right side of the body and vice versa cross over the brain midline at the a. This brain-stem structure regulates brain activity during sleep. Since Jessica suffered a head injury in a car accident 3 months ago, she has not experienced dreams as she had in the past. She used to dream vivid, active dreams. Which part of her brain most likely was affected during the car accident which is related to her problem dreaming?
The pons have been shown to influence sleep and dreaming as well as arousal. The correct answer is the pons. Arousal would be produced by a. Which sensory system does NOT relay information through the thalamus en route to the cortex? Hearing a bird sing involves the transfer of auditory information from the ear through en route to the auditory cortex. The hypothalamus controls processes like thirst, hunger, and sexual activity. It is not involved in sensory reception. The thalamus is a routing station through which four of the five sensory systems must send information on the way to the processing centers of the cerebrum.
The is important for the human ability to tap dance and walk on a tightrope. The cerebellum is responsible for processes including fine motor control, balance, and coordination.
As your textbook states, the main process of the hippocampus is involved in memory functions. Tracey has been unable to participate in her gymnastics class and is very uncoordinated since she was involved in an accident where she suffered a head injury. As a result of the accident, she was likely to have suffered damage to her a. This part of the brain controls coordination and balance. This is not the correct part of the brain that controls these functions.
Research indicates that the cerebellum is involved in a. The overall shape of the human limbic system resembles a. Damage to the would be expected to impair your ability to name three exciting news events that occurred after this damage to your brain. The hippocampus is involved in the forming of new memories. The corpus callosum is a tough structure that connects the left and right cerebral hemispheres.
A person who has suffered damage to their hippocampus would be expected to have difficulty with a. A person whose hippocampus is damaged would probably struggle most with which of the following? The hippocampus is very highly involved in the ability to form new memories, so studying for college classes would be very difficult with a damaged hippocampus. Emotions are controlled by different parts of the limbic system, and the frontal lobe of the cerebrum.
Which of the following situations is NOT processed primarily by the limbic system? You remember how your grandmother's living room looked. You get angry and want to hit a person who has just bumped into you.
You are feeling hungry because you have not eaten since yesterday. You are trying to reason through a logic problem in math class. Logical reasoning is controlled by the cerebral cortex, not the limbic system. You feel sexually aroused by the good-looking person sitting next to you. This response would be mediated by the hypothalamus, which is one of the structures of the limbic system. A stroke that damages parts of your amygdala would be expected to a.
The amygdala is responsible for emotions including anger and fear. Hunger would be controlled by the hypothalamus, which is a different part of the limbic system. The is involved in the regulation of feeding, drinking, and sexual behavior. The is that part of the limbic system that maintains the body's internal states of balance.
The interconnects the two hemispheres of the cerebrum. The of the brain account s for two-thirds of the brain's total mass. The controls functions such as higher mental processing, including thinking and perceiving. One third of the a. Skinner; cerebral dominance b.
Gustav Fritz; germ theory c. Wilder Penfield; cerebral dominance d.
Psychology: Core Concepts with DSM-5 Update, 7th Edition
Franz Gall; localization of function e. Franz Gall; localization of function Joella was rollerblading when a cat jumped right in front of her causing her to trip and fall.
When she fell, she partially landed on the front side of her head near her forehead. Shortly afterwards, Joella exhibited symptoms similar to that of Phineas Gage.
Which lobe would have been most affected by this fall? Phineas Gage suffered extreme trauma to the frontal lobe of his brain, impacting all sorts of functions including his personality. The famous story of Phineas Gage gave us insight into the functioning of the frontal lobe of the brain. Damage to the is the most likely explanation for a brain injury that has devastating effects on human action and personality.
The action of grabbing your keys with your right hand is controlled by your a. Remember, that motor control occurs across the body. The right motor cortex controls the left side of the body, and vice versa. For example, an infant will mimic the facial expressions of adults. Mirror neurons b. Statue neurons c. Facial neurons d. Observation neurons e. Mirror neurons You are holding an ice cube in your left hand.
You touch it and find that it is hard and slick and cold. Soon the coldness becomes painful. Most of this information is processed in which cortex? The somatosensory cortex processes things like touch, temperature, and pain. The temporal lobe is primarily involved in auditory processing. The area at the back of the temporal lobe that is crucial in the ability to listen, process, and understand what others are saying is area.
Your temporal lobes are most important for processing of a. Answer: c. Paul Broca c. Phineas Gage d. Charles Darwin e. Paul Broca Vision is processed primarily in the a.
The visual cortex is comprised of the visual processing areas in the a. Both B and C e. Both A and B The cortex is most likely involved in making a decision as to whether we want to ask an attractive person out for a date. The association cortex helps with multiple processes, including decisionmaking. As the name suggests, the motor cortex is involved in muscular control and movement.
Spatial orientation appears to be a function of the brain's a. Neurotransmission b. Homeostasis c. Cortical transmission d. Cerebral dominance e. Cerebral dominance Researchers have determined that the processing style of the is more than the hemisphere. In most people, of the brain is are most involved in visual and spatial activities. Researcher Roger Sperry won a Nobel prize for his research on epilepsy.
Sperry cut through the which joins the two hemispheres of the brain. Gazzaniga suggests that we think of the human mind as neither a single nor a dual entity but rather as a a. This is the correct term that Gazzaniga used. This is not a term that Gazzaniga used to describe the way the mind works c.
The notion that we use only percent of our brains is false and came about during a time when neuroscientists lacked not only the technology but had not figured out the functions of many coritical areas. It is, in fact, very inaccurate. This is not the saying, and human beings use far more than a quarter of their brains.
Which specialty studies the interaction of biology, behavior, and mental processes? Down syndrome 4. Describe the process of synaptic transmission. Dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine are three examples of. Which endocrine glands produce hormones that energize your body for "fight-orflight" responses?
When you type on a computer keyboard, which division of your nervous system sends the instructions that control your fingers? When you walk on a balance beam, which neural structure helps you maintain your equilibrium? The two halves of the cerebral cortex are called the. After being hit in the head by a baseball, Beverly had problems with cognitive functioning, especially planning. Which of her cortical lobes was most likely affected by this injury?Part 2 4.
This is a segment of a chromosome that encodes the directions for the inherited physical and mental characteristics of an organism: a. Brain Model Tutorial: No one has identified psychological differences associated with differences in brain size.
The shape of modern psychology has been molded by its history, which dates back some 25 centuries to the Greek philosophers Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle.
Explaining Unusual People and Unusual Behavior. Complexity and Generativity. In a study done before a recent presidential election, people listened to their favorite politicians making statements that contradicted themselves.
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